The article discusses the problems associated with migration, namely the image of the future men of Georgian nationality, living in Kazakhstan. Image of the future is regarded with the prospect of life's journey: past, present and future. The results show that the future seems to them lasting and associated with positive emotional experiences. They do not have a clear position on the fact whether their future is chaotic or orderly, simple or complex, will depend on them personally or by any external factors, but they tend to his plan. Georgians are very important values that shape their lives, are striving for success, security, respect, implementation of socially approved activities, education and competence.
The beginning of our millennium marked a resounding increase of migratory behavior of people. Sometimes the desire to change their place of residence and, as a consequence, their way of life is an attempt to change their lives without changing the characteristics of the value and meaning of their image of the world. As a consequence, the representation of the potential emigrants about the future, usually ends up on arrival at the new place of residence. It is clear that these factors are reflected in the life of society and in particular on the life and worldview of certain social groups that are actually experiencing a similar phenomenon.
Image of the future determines how a person will build the prospect of his way of life. The only understanding of this fact shows how a compelling problem is the image of the future in modern psychology. But, despite the high importance of this aspect for the understanding of the psychology of the individual, or a certain social group, there is still very little research in this area in psychology. Most existing studies are focused mainly on short time intervals, which do not give a broad view of human psychological time — the owner of a long-term time perspective.
We have attempted to unite in this research the study of the two most important issues of our time — migration and image of the future of immigrants.
To study the image of the future, there are specially developed research methods in psychology. We chose the following.
- «Cyclic test of time» by Kotle.
- «Complexity scale to measure attitudes toward the future» by
- Test of sense-of-life orientation (SLO) by A.Leontyev.
- Valuable questionnaire (VQ) by
Another technique was the modified by us technique of Golovakha E. and A.Kronik «Life Line» , which has been called «The events of the future.» Its results were processed with the aid of content analysis.
For human perception of time and the idea of time method of «Cyclic test of time», T.Cauldron in which with the help of the three circles are represented the subjects past, present and future was chosen. The technique was developed in 1976, is used in many studies on time in a person's life.
To measure the affective attitude toward the past, present and future we selected «Complexity scale to measure attitudes toward the future» by Nyutten . The scale is based on the technique of semantic differential by Charles Osgood. We used this technique not for exploring the semantic content of the concept of «future», but for the study of subjective attitudes to this time dimension of life.
In the next step of the test of test of sense-of-life orientation was offered (procedure SLO by D.A.Leont’yev . It allows to assess the «source» of the sense of life that person may be found either in the future or present or past or all three components of the lifetime.
Evaluative questionnaire (EQ) by Schwartz is another technique applied in the study. Value aspect interested us, because the values are, by definition of V.Ye.Klochko, tense, but not implemented possibilities, defining determination of human behavior from the future . The basis of the questionnaire is the theoretical concepts, according to which all values are divided into social and individual . The purpose of using a technique by Schwartz was to determine what values are most or least important as a guiding principle in human life.
Another technique was the modified by us technique by Golovakha E. and A.Kronik «Life Line», which was named «The events of the future.» People under the test were asked to follow the instructions:
«Imagine all your life. Try to see in its entirety — from birth to death. In your life, there were a lot of events, a lot is yet to come. Try to find (for oneself) ten most important, in your opinion, events in your life that you expect in the future. By event, we will consider any significant change in your life. This may be a change in the nature or in society, in your own world (thoughts, feelings, values) in your state of health, finally, in your behavior, affairs at work, in the family, communicating with friends, and so on. Each event write down on a sheet in a convenient formulation for you. Please specify the most accurate estimated date (year, month, if possible, the number) of each of the selected search events. And now estimate them in order of importance you like, denoting by the number 1 most important event, by the number 2 — the fact that a little less important, and so on until the end. The responses of the tested people were processed using content analysis.
For testing the results of the research methods were used the methods of descriptive statistics (arithmetic mean count, frequency analysis).
For performing the research, we selected 30 men among Georgian emigrants aged from 25 to 45 years old with a technical (80 %) and humanitarian (20 %) education. Among them there are married couples (73 %) and singles 27 %. The test was conducted at the center «Georgia 2007» in the city of Karaganda. All people participated in the study on a voluntary basis.
According to the results of the method «Cyclic test of time» by T.Kotlle for Georgians emigrants it turned out that the bulk of the sample takes time, whether it's the future, past or present as a significant, valuable, emotionally rich and event time. The most significant is most often indicated the present time, and this was reflected in 15 % of tested, 14 % of participants indicated as significant their future, and 12 % indicated how significant was their past.
Neutral attitude to the present of the sample showed 15 % of Georgian emigrants, 12 % of the sample showed a neutral attitude to the past, and 9 % of the sample showed a neutral attitude towards their future.
The attitude to their future as a slight event showed 10 % of the sample, for 8 % of the sample past time appeared to be insignificant, and 5 % of the sample identified as insignificant their present time.
In general, we can say that this sample is characterized by high temporal measurements to evaluate their lives, taking them meaningful, relevant and important. They highly appreciate their past, they see a lot of opportunities in this for the subsequent implementation of their goals in the future.
Also for providing an idea of the image among our tested people, we used the technique of «Complexity scale to measure attitudes toward the future « by Nyutten, the results of which are shown in picture 1.
The picture shows that on a scale of «structure» in the sample of Georgians emigrants average score was 4.38 points, on a scale of «internal controls» the average score was 4.39, the average score on a scale of
«degree of difficulty» was 4.46, for scale «value» there was obtained the average value of 4.49, on a scale of «remoteness in time» the average value for the group was 4.58, and on a scale of «general affective evaluation» was 5.19.
Picture 1. Average indicators of attitudes toward the future of the men of the Georgian Diaspora
So we see that by all the parameters were obtained average scores and one — above the average, and hence in general we can judge the presence of a positive attitude to the future of Georgians. Average scores were obtained on the scales «structure», «internal control», «degree of difficulty», «value», «remoteness in time.» Scores above the average were obtained on a scale of «general affective evaluation». We can say that Georgian immigrants perceive their future as a distant, slowly approaching. They have no specific understanding of what influences more on their future — from them in person, or by any external factors, as they lack a distinct idea of how easy or difficult will be their future, chaotic or a structured and orderly. Also they are clear in something or not their value determinants of future prospects. But at the same time, the future they see as a beautiful, attractive period of life.
The following method to examine the image of the future in the tested people was the method LSS by D.Leontiev. Its results are shown in picture 2.
On all scales, results were obtained, which can be considered as average, in accordance with regulatory measures. That is to say that for the majority of the representatives of the sample is characterized by the presence of life goals, perspectives. They perceive the process of his life as a rather interesting and emotionally intensive. Also for Georgians it is common to perceive their life as meaningful and productive. For the representatives of the sample it is typical to see themselves as people capable to build their lives in accordance with their values and interests, although sometimes there is a distinct sense of the limitations of this freedom from the outside. The life itself is perceived as a man under authority and controlled process.
Picture 2. Average scores of meaningful indicators of life among men of the Georgian Diaspora
On all scales were derived indicators showing general satisfaction with their lives and an organically constructed timeline. Georgians appreciate their past, it seems to them as a meaningful and important part of their lives, the present time the see as dynamic, full of possibilities, and they feel their ability to use successfully them in the future.
The results obtained by the method of Schwartz to determine personally important values ensuring the dynamics of self-fulfillment in the time term, the sample of men Georgians are presented in picture 3.
The picture shows that the highest marks were given to the value of the «achievements» (Xav = 5.23) and «maturity» (Xav = 4.42), while the lowest scores were obtained for values of «enjoyment» (Xav = 2.87) and «social power» (Xav = 3.27). Values such as «self-determination» (Xav = 3.6), «stimulation» (Xav = 4.09), «conformity» (Xav = 4.22), «sociality» (Xav = 4.18), «security» (Xav = 3.92), «support the traditions» (Xav = 4) «social culture» (Xav = 4.15) and «spirituality» (Xav = 4.29) are approximately at the same level, and are likely do not have much impact on the quality of life of the sample.
Picture 3. Definitions of personally important values in a time perspective of Georgian Diaspora men
That is, we can say that for men Georgians value of hard work, activity and commitment, acceptance and respect from the society have a very high, they value education and competence, striving for wealth and success. The importance of value — «maturity» tells us that for the Georgian men it is very important to achieve a mature understanding of life, peace with yourself and raise a tolerant attitude towards different ideas and beliefs, parenting self-esteem is also important for them to understand their purpose in life, feel a deep emotional and spiritual connection with their loved ones. Also for them it is very important to understand the beauty of nature and art. The smallest value for this sample has the opportunity to meet the desires of pleasure and enjoyment. Equally insignificant for Georgian men in emigration strive to win prestige, power, a significant position in society, opening up opportunities to influence people and events.
Results of the second data block of the Schwarz methods — analysis of cultural values are presented in picture 4.
It was found that for a given sample are valued such notions as «hierarchy» (Xav = 4.55), «inclusion» (Xav = 4.5) and «equality» (Xav = 4.53), and the smallest value is the value of «mastery» (Xav = 3.92), all other values are constructed, such as «affective autonomy» (Xav = 4.41, «intellectual autonomy» (Xav = 4.19) and «harmony» are about the same level, and then have no significant effect on the quality of life of the sample.
In general, according to this method, we can say that the high value for Georgian emigrants is compliance with the hierarchy of the prescribed social roles, rules, but they are able to perceive other people, regardless of their status as equals in rights and opportunities. Also for this sample it is considered not so significant pursuit of progress, mastery of the social and natural components of life in order to achieve personal and group goals. Perhaps this combination of the importance of hierarchy and dismissive attitude towards progress, changes, says that for a given sample can be an important observance of traditions, preservation of community and group orders received in it.
Picture 4. Definitions of cultural values of Georgian Diaspora men
Methodology «future events» showed that the average length of the specified future is 6.74 years. Moreover, 29 people out of 30 used to describe their future dated events, all of them together, with varying frequency, indicated 104 dated events: the most important factors for the future life of the sample is the family, the health and safety of loved ones, as all the representatives of the Georgian sample immigrants are planning for the future move to another country. Essential for them is to have events that allow to realize themselves and assert themselves in this life. Also for Georgian emigrants the future is largely structured event that embodies the value of friendship. In future, they expect the birth of children, it is determined by the solution of problems of their training. To a somewhat lesser degree of understanding of the issues associated with the opening of their business and career development, the acquisition of wealth and improve their own health.
Analysis of the results obtained by all methods revealed the following: male immigrants of Georgian diaspora show no tendency to distort time perspective, rooted in the past or the future, breaking away from the reality of the present. Future, which is focused on the study of our research, seems to them extended in time and associated with positive emotional experiences.
They do not have a clear position on the fact whether their future is chaotic or orderly, complex or simple, will depend on them personally or on any external factors, but they tend to their plans. Very important values for Georgians that define their lives, are striving for success, security, respect for, and implementation of socially approved activities, education and competence. Also important for them is to live in peace with each other and the social community to which they belong, they appreciate the rules of the society and supporting the social hierarchy, but it can take the people around them as equals. Unusual for Georgian immigrants is pursuit of pleasure and enjoyment, to the conquest of authority and power, so they are not inclined to try to change their environment and society for themselves, in accordance with their interests, much more valuable than defend their interests, for their adoption is the world, society, reconciliation with him, unity and harmony. These values define the dominant image of the future. Georgians associated their future primarily with their family hope to move, and the emergence and assertion of themselves as individuals. Also important factors of Georgian desired future are friendship, starting a business, career, security, birth of children, their education, and health.
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