In Azerbaijani adverbs, as in other foreign languages are formed and develop on the basis of other parts of speech. The words, word combinations and phrases referring to other parts of speech lose their initial and grammatical meaning partially or completely and become adverbs. While turning into adverbs the words belonging to other parts of speech are separated from their own paradigm, lose their old self quality and acquire new qualities belonging to adverbs and they become alike with the words said to be adverbs. As a result new words with the same sound system but grammatically different appear. So that newly appeared adverbs become homonymous to nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns, prepositions and even with adverbial participial.
In Azerbaijani and in English adverbs are mainly formed from the following parts of speech.
- Adverbs formed from nouns.
- Adverbs formed from adjectives.
- Adverbs formed from numerals.
- Adverbs formed from pronouns.
- Adverbs formed from prepositions.
- Adverbs formed from verb forms.
Adverbs formed from Nouns.
What causes adverbs from nouns is that there are words having time and locative meaning. Here is included the words denoting the parts of the day, different parts of the year. For example: yaz (spring), yay (summer), payiz (autumn), qış (winter), sabah (tomorrow), səhər (morning), günorta (noon), gecə (night), gündüz (daytime) etc. They can easily make up left and right hand combinability with all kinds of verbs. Though on the one hand they denote the name of a notion, but on the other hand they denote time and place of the action. For example: «Mən elə şəxslər görmüşəm ki, səhərdənaxşamadək danışıb, mən heç doymamışam.» «I have seen such people to have been speaking the whole day, but only gave me positive energy». In this sentence the words səhər (morning), axşam (evening) are adverbs, because these words denote the time of the action, but not naming of the thing.
In Azerbaijani one of the adverbs forming ways from nouns is a morphological semantic way. Accordingly different suffixes are added to the end of the nouns, the newly formed words are used in the place of adverbs and new adverbs are formed by turning nouns into adverbs from semantic point of view. Though these adverbs are etymologically related with the nouns but, they display the function of adverbs. It is absolutely known that adverbs possess a few number of specific affixations and they mainly have been formed from the declinable words and verbal forms. The formation of adverbs from nouns by means of case affixation is very obvious in Azerbaijani. Thus the nouns acquire new meanings due to some reasons which have no relation with the former meaning. So, the nouns are parted from declinable words and isolated from them. Subsequently new adverbs originated from nouns are formed.
We also can clear up that different parts of speech mainly in locative and ablative cases turn into adverbs and it is characterized due to their adverbial nature. In Azerbaijani the ablative case besides its main meaning denotes time, place, cause, circumstance etc. together with the word it is used [1, 66].
The meaning expressed by ablative case makes it closer to adverbs. The ablative case is the main source in turning nouns into adverbs. If nouns lose their previous meaning in ablative case or function as an adverb, they are included to the adverb category as a lexical unit, though look like nouns by face. The newly formed word combines the lexical and grammatical features of adverb in itself. For example: Xudayar Katdaya aclıq çox kar eləmişdi; çünki səhərdən kənddən çıxandan bir tikə çörək yeməmişdi, savay qazının bir stəkan çayından.
«Hunger made Khudayar katda feel too bad, as he had had nothing since morning outside».
In most cases when the concrete nouns become adverbs firstly they turn into abstract nouns, then they become adverbs, because the abstract nouns prone to adverbs much more. Besides this not considering these words such as; sürətlə (fast), həyəcanla (anxiously), təəccüblə (surprisingly) etc. as adverbs, doesn’t mean that the existence of adverbs is denied. For example: Çöldən evə qayıdıb və malları tövləyə qatıb girdi evə və öz anasını dilxor görüb, təəccüblə səbəbini soruşdu.»Placed the cattle in the stable after daytime grazing and found his mother upset when entered home, began to ask the reason of her state surprisingly.»
Sometimes words are combined and create shades of meaning related to adverbs. So the combined words belonging to other parts to speech in a certain syntactical atmosphere obtain new adverbial meaning of manner and quality. Such adverb combinations formed by means of nouns
are a lot in quantity. But some adverbs of manner are formed by repetition of the same nouns. For example: Dəstədəstə, «by groups», oymaq-oymaq,
«by steps, by inches», qapı-qapı, «by pieces» etc.
The adverbial combinations formed by the repetition of the nouns with concrete meaning denote the manner and circumstance of the action. For example: dil-dil, without stop, uşaq-uşaq, childlike, dalğa-dalğa, wavy;
As in Azerbaijani the adverbs in English are independent parts of speech. The words of this category are formed from different parts of speech, due to this they carry the characteristic features of the parts of speech they belong to. Some linguists take seriously and accounted the matter of words changing into adverb, on the general meaning of words, their morphological characteristics and syntactical functions, they consider adverb as a special part of speech.
Dealing with the nature and classification of parts of speech V. M. Jirmunski writes that when transforming of words to other parts of speech as a unit of language it is necessary all characteristic features of those words to be taken into account. And above all its general meaning, morphological characteristics and the way of usage are considered. Only the semantics of a word in the sentence, the norms of morphological systems, and full classification of syntactical functions, enable us to learn the transformation of words to new parts of speech, and semantic existence of words as well [2, 20].
In English the nouns are differed from adverbs semantically, morphologically and syntactically. Semantically the nouns denote the names of things, but the adverbs modify the action.
But morphological difference is that the adverbs don’t have case and number categories, but the nouns have. And also the adverbs don’t accept the suffixes of possession, but the nouns. On the other hand the adverbs have the category of degree, but the nouns don’t have.
In English the transformation of nouns to adverbs occurs in that case when nouns lose the adjectives that modify them and they begin to modify the verbs themselves. We can come to the conclusion that in transformation of words to other parts of speech the defining of words with other parts of speech plays a main role among the syntactical criteria. The nouns are determined by adjectives, and the verbs are determined by adverbs [3, 380-381].
In English as nouns can turn into adverbs and the adverbs also can be used as nouns. For example
«the ups and downs of life», «the ins (the party in power) and the outs (the party out of life)» He knows the ins and outs of every political move. In these sentences «up» and «down», «in» and
«out » are substantivized and become nouns. We can meet substantivized adverbs in prepositional combinations, too. For example: until tomorrow, after tomorrow, since yesterday, etc.
Adverbs formed from adjectives
In Azerbaijani conversion of adjectives into adverbs is more than other parts of speech. It is possible to for morphological alikeness of adjective and adverb. And even some linguists consider adverbs as adjectives for their this pecularity. Because like adjectives, adverbs answer the question how? and it is difficult to determine whether they are adjectives or adverbs. One knows that there are some words in English and Azerbaijani that is impossible to determine whether they are adjectives or adverbs from morphological point of view. In order to determine to what part of speech they belong to it is necessary to learn them from semantical point of view. If these words denote the feature of a substance they are adjectives but if they denote the feature of action or specifity of action, they are adverbs. For example : Yaxşı ad sərvətdən üstündür. O ingiliscə yaxşı danışır.
In these sentences both words «yaxşı» are the same in form and answer the same question how. It is difficult to differ these words from morphological point of view. In the first sentence the word «yaxsi» determines the word «dost», in the second sentence the word «yaxşı» denotes the circumstance of an action, it denotes how he speaks English.
Let’s translate these sentences into English. In English translation it is well understood whether these words are adjectives or adverbs. For example:
A good name is better than wealth. He speaks English well.
In English the word «yaxşı» is translated as«good» as an adjective in the first sentence, but in the second sentence it is translated as «well» as an adverb. It is because in the first sentence the word «yaxşı» describes the noun and we use adjective with noun, and functions as an adjective, in the second sentence the word «yaxşı» describes the verb and we use adverb «well», because we must use adverbs with action words. Here we come to the conclusion that, the adjectives and adverbs may have the same forms and answer the same question as how? in Azerbaijani, but in English they may have different forms.
In Azerbaijani In English
Yaxşı (sifət) good (adjective)
Yaxşı (zərf) well (adverb)
Cəld (sifət) quirk (adjective)
Cəld (zərf) quirkly (adverb)
Yavaş (sifət) slow (adjective)
Yavaş (zərf) slowly (adverb)
From here we understand that the adjectives and adverbs having the same form and answering the same question (how?) in Azerbaijani may have different forms in English. But it doesn’t always happen. In English in some cases the adjectives and adverbs have the same forms. Such as:
Fast (adjective) – fast (adverb) Hard (adjective) – hard (adverb)
High (adjective) – high (adverb), etc.
In Azerbaijani we can meet some adjectives and adverbs having the same form, some linguists associate it with the omission of adverb forming suffixes.
Shukurlu writes that in old Azerbaijani the adjectives which were used as adverbs mainly were used with the suffixes –ca; -cə; In the result of the development of the language these adverb forming suffixes probably were delayed in usage or they haven’t been formed morphologically. (4, page 9). In order to learn the adjectives and adverbs of the same form and their functions in determining the feature of substance or action we should consider them.
The linguist scientist A. I. Smirnitsky writes:
«In determining the grammatical form of the words the syntactical function takes the first place, and morphological characteristic follows it, in the second place» [5, 104].
This rule is adopted to determine adverbs, especially adverbs having the same form in English and in Azerbaijani.
In English adjectives and adverbs differ from each other semantically, morphologically as well as syntactically. Though adjectives and adverbs denote features, but they differ from each other just demonstrating noun features and action features. For example:
The good house is built by him. He studies well.
There are a great deal of similarities between adjective and adverb morphologically. In English and in Azerbaijani adverbs are close to the adjectives denoting peculiarities for some grammatical characteristics. Unlike nouns, neither adjectives, nor adverbs have the number, case and gender category in English and Azerbaijani.
Adverbs formed from numerals
One of the adverb forming sources is numerals. Numerals turn into time and quantity adverbs by determining the action and acquire adverbial characteristics. For example: Xudayar bəy çoxdan qoyub gedib. (Khudayar bay has left long ago.)
As the numerals have the meaning of number they can become adverbs of quantity while adverbializing. Both cardinal numerals and indefinite numerals may turn into quantity adverbs. Such as: az (few), çox (many), xeyli (much more) belong to this group.
Yüz (hundred) and min (thousand) cardinal numerals denote the certain quantity number and at the same time they denote indefinite number. For example: Dəliyə yüz öyrət, öz bildiyini söylər. (No use to expect something from mad.) (a proverb). Depending on situation, the indefinite numerals relating with verbs denote the quantity content of the action.
According to the linguist scientist S.Abdullayeva the use of numerals by morphological-semantic way as adverbial manner is very strong. Even to speak about the adverbialised word whether it keeps relation with its initial meaning or not it seem wrong. It is possible to consider these words homonymous with their initial meaning. The words of this shape become adverbialised being used with the verbs denoting action. These words are mainly formed with the following suffixes.
The suffix -dan; -dən; connecting with the cardinal numeral bir (one) and acquiring the meaning circumstance, almost isn’t differ from the original adverbs. The meaning of quantity has been lost in the word «birdən» (suddenly) and it has been substituted with the new meaning semantically, and has acquired the right to be equivalent the words suddenly, at once, one more etc.[6, 72]
In English the adverbs formed from numerals are few compared with adverbs formed from adjectives. The reason is that adverb forming suffixes are few in English. In Azerbaijani it is possible to form numerous adverbs of time, adverbs of time, and adverbs of quantity from numerals by means of suffixes, but in English it is very weak. It is because of the lack of adverb forming suffixes in English. In English we can form adverbs of quantity by adding the word «times» to the cardinal numerals. For example: four times, dörd dəfə, five times,beş dəfə, etc. In English there are special adverb forms expressing the meaning of bir dəfə (once), iki dəfə (twice), üç dəfə (thrice). By adding the word «time» to the stem of the cardinal numerals one, two, three we can form adverbs, too. Then these combinations turn into the adverbs denoting time and quantity. The phrase of «one time» expresses time content more than quantity. Instead of one time in most cases the word once is used. For example: Don`t all speak at once. I`ve only been there once.
In English the adverbs are also formed from several ordinal numerals. By adding the word «time» to
the ordinal numerals we can form time and quantity adverbs. For example: third time, tenth time, etc.
Another way of f adverb forming from the ordinal numerals is to add the suffix -ly to the stem of the ordinal numerals. For example: firstly, secondly, etc. When we want to present one of the pieces of our speech or one of the pieces of our writings we use the words firstly, secondly as a part of our speech. In some cases when we want to present some facts, thoughts and motives by order we use the adverbs formed from the ordinal numerals by adding -ly. For example: The brochure is divided into two sections, dealing firstly with basic courses and secondly with advanced ones. [7, 581].
Adverbs formed from the Pronouns.
One of the formation sources of adverbs is pronouns. As every part of speech has words inclined to adverbs, among pronouns demonstrative and interrogative pronouns also incline to adverbilisation.
When demonstrative pronouns turn into adverbs they lose their demonstrative and interrogative content, and describe action. In Azerbaijani the demonstrative pronouns elə, belə; can be used with verbs, modify verbs and turn into circumstance adverbs. for example: Arxamda anamın səsini eşidib ona tərəf döndüm, lakin elə cəld döndüm ki, başımız bir-birinə dəydi; anam kədərlə gülümsədi və məni axırıncı dəfə bərk-bərk öpdü. (I turned to my mother when heard her voice, but it happened so quickly that
, our heads touched each-other;then my mother went on grief smiling and had a last big kiss on my face.)
Some interrogative pronouns denote the manner of the action, not the interrogative meaning while using with the action words. For example: On il qabaq səni necə görmüşəm, eləcə də qalıbsan. (You have not been changed, you seem to me as you were ten years ago.)
In Azerbaijani there have been formed some adverbs from the demonstrative pronouns «o»(that),
«bu»(this), in most cases they are used with action words and turn into adverbs. For example: «onda» (then), bunda (now), ora (there), bura (here), orabura (here and there), ordan-burdan (from here and there), orada (there), burada (here),oradan (from there), buradan ( from here) və s.
According to the scientist A. Shukurlu the adverb onda (then) has been formed from the pronoun o (that). As a result of semantic development, the word onda (then) is used as an adverb of time and locative case suffix in it has been fixed [4, 16].
In Azerbaijani besides demonstrative and interrogative pronouns it is possible to see the adverbs formed from the relative pronouns öz (self), hamı
(all), bütün (whole), eyni (some), hər (every).
The relative pronoun hər (every), turn into the adverb of time with time content by accepting the suffix -dən (from). The relative pronouns bϋtϋn (whole) can be used as adverb of circumstance in the form of «büsbütün (wholly)». The relative pronoun
«eyni» (same) with the help of post position «ilə» (with) in the form of «eynilə» become adverbialized. There can be formed adverbs from the relative pronoun «ӧz» (self). The word «ӧz-ӧzϋnə» formed by the repetition of the relative pronoun «ӧz» can be used as circumstance adverb used with verbs.
Some relative pronouns accepting the suffixes -liq4; and by the help of the postposition of
«ilə»(with) may turn into adverb. For example:
«hamiliqla» (as a whole), «bϋtϋnlϋklə» (wholly) etc.
In English adverbs have some similarities with pronouns. H. Sweet writes that in grammatical functions the similarity of adverbs with pronouns is so large that it is hard to say to which part of speech the word belongs. For example: In sentences. I think so; I told you so; the adverb so does not simply modify the verb it is related but also in different forms: I think so means Mən belə fikirləşirəm, I think in that way means Mən bu cür fikirləşirəm. But think what? Nə fikirləşirsən? [8, 132].
Thus it is equivalent to the pronoun having the direct object relation. Even we can write these sentences without changing the meaning in the following way. I think that. I told you that.
- In English there are some certain adverbs such as here, there, now, then, so, thus, etc. that appropriate to the pronouns this, that which denote definiteness. For example: Now – at this time, thenat that time,thus in this way, so-in that way;
- In English there are some indefinite adverbs that they are formed by the connection of indefinite pronouns some, any with interrogative adverbs; For example: anywhere, somewhere, wherever, wheresoever, whenever, whensoever, anyhow, somehow, however, howsoever, etc.
- Like negative pronouns the negative adverbs are formed by adding the negative prefixes – n; – no; to the adverbs and interrogative pronouns. For example: never, nowhere, no how, etc.
- Most of interrogative adverbs start with the letters wh like interrogative pronouns. For example: where, why, when, how etc.
- As to G.O. Curme adverbs are often used as pronouns. For example: « I saw him a year ago, but since then (used as demonstrative pronoun) we haven`t met.» «I saw him a year ago, since when (used a relative pronoun) I haven`t seen anything of him.» [9, 73].
Adverbs formed from the verb forms.
When verbs turn into adverbs they function as participle and participle adverbials. In this case the verb forms participle and participle adverbial lose their characteristic features belonging to them and express the meaning specifying adverbs.
In modern language the main symptoms of adverbialized participle that we can meet are the followings;
- While adverbializing the adverbial participle suffix loses its grammatical role and does not have the syntactic relation with the predicate expressed by a verb, that’s adverbial participle doesn’t display the auxiliary predicative function inclusively.
- The word and the suffix as a lexical unit are stabilized and turn into the word modifying the quality of action and work.
- The place of stress and the quality changes; For example: getdikcə, (gradually), olduqca, (rather), dedikcə, (saying), doyunca, (fully), qacaraq, (running), sevincək, (happily,) düşəndə (falling) vә s. [10, 391].
According to I. Ahmadov who investigates the development of participle towards adverbs proves that this development shows itself mostly in participle adverbials consisting of intransitive verbs, these participle adverbials lose their management relation, have adjoining (yanaşma) relation with the main verb and new stress appearance of the word changes its place and passes on the last syllable. For example: qaçaraq (running), çaparaq (riding) etc. The author explains this semantic change with the appearance of the new lexical unit. [11, 20-21].
In the Azerbaijani language the adverbs formed by means of the suffixes: -a; -ə; -araq; -ərək;
-madan; -mədən; -ınca; -incə; -dıqca; -dikcə;
-duqca; -dükcə; -dan; -dən; relating with verbs directly, lose their characteristics and turn into circumstance, time, number and quality, purpose adverbs gaining the meaning of circumstance, time, number and quality, purpose. For example: Uşaq gülərək dedi: Sənin etdiyin yaxşılıqları ölüncə yadımdan çıxarmaram. (The child said smiling: I’ll remember your trouble on me life long.)
The combinations formed by the repetition of the participle adverbials can be the circumstance adverbs of the sentence. For example: baxa-baxa, (looking), dönə-dönə, (again and again), hıçqırahıçqıra, (sobbing), pıçıldaşapıçıldaşa, (whispering), etc. Biz səs – küy qoparıb, pıçıldaşa-pıçıldaşa buradan çıxıb qaçdıq. ( We committed unrest and ran away whispering) [12, 47]
The linguist A. Shukurov writes that the morphological sign of participle adverbial -a;-ə;
has almost lost its initial meaning. Then the author writes that the adverb «birgə» has been formed by means of suffix -a;-ə; and the word «birik» [4, 1314].
In English one can come across with the formation of adverbs from the verb forms, but compared with Azerbaijani it is very little. H. Suit divides adverbs into two groups: primary and secondary. The adverbs belonging to the first group have no relations with nouns, adjectives and verbs, they have relations only with prepositions and conjunctions. For example: the words in and up in come in and come up are used as adverbs: but in the following combinations «to stay in the house», «he came up to the road» the words – in; and -up; are used as prepositions.
Adverbs belonging to the second group are special adverbs that, most of them are formed by adding -ly: to adjectives or by conversion without any word building suffixes. For example: to work hard. The other adverbs belonging to the II group are converted from nouns and in little cases from verbs. For example: home (noun), go home (adv), to bang (verb), go bang (adv) [8, 118].
Adverbs formed from prepositions.
Unlike Azerbaijani in English there is such a part of speech called preposition, which can be used as an adverb in a sentence. It is clear that prepositions creates relations between words, nouns, pronouns and other parts of speech, but in Azerbaijani their functions are carried out by case suffixes. If a preposition is followed by an object in a sentence and we can ask a question to that object by the question word what it shows its being is a preposition, not an adverb. For example: Bill ran up the stairs. Up what? Up the stairs.
If a preposition isn`t followed by an object and the preposition describes a verb, then it becomes an adverb. For example: Billy looked up and saw the alien spacecraft.
We can`t ask the question «up what?» to this sentence, because, there is no object here, and the word up describes the action and denotes the place where Bill looks.
In English in some cases we use objects after verb phrases, the words like prepositions in these verb phrases describe the verb they are related, not the objects followed them and that is why these words are used as adverbs within verb phrases. For example: He looked up her number.
The best way to determine whether these words alike in form are adverbs or prepositions is to separate these words together with objects and to examine if they denote a meaning. For example: In the following sentence. «He looked up her number.» the word «up» does not describe the object, but it describes the verb and functions as adverb.
As we see the verb forms in English compared with Azerbaijani can become adverbs in some cases. As in Azerbaijani also in English when verbs turn into adverbs the verbs lose their features belonging to verbs and acquire the features belonging to adverbs. We come to the conclusion that in the formation of adverb grammar and lexicology are mutually related. In English and Azerbaijani in the result of conversion of other parts of speech into adverbs many adverbs have been formed respectively.
- Gusejnzade M. Sovremennyj Azerbajdzhanskij yazyk. Morfologiya. – Baku, 1973. – S. 66.
- ZHirmunskij V.M. O prirode chastej rechi i ih klassifikacii. Voprosy chastej rechi. Na materiale yazykov razlichnyh tipov. – L.: Nauka, 1968. – S. 20.
- Vinogradov V.V. Russkij yazyk. Grammaticheskoe uchenie o slove. – M. – L.: Minis-ter¬stvo prosveshcheniya RSFSR, 1947. – S. 380-381.
- SHukyurov A.Dzh. Narechie v azerbajdzhanskom yazyke. AKD. – Baku, 1966. – S. 9.
- Smirnickij A.I. Morfologiya anglijskogo yazyka. – M.: Izdatel’stvo literatury na inostrannyh yazykah, 1959. – S. 104.
- Abdullaeva S. Sovremennyj azerbajdzhanskij yazyk. – Baku: Prosveshchenie, 1991. – S. 72.
- Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. – Oxford University Press, 2005. – P. 581.
- Sweet H. New English Grammar. – London: Oxford larendon Press, 1892. – P. 132.
- Curme G.O. A Grammar of the English Language. – USA, Boston, 1935. – P. 73.
- Sovremennyj Azerbajdzhanskij yazyk. CHast’ II. – Baku: Nauka, 1980. – C. 39.
- Ahmedov I. Razvitie deeprichastij k narechiyam v Azerbajdzhanskom yazyke // Uchenye zapiski AGU. – 1976. – №3. – S. 20-21.
- Tolstoj L.N. Izbrannye proizvedeniya. – Baku, 2004. – S. 53.