The role of independent media in society

This article considers the influence of the liberal opposition newspapers on the society, their place and features, the freedom of expression thoughts and words, the impact of alternative information that occurred in the years of independence, that is, between the years 2004–2014.The author evaluating liberal opposition newspapers that published for twenty years, based on the clarification investigation of public opinion, he analyzes influence of independent edition in the development of democracy in the country, the freedom of speech. Furthermore, the scientist voiced his views on the various events from the first transitional period of independence until today significant changes in society. Author, using as much as possible property of the social policies in the liberal opposition newspaper, and Internet resources, and various interviews, in the disclosure of work in the context of national interests the press materials «Jas Alash», «Aikyn» with work of the journalist K.Amanzholov «The fight against censorship, better do free work», and the article of social activist A. Sarsenbayev «There is no advantage at that truth to be told too late», he shows the role of alternative editions of Kazakhstan in public life.

After having sovereignty, rising, for more than twenty years the newspapers and magazines open the eyes of the masses, if we say that we poured in their soul joy and faith, it will be no exaggeration.In the end, anyone, regardless of social status through the media receives information about positive change in society, the direction ofdeveloping country, even read different quickly flashed news, he begins to change his outlook.In particular, opposition-liberal newspaper disclosed a lot of truth, detected state, control authorities. Language and religion, national history and tradition of our people, customs, culture and literature, in one word in the newspaper began to appear articles about propaganda of national ideology. Of course, all this will make the reader to think about.

Before  we  share  thoughts  about  newspaper,  lets  look  for  an  answer  to  the  question  what  is a «newspaper». At this difficult question clearly and accurately answered leader of Alash Ahmet Baitursynov «Newspaper — its ear, eye and tongue of people», he said. Accordingly, the newspaper — it is a herald of great news; it is the heart of the people. Newspapers need ethical level, which would raise this load. And the people, as the reader should not turn away from the truthful newspaper. On the one hand today they will learn about the public something new for themselves, and with the help this knowledge they would be able to protect their interests. And journalists who work hard — with great diligence, making every effort and all their strength, their work is invaluable. Famous writer Sherkhan Murtaza has wise words, «The journalist — is the person who is like a camel rises gold and eats dzhantak». How can we evaluate a journalist even more? That is why people should read truthful newspapers and articles. No one doubts that the newspapers serve the whole society as a teacher free. About the newspaper we are not fully formed a common opinion. National  writer,  a famous  publicist Mukhtar Magauni in  his sorrowful  poem titled  «Ultsizdanu urany»  said:

«Our Kazakh journalists, even easy things can not finish or deteriorate, and what we need to embellish and add something unusual, they generally all ruin». Summing up, it's all because of illiteracy people. One famous man said: «Without freedom of speech we can stay dumb and quiet, like sheep to the slaughter» — quite the right expression, clearly expresses the positions of those laws have to be silent. Vocation of freedom of speech could give people the opportunity to offer something new, to change the country is not a revolt or revolution, but a word. Alas, we have not reached that, we ignored urgent and important issues [1].

«From the first days of independence, we tend to doubt, in the end, today we are in a helpless and anxiety condition» — raises the question. Famous writer said: «For many years in the Kazakh media there is a significant direction — on the one hand praise and flattery, and on the other side the abuse and censure. Those who eulogized — people sitting in power. «Of course, as the well-known writer said: there are still shortcomings in Kazakh newspapers, this is no exception. However, it is not characteristic of all creative people. Cause of such questions, and ultimately answer itself in the formation of a truly independent and neutral media. But, as Kazakhstan gained independence, since the founding of the democratic press, we have begun to express the freedom of expression of spirituality.

In independent Kazakhstana media in the special situation. Starting with the government newspaper number one «Sovereign Kazakhstan»,and the newspapers «Nur Otan», «Aykin», «Steppe and the city» , «Alash ainasy», «The young Kazakh», «The Kazakh literature», «Almaty aksham», «Astana aksham» together with regional and city and district newspapers, today the authorities on the basis of policy support, evaluate their work and propagandize them to the people [2].

Among the first laws of sovereign Kazakhstan in 1991 adopted a law «About press and other mass media» their news and democratic norms served as a powerful factor in the development of the Kazakh mass media and printing. In a society was eliminated the monopoly of the mass media. In Kazakhstan, 80 % of media is privately owned. 184 owners of the mass media is a public association, 9 political parties, 18 religious associations.

Today in the republic works 1862 mass media, including the 1211 newspapers, 477 magazines, and 152 electronic mass media. In 1999 was adopted conceptually new law «About the Media», his liberal standards contributes to the further development of the powerful national media. At the same time, more advanced law-enforcement and guaranteed in the Constitution, freedom of speech and independence of the media, as well as the safety of public information, society and every individual, domestic media market with taking into account the need to ensure competitiveness, and all this, now «About mass media» adopted project of the new law. It was examined by order of Representative for Freedom of the Media of the OSCE. In the republic is spread 2230 foreign newspapers and magazines. National newspapers and programs consistently receive financial assistance from the state [3]. However, while most Kazakh press is a private, we cannot say that they are independent publications. Because, every publication are not working in the way of national and political interests. In Kazakhstan, the few independent publications, which protect the interests of people and which, really care for their country.

Government institutions and the budgetary sphere accept the responsibilities to engage the circulation of newspapers. Thus, noting only the good side, we noticed that the bad side remains in the shadows. However, in the life cannot be all perfect. Now, the time is not like the period of the Soviet Union, today, we have developed and grown, we discern truth from falsehood. There are independent newspapers, such  as «Jas Alash», «Dat», «The young Kazakh», «The young Kazakh day», «Epoch of Kazakhstan», «Turkistan», also the regional newspapers «Altin orda», «Aina plus», «Moldir sana», «Aigak», «Alatau», who tell the truth and the only truth. These newspapers have a good reputation and who really deserve them. System of the mass media in real social life contribute to improving competitiveness, they show an example of independent thinking [4].

It would not be a lie to say that today the independent media in public life have reached the highest point and the greatest level. All data suggests is that, though the appearance of the independent media in Kazakhstan, it is for the better, but to stabilize freedom and entrenched laid down principles, publications in the future have not been able be a reliable instrument in the continuation and preservation of these things Sometimes in the press the small things, details praises, as well as in the emergence of national thought and using the freedom of thought for the self-interest appeared individual acts. In the history the unknown   «warriors», «wise men» idealize and raises, inappropriate praise and even worship them.

Some journalists have turned to such people who indicate the contradictions and litigation of those people who have the authority.All of this eventually resulted to the development of mass media to the beginning of new twists. As a result, many newspapers have changed and updated their duties. Finally they stopped doing some work. A circulation of newspapers and the magazines, which in was in state form decreased. Journalists, who work there, for various reasons, have been compelled to stop their activities. Newspapers and magazines which have abandoned their old principles and from the old direction, adapted to modern requirement, the new conditions of the market economy and they have taken a step to upgrade their activities. If resort to some reports, it becomes clear that in Kazakhstan the total number of emerging newspapers and magazines about 2500. And in Russia, the control information is quite different, newspapers and magazines that come out from their country are not counted. The well-known poet Mukhtar Shakhanov even when he was a deputy of Majilis of Parliament of Kazakhstan, wanted to do so, that the Kazakh language became a new way of mass medium. Chosen of people in his speech solemnly said that Kazakh young people are exactly read old edition, not even considering the fact that the message of the Russian State TV and Radio Broadcasting Company, which conquered the market ether of our people, about 6000 newspapers and magazines that are arbitrarily transported in our country. Those publications which do not have their own opinions and views, who just use the Internet and prepared things with the power of technology, in the industry their days are not great. Without thirst search of creative, their life will be like life of a butterfly who, lives only one day, sooner or later the destiny will show it. Representatives of the media: independent and dependent publication they are like on the fields of battle without a gun [5]. In general, speaking about independent publishing, we cannot get away from the term «free journalism». Because the advantage of the liberal opposition publications — is that they do not hide what had happened, they do not conceal the truth, they do not keep the people in deluded, they speak everything is clear. That's why we are enlisted liberal opposition newspaper in the category of free journalism, in contrast the publication which closes to the government.

The term free journalism is not used during the Soviet Union. In the studies Bekhozhin H., T.Amandosov, B.Kenzhebaev, T. Kozhakeeva who examined  Kazakh  journalism,  we  met  these terms. The outstanding scientist, academician Rymgali Nurgaliyev, who introduced the term to use in his works often use the term «Free Journalism». Indeed, he based on the idea of freedom, freedom of thought and mind of newspapers which have a national character, which was born the beginning of XX century. They actually held a democratic direction. In this direction, they used the term free journalism as the basis, but exactly to the free journalism requirement many more [2].

In the political life of independent Kazakhstan role of the media is exclusive. For example, a politician K.S.Gadzhiev says: «The media is not only a synthesis of policy and creativity, its pre-eminent element of the «fourth power» [6]. In countries where the power of democracy is very weak, or where there is no democracy in general it is very doubtful in the formation of the fourth power of the press. Regarding the situation in Kazakhstan, a little bit, but we have the signs of democracy, nevertheless pressure of the authorities on various newspapers cross out all aspects of democracy in our country. However, in our time, the views of many politicians and political scientists have changed; they consider mass media is not only as the fourth power, but also as a factor in forming the public opinion. The level of development of democracy in Kazakhstan, and his whole nature is similar to the level of development of the Kazakh media. Because the verity of freedom of opinion and speech reflected in the mass media.

Political scientist A. Sarsenbayev gives a description to the «fourth power» in the direction of the transition period in information sphere. In the fight towards the creation of a democratic society he pays particular attention to representatives of the press [7]. From this aggregate of opinions, we understand that an independent publication — it means forming public opinion and leading democracy in the country.Undoubtedly, the media especially the liberal opposition newspapers is not only extend the capabilities of the country, but also turned into a force contributing to political power. Because the superiority of an open information policy sphere ensures the reader purchase their views and their opinions, judgments and conclusions of the community has become a factor of careful research.Thus, the liberal opposition newspapers not only explore the mood of society around a certain problem, but it becomes also the tool of formation social views. Information policy and its significant results in the area of the new information did not go unnoticed people, who sitting in power and professionals. As a result, authorities have to consider with the media, they became make the right decisions and began to realize them.

If the removal of Soviet censorship, the attainment of freedom of creativity together with independence, the new trends in the press service, in connection with growth types of media in the information sphere increased competition is one reason. That the rise of the mass consciousness to a new level, increasing the requirements tied on former state media audience, the whole development of the taste of readers, listeners and viewers become the another reason. The newspaper — it is narrator of era. Looking at the image of certain publication, see sorrow, grief and suffering of every time we learn about protecting the interests of our era. 1993, when we gained independence, but is still not in a stable system, the development of regional newspapers led to the stagnation of national consciousness, we got into a hopeless situation and reached an impasse. Newspapers were born respectively with real events, with specific social phenomena based  on certain amount of time, requirements and necessity of particular social groups. Therefore, they primarily follow the influence of time and humans [2]. Of course, having received independence, making the first steps, a young country such as Kazakhstan, according to all international standards, had adopted a law on the media. This, in turn, becomes the subject of the whole people and there was a common theme for journalists. Because the people who strove to freewill; would not be subject to pressure from the authorities. Of course, censorship forced unnecessarily reprimanded the media, including the liberal opposition publications.

During the plenary session of the Senate deputies for the project law on «Mass Media», while overcoming the arisen disagreements among the Houses of Parliament, they approved the proposed wording of Commission. After that, according to the regulations adopted a law and sent to the signature of the head of state. However, after approval by Parliament the law about «the media», the World Forum of Editors and newspapers have expressed concern and appealed with the Declaration to the President Nursultan Nazarbayev. In this treatment, they said that the law on «mass media» can be a threat to freedom of speech and asked the President not to adopt a law approved by Parliament. World Association of Newspapers and the representatives of World Editors Forum: Seok Hoon Hong and Gloria Brown Anderson in circulation addressed to President Nursultan Nazarbayev on behalf of the 18,000 publishers in 101 countries, reports that the law on «Mass Media» approved he Parliament of Kazakhstan restrict freedom of expression. Also, they wrote in their appeal that that the law «Mass Media» there are obstacle things to the development of independent publications. Authority, since in those years, when we gained independence, strictly adheres to democratic orientation, would continue in the same spirit [5]. From here you can and learn the views and opinions nation in relation the liberal opposition newspapers. Because, if we restrict freedom of speech, slow down the development of society, and we would have lost a source of joys and sorrows of the people. Liberal opposition newspaper describes the problems of the common people, and conveys their problems to the authorities and make demands. The interesting thing is that if the opposition media say about strengthening censorship, the authorities announce publications which openly express his thoughts, that the road is open. "Today, in this hall, our foreign guests probably shocked about opposite views on freedom of expression and in general from socio-political situation in Kazakhstan by the NGOs. I treat this problem a purely political point of view. Five years ago, during the presidential elections, a total of 600 thousand Kazakhstanis voted against President NazarbayevIt can, constitutes only 10 percent of the electorate of Kazakhstan. I suppose that  this Kazakh opinion about this  part  of  the  electorate  in today's  meeting openly and  clearly  stated. Of course, we respect this judgment. However, from Greece, where democracy was born, this direction is always the power of the majority, that we should never, and under no circumstances forget. And the majority here — it's 6 million. 186 thousand Kazakh people, that is, of course, support the strategic course of the head of state 91 percent of the electorate», — said E. Ertіsbaev [8]. Of course, you cannot hide the fact that newspapers are openly criticized the authorities have been subjected to persecution. There are publications that have been able to oppose the authorities, who saw all the difficulties of life, and who brought the truth to the people. And in this aspiration personal contribution of every journalist is priceless.

«Yes, five years ago I wanted to make a serious and discreet liberal newspaper. In my opinion, the staff of the newspaper reached this purpose. For the formation of such publications we needed some time, professional specialists and money ... Now we have made a unique image. We have dedicated, faithful readers, and own view for every occasion in our country. During this time the newspaper has an objective and reasonable viewpoint on life in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Our newspaper is conservatism, the desire to depict real life and a critical, honest look at the reader. It seems to me that I, as a leader doing my job at the level that I myself want. All conversations about freedom and independence of the press in Kazakhstan is empty Who does not know how to write, who cannot think, he comes up with myth about censorship. We have no censorship. You just need to take responsibility for every word and every deed. All! Here therefore, inappropriate to start a conversations about the responsibility of journalists. At the present time, none of the journalist and no authority there is no their fault. Those people who read newspapers and magazines should be aware of the responsibility of not less. Any journalist wants to justify the authority. I'm also talking about the responsibility of readers and viewers, everyone who is able to think straight. We took this slogan: «read and think yourself!» Is not just mass media — it is not much isolated from society factory, which produces information, this is — personally control system. Society and the man should have the right to choose the information. Now almost all of our opposition suffered a crushing defeat. Because, they did not have a bright and clear leader and the good ideas. Their slogans are the slogans of yesterdays, which far from the truth. The most important thing — they do not admit their mistakes and stepping on the same rake, they do not learn from their mistakes [9]. If we say that this idea is the idea of simple and ordinary journalist, we do not run away far from the truth.

TV presenter and the journalist Kasim Amanzholov express his thoughts as follows: «The endless, pointless to fight against censorship, it is better to work as a freelance journalist. The fact that people have forgotten partially me — it is not a problem, for the purpose to remind and to show myself — to appear in any channel — is not my position. You can go to the opposition media, but they love to criticize the government, however, hide their own drawbacks. I do not like that kind of one-sidedness. I always write in my own name and under the pseudonym of any views about political issues and problems. Today's word is not contrary with statements tomorrow. Stand with a clear conscience to the future generations. For me, this position is the most important If in the blood there is the quality of integrity, then the society is not a hindrance. «Do not be a principle!» — no one said this. Do you want to be a principled — be principled. But this position can stay on the sidelines, is not seen in public, you can experience the tribulations of poverty. Be ready for it. If do not stop the resistance — you can get in jail. If you have enough risk, courage — remain principal. However, in our country against the principled set social obstacles and barriers. People are afraid of it and adapt to live monotone, under caution. But there are courageous citizens. Such nationals are like Aron Atabek, Ermek Narymbaev for having told the truth, they came out against government and now they are in the prison. We know about these injustices but we pretend like we do not know. During the wellknown events «Shanyrak» in Almaty people appeared in the street, their cry of the soul «we cannot live in this world, we live in another world», homelessness, unemployment among the population, the problem of young people ... governance raises only Astana and the other Kazakhs people moved the rest aside. For the rich men and for bureaucrats build a beautiful, glass Astana; villages, earthen houses around it were covered with posters. There are some courageous nationals, fighting such injustices. We must support these personalities [10]. The position of any of the independent newspaper, and if it coincides with the principles of the head, or rather, with the national interests, the interests of the Kazakh people — it's good. In this context it has a negative impact that the Kazakh edition distributed in small quantities that the Russian newspapers, magazines advocating the opposite ideology.

Today the situation is changing. There is a demand of information in the Kazakh language. Firstly, the growing influence of Kazakh-speaking reader. Second, a growing number of Kazakh-speaking reader.

If we can at this time to properly distribute the relationship between supply and demand, that is to create the Kazakh journalism on a global level, then Kazakh reader will find all the necessary information from the own newspaper. We must lead Kazakh journalism to this ... If this event in the past, and does not apply today, the future — then it is not necessary. We must speak the truth at the time in the face. If you do not have the guts for it, then keep quiet and shut up [11].

Kazakh journalism, including journalist’s liberal opposition newspapers adhere to this opinion. Among the liberal newspapers, we have a special edition format, with a special giving of the information. For example, the newspaper «Алаш айнасы» cannot only gives precise information to the readers but also raises urgent and painful problems of society.

Generally, the name of the «Alash» the second name of Kazakh, and «Aina» in translation is like a mirror. And so we try to keep the newspaper was all that was happening in our lives, it was a mirror in the life of the Kazakh people. The reason for the name «Alash ainasy» reduced to this. Than to write about the story, it is better to tell about real life. And then, our poets, writers and journalists are prone to history. Our main duty are say and write about life and experiences of the Kazakh people, about his questions and urgent problems. Prior to that, except «Sovereign Kazakhstan» и «Aykin» was not a daily newspaper. In the country the main nation are Kazakhs, the newspaper provides our people with the necessary information should be plenty. For this purpose we have yet another edition [12].

Liberal newspapers largely protecting the interests of the Kazakhs; they try write about the omissions in this connection by the authorities’ only hints. And opposition newspapers about power, relying on established facts, write openly. And that is why opposition publications than liberal newspapers, subjected to persecution.

On the eve the appellate board of the Almaty City Court confirmed the decision of the first judicial authority to close the opposition newspaper. These days Medeu District Court of Almaty city decided to close another opposition newspaper — edition «Assandi-taims». Before that Court of Justice was sentenced to a fine on a large scale another opposition newspaper — «Area of politic». On April 24 in Almaty the representatives of these newspapers made such a statement: «The government will find reason if they desired to deal with the undesirable media. Its basic purpose is — to clear the information space of the opposition newspaper. The publication «Assandi-taims» was closed, speaks that the newspaper is supposedly part of the country banned opposition newspaper «The republic». They blocked sites to disseminate information about the Anti-Eurasian Forum which was held in Almaty.

This reminded the representative is published, but recently at the request of the Ministry of Defense pensioner fined for the two million tenge (about 11 thousand. dollars) opposition newspaper «Area of politic Inga Imanbaeva. She forecast that the power in this year trying to close the newspaper Area of politic». As journalists say closing newspapers, the current situation in Kazakhstan, other information tools will transform in opposition media, and this process will continue [13]. Yes, freedom of speech in  Kazakhstan chained. But without printing a person's life is hard to imagine.

Before we talk about the changes that have the newspaper brought to life of the Kazakh people; rundown one look at the opinions of writers, who were the first at the expense of people, who published press materials. «Of the every nation, every state on the labor front the meter past and present — is the press. In some nation the power of the print and force of the press is undeniable, that nation is great and skilled at what they do. In short, people who master and craftsman, in their nation the press will be literate and immaculate. Except for the blind and ignorant, wise people have always been faithful to this conviction. That's why the people of Europe named the press as the «sixth authority». «This word of the great Kazakh writer and poet M. Dulatova.

According to the candidate of philological sciences, the leading scientific employee of the Institute Literature and Art named M. Auezov Toktar Alibek «How could we not say that we are a free country, that we have no censorship, that we have not yet formed the freedom of speech. And, independent, opposition sources of information, they often do not condemn, do not experience, and do not blame, they are now just criticize. Says that good is good, bad is bad, it is not correct. I sometimes think that our opposition newspapers to raise the ratings ridicule and grin at shortcomings and mistakes of the Kazakh people. In my opinion, without the unreliability and accuracy of information, we should not condemn certain things or put them on display. ... It is very sad that the newspaper «Leninshil zhas» which has a lot of experience, has deviated from their system and ruin their position. Today, in the era of globalization, we need a serious publication which will teach our generation» — he said. The correspondent of «Azattik radio» Asylkhan Mamashev says that «today first we divide the publication as the independent and opposition media, only later editions, which paid by the state. People distinguish the word «independent media» and «opposition media» only at the second attempt. Nevertheless, independent, impartial and neutral source of information is very small. Now is the age of the information flow. If in due course publication will send the information without the concealment, then it will fulfill purpose of this newspaper. And if you will to promote any ideology and to drive it in the consciousness of the people, then they will move away from the main function of the newspaper, and will remain one of the only means of agitation propaganda. That which is needed now is the speed of the newspapers, agility and quickness. The matter is that in 1991, when in Russia has happened «August Putsch» all Kazakh newspapers stayed silent. Only the chief of the newspaper «The centric Kazakhstan» of the Karaganda region Nurmakhan Orazbekov wrote the article «This is the revolution» and praised this incident. In such situations where you need to show their bravery, many publications are terse and dumb. We know that, in peacetime heroes has always been so much. Broadly speaking, many of those newspapers raise and distribute all the issues and problems of the ordinary people. Nevertheless, exactly in the critical and decisive moment that newspaper who will describe soberly, intelligently, without any circumlocution the situation that newspaper is real and true. For example, when Zhanaozenevent happens, every publication talked differently. But there was no one who truly laid this incident and who wrote about how many people were killed, and who shot these people. On this theme can write only independent publications. When there was this tragic incident, everyone understood which newspapers are honest and truthful [14].

Journalist Rahat Kosbarmak said: «Do not take us for the enemies». The publisher of the newspaper «Ar.kz» has been more than a year. The newspaper is published from July 21, 2006. We don't have like in Almaty or in Chimkent the dozen different newspapers and magazines. Especially we have few the mass media in the national Kazakh language. And people generally read the information in exactly the official language. We want correct this gap. Secondly, we have a gap in the provision of reliable information. Newspapers, which are published every day — they equally under the influence of the authorities or opposition publications in formation against the government or in the interests of a particular corporate group. And, in fact, the main task and the direction of the newspaper is not like that. A journalist or edition first have informed and spread proven, genuine information. Caters this information to the government or the opposition, or the government and individual groups — it's not the most important thing.

This is a question of the second stage. About the incident or forming people's lives, people must receive reliable, objective information. The task of the journalist — without distorting, delivers information. After receiving the necessary information, the people discuss it and argue with each other, and then appear different opinions. Thus, is born the public opinion. Many leaders of publications and journalists do not understand that, due to this, they are lost. They work with frozen principles and old customs. That is why, in most cases they leave nation not satisfied. So we want once again convey these common principles to the consciousness of our colleagues and co-workers. That is, we want to do the right newspaper [15]. Yes, the most important is the dissemination of accurate information to the people on behalf of the liberal opposition newspaper. If you look at the opposition newspaper, you read truthful information. The liberal newspapers do  not write everything adhering to the truth; they write opinion of several people forming public opinion. The fact that they are for example, by the announcement of the views of people who support the Eurasian Union, the decision they left to the people. Thus, we have seen and are convinced that the liberal opposition newspaper has a special place in people's lives.

The main mission of the press — is in providing reliable information. Needless to say, mentioned thesis individually cannot be true, that's why the truth is determined in the achievement anti synthesis to synthesis. All journalists pass along the path to this synthesis in all directions. In this case, regards to opposition newspapers. Indeed, to achieve this synthesis, these newspapers is not necessary to exert pressure in cases when they cannot find the nitpicking and charges to bring the noise and administrative resources trying to close them. It is bad for the authorities. Today, the reader has extensive knowledge and their eyes are open. The person distinguishes black and white, and find out the truth, for the society such man as ever necessary and useful. That's why the antithesis necessary to us as air. In a democratic state they do not ask this of us. In that case, there will be a lie to say that, in general, journalism completely fulfills the main task. Of course, another important issue is that not only one edition speaks the truth, read thoroughly all publications find the truth is not so difficult. There are advantages to reach the truth by the team. The fact that, the reader will come to an objective view, this is exceptional phenomenon. Currently a unified picture of the Kazakh journalism can be characterized as follows. The press has always evaluated his truthful words, but not lies and inaccuracies. Thanks to the knowledge of all the details of a specific problem in one number, consisting of three pages of my own newspaper «Aikara» which I created with my colleagues, we have explored and understood how to create a modern newspaper. Only 23 editions on the account, which was published in 2008, the people took quite well. That concept of the newspaper, I would suggest today's editions. In fact, in today's newspapers publish current news, you feel upset. In our time, the structure of the newspaper should be created as informative and analytical articles. Only then we can protect our newspaper. Only then we will have the right to live in peace with other people [16]. Yes, independent publications cannot attract people with just a single information. Because, for them print illiquid article — it means losing readers to the next day. Authority makes print district, regional, national newspapers about public policy. That's why they do not pay attention to that, readers began to think about certain things, they are baked mainly on agitation and propaganda material. In short, the government promotes the ideology of Kazakhstan. That's why people are tired of official information; they want to read the liberal opposition publications that will describe precisely the situation which is happening in our society.

Now journalism finally does not give the ideology. In the Kazakh editions do not have an ideology? They do not know about how the Kazakh people living, good or bad. But starting the opposition newspapers, to the publications which are working together with the authorities, they autocratically asserting that «Kazakhs live badly». Is this not an ideology? This has been going during for two decades. Maybe Kazakhs live like forever. The Writers' Union has already managed to give the Kazakh journalism all their good and bad qualities. Today's better to be a journalist than a writer. Today, people need not a novel; people need the information [17]. It should be noted that in our country now in the foreground not the Kazakh interest protecting the national interest, namely Kazakhstan interest. Of course, in Kazakhstan where live representatives of more than a hundred ethnic groups, it is necessary cohesion, consensus and harmony in friendship. However, the interests of the Kazakhs, who created this country, their opinions basically do not count or left without attention. That's why, we should have an ideology, which will pull not only living conditions of the nation, but they pay their attention to the national value.

In the aforementioned problem, though not intense, but there are certain steps forward. As soon as possible number of media communication has increased dramatically; at present about 7,000 officially registered media about 2,500 of them work consistently and uniformly. The fact that 80 percent of them do not consist in the public format. That is the sign that the independence of the mass media takes a real look. It's no secret that among them newspapers «Jas Alash», «Dat» and oppose and independent newspapers «Kazakhstan», «freedom of speech» and «Time» drew a lot of attention.  And the  newspaper «Turkistan»,  «Altin  orda» (the management of M. Akdauletova, D.Қuata), «The young Kazakh» (the management T.Eshenova, D.Kuata), «Айқын» (journalist A.Koshkenova K .Tasbolat etc.) and his free thoughts in his impartiality and neutrality, his serious, calm outlook on different things, they have awakened sincere feelings of the readers. Out of periodic publications has increased the number of private radio and telecommunication, as mentioned earlier, though there are intensive steps forward, but they still can not compete with the press. The press, which is now in the number of not conceding to each other, joining other countries passed to the form of the Kazakh-Russian, Kazakh-Turkish («Lime-Kazakhstan», «Aif-Kazakhstan») [18].

In Kazakhstan, John Ordway, who worked for the past four years, the US Ambassador in retirement, had to return back to California, he was replaced by Richard Hoagland, a spokesman for the temporary Embassy of Turkmenistan.John Ordway to the question of about there is freedom of speech of the Kazakh journalists in our country, said: «Freedom of speech is like water in the glass, depending on how you stared at the glass, you noticed that the cup half full or half empty, or dirty, or transparent,or clean, everything depends on you; All that I want to say — if there is water in the glass, then it should be full. «He believed that in Kazakhstan there is no problem with regards to the freedom of expression [19].

Now, thank God, the number of Kazakh press has increased. The problems and issues that they describe also are not bad, but the press, which said that purely and truthfully from the face the people, is very small. In the real journalism there is little competition. This applies to the Kazakh press. And, of course in the Russian printing there are competitions. They for advertising, for increasing number of circulations, will go to anything, and often write about different sensations. I often travel abroad. I have noticed that there are journalists to reveal the truth, according to conscience and honor, they tell the whole truth, even if it were not for what the situation was, though official mistakes or shortcomings and disadvantages of the government. If they prove a mistake bureaucrat, officials publicly apologize to the people and willingly resign. Here, the real fruits of the journalist. That is, if written article affects the government, the only in that case journalism doing his job. In the country only some of the media is run by the state, some private and the other opposition publications. If one of them openly expresses their thoughts, while others, even cannot open their mouths. All of this, I understand perfectly. Some fear the founder and ruler, while others fear the government. Even being far from the regional media they cover the fear of akims. We understand it very well. In the accordance with capabilities, we give them advice. We organize sessions and meeting of the press. Over the last five years in the law «About the mass media» have changed many things and corrected. But no one has corrected their works in a better way. I buy and consider all the newspapers every day. If you look at the opposition publications there all is — minus, and in all state editions everything is — plus. After watching each of them, the man himself find the gap between the means. The Kazakh newspapers are needed to a fierce criticism. But they avoid criticism and controversial issues, they can only sit and ask the same question «why the number of our circulation is so small?» In order to increase its circulation let them do productive work and let them write readable article. I notice that all the people willingly take the newspaper «public position» on the project «Dat». «What newspapers do you read?» I ask the Kazakh journalists they answer that the «Republic». Because, they write neat and competent materials not only about the opposition topics, but the economic and social topics. Many people say that «journalism — is the fourth power», it's not that  there is some kind of fourth power, journalism — a defender of nation [20]. Of course, we can agree with these words. But to say that in Kazakhstan the press is the fourth power, we just cannot. For just as in Soviet times we do not have the mechanism to influence the government. Of course, behind certain opposition publication is a political force, for example, beyond doubt the party. However, in Kazakhstan there is any party that will stand against the party in power. From this we are so far the concept of freedom of speech in Kazakhstan.

Representatives of the official government does not agree with the opinion of independent journalists and international organizations, who argue that in Kazakhstan the situation freedom of speech is very shaky and limited. The man who is sitting next to the president of Kazakhstan and the Secretary of the Commission for Human Rights Tastemir Abishev said that in Kazakhstan there is freedom of speech. He believes that the main law in Kazakhstan appropriate to the international requirements, stating that every national of the State has the right to receive any information. Also Tastemir Abishev thinks that we must adopted law, which will be spoken about, that young people have the right find information to their own devices». Hard to say that in Kazakhstan there are problems with freedom of speech and freedom of the press as the publication («Taszhargan», «Freedom of speech»), which openly criticizes the government, these independent media can flourish, and they are easy to get to residents hand — this is the first step towards freedom of speech. Therefore, we can say that in Kazakhstan there is freedom of speech» — says T.Abіshev [21].

This is how, since the country gained freedom, independent newspapers have influenced not only the development of the social economy and spiritual culture of the country, but also exposed to an increase in political activity and outlook of society. All this of course may take place in the country where there is the term «freedom of speech».

 

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Name of author: A.Z.Zhumanova, A.B.Omirbaev
Year: 2016
City: Karaganda
Category: HISTORY
Яндекс.Метрика