This article examines the importance of leadership and management and discusses their role in education system. The importance of leadership and management provides a basics for building and involving in in education. After examining issues in teaching and research, future needs and directions of leadership and management for education are indicated in the article. A more systematic approach to developing the requisite skills for assuming leadership and management roles may be useful. Whether or not a teacher takes on a formal leadership position, the acquisition of these skills may serve to enhance performance in the classroom. Also, a systematic approach to the development of the necessary skills for assuming leadership and management roles can be useful to guide the class, group of personnel. Improving performance in the classroom will grow in condition of acquisition of teacher leadership skills and management.
Everything what we have: knowledge, family, payments, material and spiritual culture wealth, all of them have some information that we need. Information has a great influence on everything what people do. It is a main form of people discussion, talks, communication, actions and profits. All of these are needed to be good managed and leaded. As international experience shows an important part of this change is comprehension of science and art of management.
There are number of commonly recognized problems in studying management some of them are significant to the way which we understand management as leadership or leadership as management. One should be noted here today Kazakhstan has not made significant progress in theoretical and practical development of management and leadership yet.
Advent of globalization the education system in most countries is in a state of continuous modernization and reform. Nowadays managing and leadership have become relatively recent field of study among academics, researchers. The first thing that needs to be said is before now managing and leadership were a theme of politics, traders, economics. It is a well-known fact that management and leadership have been studying only a few years in Kazakhstan’s education system. First of all, let us try to understand differences between management and leadership in education system.
According to the State Programme of Education Development for the period of 2011–2020 is in charge of implementing the state policy in the field of education, providing support and continuity in the ongoing process of modernisation of the Kazakh system of education, shaping the national model of competitive multi-level higher and postgraduate education, and its integration with the world education area . We should notice that different kind of changes contribute to transformation of management in education system of former Soviet Union country. Today academic institutions are increasingly undergoing a process of innovation and institutional reform.
First and foremost the urgent question is what management and where is it originated? What are the differences between management and leadership? Let's define what is the management? What is included in this concept?
Management is a universal concept. It is difficult term to define. It has variety of applications and interpretations, all correct within a given set of parameters. Sometimes it is used to describe the activities of executives and administrators of organization. Management involves the creation of an environment in which people can most effectively use other resources to reach stated goals. It involves the implementation of four basic functions: planning, organizing, leading and controlling. These functions play a role in the operation of organization [2;4,5].
- Planning is a heading step and can be highly specialized based on organizational goals, division goals, department goals or team
- Organizing is defined how manager distribute resources and organize work force according to the plan.
- Leading is connecting with employees on interpersonal level. It can be simply communicating task, motivating, inspiring and encouraging them towards a higher level Here we should make notice that not every manager is a leader.
- Controlling is final function of management. Once a plan has been carried out the manager evaluates the results against the
Furthermore, one should not forget that our article about management in education system. The second question that needed to be answered is what educational management is? It is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational organizations. There is no single generally accepted definition of the subject because its development has drawn heavily on several more firmly established disciplines, including sociology, political science, economics and general management. Educational management is both a field of academic study and a collective group of professionals that includes principals, teachers and other education professionals [3; 5, 6].
Today, we know more about teaching than we have ever before. Research has shown us that teachers’ actions in their classrooms have both the impact on student achievement as do school policies regarding curriculum, assessment, staff collegiality, and community involvement. We also know that one of the classroom teacher’s most important jobs is managing the classroom effectively.
Of all the variables, classroom management has the largest effect on student achievement. This makes intuitive sense-students cannot learn in a chaotic, poorly managed classroom. It is very important that there is a balance between teacher actions that provide clear consequences for unacceptable behavior and teacher actions that recognize and reward acceptable behavior.
Research has shown that the quality of teacher-student relationships is the keystone for all other aspects of classroom management. Further, research has shown that teachers who had high-quality relationships with their students had fewer discipline problems and rule violations than those who did not have high-quality relationships.
The most effective teacher-student relationships are characterized by three specific teacher behaviors:
- Exhibiting appropriate levels of dominance
- Exhibiting appropriate levels of cooperation
- Being aware of high-needs students
1. Appropriate Levels of Dominance
Teachers can exhibit appropriate dominance by establishing these three principles:
- Clear behavior expectations (Teachers can establish clear expectations for behavior in two ways: by establishing clear rules and procedures, and by providing consequences for student behavior).
- Clear learning goals (Teachers can also exhibit appropriate levels of dominance by providing clarity about the content and expectations of an upcoming instructional unit).
- Exhibiting assertive behavior (Teachers can also communicate appropriate levels of dominance by exhibiting assertive behavior).
2. Appropriate Levels of Cooperation
- Several strategies can foster appropriate levels of cooperation:
- Provide flexible learning goals (Giving students the opportunity to set their own objectives at the beginning of a unit or asking students what they would like to learn conveys a sense of cooperation).
- Take a personal interest in students (All students appreciate personal attention from the teacher).
- Use Equitable and Positive Classroom Behaviors (making eye contact, standing close to each student during the class period, providing appropriate wait time for all students to respond to questions).
3. Awareness of High-Needs Students
Classroom teachers meet daily with a broad cross-section of students. In general, 12–22 % of all students in school suffer from mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders, and relatively few receive mental health services. The Association of School Counselors notes that 18 percent of students have special needs and require extraordinary interventions and treatments that go beyond the typical resources available to the classroom.
Passive students fall into two subcategories: those who fear relationships and those who fear failure. Teachers can build strong relationships with these students by refraining from criticism, rewarding small successes, and creating a classroom climate in which students feel safe from aggressive people.
Studies have found that the most effective classroom managers did not treat all students the same; they tended to employ different strategies with different types of student [4.]
Teachers as the leaders of class must bring up next generation to creating a vision and strategy keeping eye on horizon, creating shared culture and values etc. Many countries saw the role of leadership development for teachers and many of them have state teacher leadership program (TLP) in the USA, EU countries and etc. For a long time society had acute practical needs in the study of leadership. But due to the continued economic development of society and, as a consequence, a change in the rhythm of life, the problem of studying leadership qualities and their development is becoming increasingly important. In this regard, a deep and thorough study, critical reflection of international experience would show prospects and possible barriers to the development of educational systems in the light of new approaches to the training and education of the student as a competitive leader. The present level of economic and social development of our country requires experts in any field of activity of high professional level. And special attention is paid to the development of leadership skills of teachers, as they are the foundation of any society [5;272].
What does the word «leader» mean? We have to know more about history and origin of this word. According to Etymology Dictionary leader in Old English «lædere» one who leads, from «lædan» (see lead (v.)). As a title for the head of an authoritarian state, from 1918 (meaning «writing or statement meant to begin a discussion or debate» is late 13c. In modern use often short for leadingarticle (1807) «opinion piece in a British newspaper» (leader in this sene from1837) .
Leaders are those people whom everyone wants to follow. As James C.Humes said an American author and former presidential speechwriter said: «One secret of leadership is that the mind of a leader never turns off. Leaders even when they are sightseers and spectators, are active; not passive observers.» According to this quote we understand that leaders can’t stand off, they have own point of view and as a strategic thinker they can find the point of problem to solve it carefully. Leaders are that people who always act and involved in all events. They always show their ability to help and develop personal qualities lifelong. As we are teachers we thought that we are born to be leaders, because we lead our students to learn and investigate new world of education. But in real situation it is far from it.
So how do we understand the meaning of ‘leadership’? According to «Business dictionary» by WebFinance, Inc. internet company with experience in developing and managing educational websites leadership has many definitions as follows:
- The individuals who are the leaders in an organization, regarded
- The activity of leading a group of people or an organization or the ability to do Leadership involves:
- Establishing a clear vision;
- Sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly;
- Providing the information, knowledge and methods to realize that vision;
- Coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members and stake holders.
A leader steps up in times of crisis, and is able to think and act creatively in difficult situations. Unlike management, leadership cannot be taught, although it may be learned and enhanced through coaching or mentoring. Someone with great leadership skills today is Bill Gates who, despite early failures, with continued passion and innovation has driven Microsoft and the software industry to success.
The act of inspiring subordinates to perform and be engaged in achieving a goal .
Leadership is concerned with overall alignment of vision, goals, values and culture. Leadership skills include to be highly influential, both external and internally. Leaders are people who can define future vision in way that people work. They need to be looking at the future, with one eye on the current position and be able to mentally conduct a constant gap analysis of the future [8;3–6].
Teachers can find a wealth of opportunities to extend their influence beyond their own classrooms to their teaching teams, schools, and districts. In every good school, there are teachers whose vision extends beyond their own classrooms — even beyond their own teams or departments. Such teachers recognize that students' school experiences depend not only on interaction with individual teachers, but also on the complex systems in place throughout the school and district. This awareness prompts these teachers to want to influence change. They experience professional restlessness — what some have called the «leadership itch.» Sometimes on their own initiative and sometimes within a more formal structure, these professionals find a variety of ways to exercise teacher leadership [9; 14–19].
Gunter in his work ‘Labels and labelling in the field of educational leadership’, Discourse — Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education shows that the labels used to define this field have changed from ‘educational administration’ to ‘educational management’, and, more recently, to ‘educational leadership’[10;21– 41]. A teacher-leader, in addition to daily teaching of students, takes on a leadership role to improve instructional practices across a whole school whether it is an elementary, middle, or high school. Because collective leadership has been shown by research to have a stronger impact on student achievement than individual leadership, shared leadership between teachers and administrators is a necessity. Specifically, the teacher leadership role across a school involves working to build trusting relationships, taking on the qualities of effective leaders, and planning and facilitating the professional learning-all with the end goal of improving student learning.
The teacher-leader takes on three significant roles in a school: building trust, acting as a leader, and facilitating professional learning. Descriptions of those roles follow.
Build trusting relationships
Without high-level trust and respect between and among all members of a school community, student achievement stalls every time. Teacher-leaders actively work to establish and maintain close ties with the principal, colleagues, and all members of the school community. Some of the ways teacher-leaders build and maintain trust are through publicly and privately celebrating the strengths and efforts of the principal, fellow teachers, students, and their families. With the principal, teacher-leaders also seek to develop a schoolwide culture of concern and caring for «our students», not just «my students.» As a result of the trusting relationships teacher-leaders inspire, they courageously speak up to ask the hard questions, reach out and nudge their principal and colleagues on issues that need resolution, listen without judgment, and respect everyone's voice. Teacher-leaders are also good communicators—orally, in writing, online, and through social media.
Take on the qualities of effective leaders
The same qualities that make any leader effective apply to teacher-leaders. They are highly knowledgeable about their field, whether it is literacy, special education, or a particular content or specialist area. They hold high expectations for their colleagues and students and are kind and encouraging to all. They know and apply the latest and most relevant research and generously share information and resources with others. They are humble experts at what they do and willingly mentor, coach, and co-teach with colleagues. At the same time, they are learners who are open to change and who constantly seek to get better at their craft.
Facilitate professional learning
Ensuring high level, onsite, ongoing professional learning is probably the most significant role for the teacher-leader. With the principal, teacher-leaders plan and carry out the professional learning in a school. (I choose not to use the term professional development, which often means outside experts, one-shot deals, and «training» on a newly adopted program.) Professional learning is about establishing schoowide beliefs that align with «best» instructional and assessment practices, reading professionally, viewing and discussing what authentic, purposeful practices look like and sound like, conversing with colleagues about applying those practices to the classroom, and—with support from the Leadership Team—getting better at daily teaching and assessing so that students learn more. In the end, it is the quality and depth of the professional learning in a school that determine student and teacher learning outcomes.
There is often a certain leadership quality in those who wish to pursue the field of education as we are rarely individuals who wish to take on a passive role in the world around us. In the words of John Quincy Adams, «If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.» In applying this definition of leadership to teachers, we will see that the concept of a «teacher leader» is becoming more and more defined and even assigned.
A more systematic approach to developing the requisite skills for assuming leadership roles may be helpful. Whether or not a teacher takes on a formal leadership position, the acquisition of these skills may serve to enhance performance in the classroom .
The draw the conclusion, we can say that leadership and management in education system play main role. Since leadership and management in education is not develop on relevant level. Moreover, according to modern Policy of Education in Kazakhstan it should receive a great attention from academic researchers. It is believed that the best practice — it is an experience that has already been used. Practicing management and leadership qualities in education system gives good results in your work and you can take it in your practice. Leadership and management are directly related to the development, as the bears positive change, to move forward, the internal development of human system. Since we are talking about the development of the education system, it must necessarily be planned, organized, controlled, lead. To grow, we need to use some experience, but changes occur when we make a transformational change — changing something completely.
- Higher education in Kazakhstan, [ER]. Access mode: http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus/participating_countries/
- Louis E. Boone, David L. Kurtz «Management» McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1992, p. 4–5.
- Bush T. Theories of Educational Management, 2nd edn, London: Paul Chapman Publishing, 1995, p. 5–6.
- Robert J. Marzano and Jana S.Marzano, Educational Leadership; 2003 September, 61, p. 6–13.
- Khadzhaeva Zh.B. Bull. of KarSU, 2015, 2 (78), p. 267–272.
- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): Dictionary.com, «leader,» in Online Etymology Dictionary. Source location: Douglas Harper, Historian. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/leader.02.2015.
- Rosemary K.C. Ryan, Leadership development. A guide for HR and training Professionals, Elsevier Ltd., 2008, 356
- Charlotte Danielson. Teachers as Leaders, 2007, 65, № 1, p. 14–19.
- Gunter, H. Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 2004, 25 (1): 21–41.
- Response: 'Schools Cannot Thrive' Without Teacher Leadership’, [ER].Access mode: http://.edweek.org 11.15