The article discusses the language and culture, as well as the main aspects in the study of speech etiquette in a situation of «treatment» in the context of different cultures and time periods. Significance due to the fact that the results of the study can be used in lectures and practical courses of cultural linguistics, intercultural communication, translation practice, as well as in special courses on the culture of speech and in the process of learning a foreign language. The relevance of the topic due to the increasing interest of linguists to the problems of language and culture, as well as the need to understand the place and role of applications, determination of ways and means of implementation of the reverse function, identify the characteristics of the circulation in the English language and the spread of the English language as a comprehensive approach to the study of requests in English and their classification should identify not only the language, but also to show the national-cultural traits, for example use cases.
The present study is devoted to a comprehensive description of the linguistic and cultural features of requests in the system of the English language and in English discourse.
Treatment is a specialized language feature that serves to organize human interaction and integrating of participants and the situation of communication into a single communicative act. In the linguistic literature it is noted that the appeal is used to draw the attention of the person to whom it is directed, cause him a certain reaction to the message or force him to commit actions dictated by the conversational situation . Additionally, the treatment involved in the orientation of the speech and at the same time in the social regulation of communication.
In the last decade linguistics slowly but surely turned the «face of life» exploring language as a tool of social interaction people. The social aspect of studying of the relation of man and his language gives a sense linguistic identity.
This linguistic unit as conversion to each other can be distinguished as indicator of social status of the speaker, his linguistic identity. Often the treatment shows o social signs saying, may indicate the nature of his occupation, degree of education, age, gender. An essential component of the social role is the expectation: what you expect from the surrounding of individual behavior in a particular social situation, what they may demand from him; he is obliged to meet these expectations. Roles can be determined, as the constant social characteristics of a person: his social position, profession, age, position in family, determined by the properties of the situation.
An appeal to the interlocutor is the most commonly used language unit, associated with etiquette signs. The appeal is fraught with a deep voice capabilities and abilities, as it not only calls the questioner, but characterizes it by some features, that is, has estimated-characterizing properties.
The relevance of the topic due to the increasing interest of linguists to the problems of language and culture, as well as the need to understand the place and role of applications, determination of ways and means of implementation of the reverse function, identify the characteristics of the circulation in the English language and the spread of the English language and as a Comprehensive approach to the study of requests in English and their classification should identify not only the language, but also to show the nationalcultural traits, for example use cases.
Study addresses one of the urgent problems of modern linguistics. As a specific contact-establishing means, the treatment constitutes one of the most commonly used speech units, both in English and other languages. As part of the speech etiquette, it is used in a variety of situations of communication used by people with very different social characteristics that are directed to different addressees.
The study of system calls is a specific tool for analyzing the culture of native speakers, as used by the representatives of various ethnic set of cases is a kind of mapping important from the point of view of ethnic psychology and cultural traditions of the characteristics of communication and situations of communication.
Finally, treatment carry significant communicative load, not only naming the addressee, but by installing and maintaining voice contact with the person, thus regulating the performance of the situation of communication in General and speech on the positions of partners, their social and personal relationships.
Direct link that exists between language and culture, inextricably, it is interrelated and interdependent. The existence of language as a phenomenon is impossible without culture, in turn; the existence of a culture is unthinkable without language. Language appears and as a repository of cultural values of the nation, and as a tool for the assimilation of these values. Both the language and culture are used to display the person's world and are symbolic systems. Condition of operation, both the language and culture is society. Both the language and the culture have similar social origin.
Non-identity of language in the presence of two or more national carriers has led linguistics to the recognition of the variability of such language, which in turn revealed the necessity of defining this system as the national variants of the language.
Language appears as a repository of cultural values of the nation, and as a tool for the assimilation of these values. The very existence of language as a phenomenon is impossible without culture. Culture cannot be inherited genetically, and to transmit eye to future generations you need a guide and as entering the language.
Especially spoken English. Professor Kachru proposes to divide the English-speaking population in three groups on three circles. The «inner circle» USA, Canada, UK, Australia and New Zealand. «Outer circle» countries are colonies of India, Singapore, Malaysia, and South Africa. Expanding circle China, Japan, Israel and Greece.
According to Crystal, the inner circle includes approximately 320-380 million native speakers, the outer circle is 150-300 million extending from 100-1000 million of his last books English as a global language about 670 million people are native English speakers.
English speech etiquette is important not only for the English but for all learners of English as a foreign language. English speech etiquette is original and has its own rules and regulations, which sometimes differ substantially from rules and norms of speech etiquette of another language. This leads to the fact that the very cultured Russian people may seem impolite among English if communicating with them in English, not fluent in English speech etiquette. Likewise, the English gentleman may seem impolite in communicating in the Russian language and Russian cultural, if he is not trained in the Russian speech etiquette .
Explain the existence of different levels of politeness and styles of speech examples. Suppose that the Englishman has stopped the clock, and he is forced to specify the time. Turning to his friend, the Englishman asked:
Polite to the familiar level of politeness, this question «What time is it?», sometimes at a neutral level of politeness, when the Englishman will turn to this issue not to the man, a stranger to passerby.
To the unfamiliar passerby should be treated with a polite request: Excuse me, could you tell me the time, please?
Sorry, you could not tell the time, please!
The polite request: «Excuse me, could you tell me the time, please?» corresponds to the neutral level of politeness and neutral style of speech, but the familiar level of politeness, in the family or friendly circle, please «Excuse me, could you tell me the time, please?» seems unnatural in tone or artificially inflated.
Features of the use of the personal pronoun «you».
In the Russian language to refer to one man used the personal pronouns «You» and «you». In modern English there are no special pronouns corresponding to the Russian «you». Values of Russian pronouns
«You» and «you're» combined in the personal pronoun «you». In the case, when speaking to one person, the English «you» is perceived as «You», when addressed to the person it corresponds to the official or neutral level of politeness, and is perceived as «you", if addressed to the person it corresponds to a familiar level.
In the old days in the English language, along with «you», used the pronoun «thou» (you).
In most cases the official form of address to a man, whose name is known, is the handling of names in combination with the words Mr., Mrs. and Miss.+ last name (surname), e.g. Mr. Smith, (Mr. Smith) – appeal to a man. Mrs. + her husband's surname, for example Mrs. Collins (Mrs. Collins) to appeal to a married woman. Miss. + maiden name, e.g., Miss. Harvey (Ms. Harvey) – an appeal to a single female.
In some cases, a formal appeal is made using the words Sir and Madam, a sometimes just by name (without combining it with the words Mr., Mrs. and Miss.).
According to Pankratova, M. V., «the treatment is directly related to the norms of speech etiquette as an inherent property of speech acts eye conversion eye targeted» . Playing an important role in interpersonal communication, handlings facilitate interaction between the speaker and the addressee and create a special communicative space. The appeal, according to the author, has the characteristics of the speech stereotype, as reproducibility in a fixed form, high functioning in speech, focus on clear organization and maximum success of communicative contact, i.e. treatment can be defined as etiquette speech unit that plays a primary role in interpersonal communication and creates a special communicative space.
A.M. Peshkovsky took the reference to words and phrases not constituting offer, nor their parts. Formally, the primary role of treatment is motivation that does not allow him to enter any part of the sentence in which it stands, in the connection approval, control or junction, and it remains, no matter what the prevalence of it may be achieved external to the proposal group.
A.V. Polonsky considers that the treatment represents abreast center offers. «A testy center of functionally and syntactically consistent with the nature of the determinant, which is a component of the semantic structure of the sentence and included in its grammatical structure as a spreading member associated with all of the proposals» .
Thus, after analyzing the views of various authors regarding the linguistic status of the case, we can conclude that the treatment is not an independent sentence expressing a complete thought or a full sentence.
A significant achievement of Russian and foreign linguistics the last 20-25 years is the interpretation of the national variants of the same language as the systems with the stability and perspective.
Under the variant of the literary language refers to a regional variety of a single standardized literary language. The colonial expansion of England in the 17th through 19th centuries led to the spread of English outside great Britain and has led to the emergence of some regional differences, mainly in vocabulary, to date, resulted in several relatively independent groups and sub-groups of the English language.
Thus, in further analysis we will be based on the definition of the option as regional varieties of a single standardized literary language.
The explanation of the etiquette of the situation requires a value-based comparison of alternatives, i.e... related to the notion of standards and assessment. Rules of etiquette are based on universal and idioethnic values
Etiquette as a behavior is a system of ways of maintenance of communication between people belonging to different companies. Ways etiquette communication etiquette due to the system and etiquette of the situation and out of context are empty of content. Ways etiquette of communication represent a formula of behavior’s, including several consecutive turns and interpreted in culture inherent in speech team.
Etiquette as the norm represents an interpretation of the cultural values of the society in good manners. Highlighted behavioral priorities inherent in different speech groups. The specificity of English etiquette is in the emotional-volitional self-control, traditionalism, the sublimation of conflict, reserved the knightly attitude to the game. Etiquette rules determine the space required and prohibited behaviors, and the degree of acceptable deviation from the canonical norms.
Hama also examined various approaches to the concept of «treatment», structural-functional features of applications, classification requests, taking into account linguistic status, situation, participants, and communication, as well as morphological and semantic characteristics of the applications.
In study it was noted that when considering the appeal only as part of the syntactic structure is not taken into account the huge number of occurrences of applications in diverse speech situations.
Systemic-structural properly not considered a social «recipient factor» that defines the specifics of the most numerous and diverse in the semantic, stylistic and communicative-pragmatic relations group handling treatment to the person (recipient / interlocutor).
Obviously, the semantic richness and diversity of functions of the appeal of man to man are not confined to the naming of the addressee and Euro attracts attention. It is necessary to study cases in communicatively-pragmatic aspect. The next section will discuss sociolinguistic factors in determining the choice of addresses British, American and Canadian versions of English.
In the process of building a dialogue when choosing the treatment must include such sociolinguistic factors as persistent social roles (age, social status); the symmetry / asymmetry of role-playing a situation; characteristic of the position of the addresser and the addressee, the formality/informality of the situation of communication; the degree of familiarity; the nature of the relationship communicate .
In any language, as well as in society, used a variety of options of applications that vary depending on the situation of communication.
To build efficient and effective communication it is important to choose the right form of treatment.
When you select cases, you must take into account a number of factors like: social status, rank, gender, age, family relations, hierarchy, professional, as well as the degree of closeness of Dating. In different forms of treatment you can use to show their respect and love is not against the interlocutor, or, on the contrary, insult.
Comparing treatment used in the 19th and 20th centuries in British English, we the conclusion that the beginning in 20.
Consider the treatment used in the beginning in 19. In British, American and Canadian versions of English. In D. Austen novel «Pride and prejudice» children, as a rule, turning to the parents, called them «sir»
Bennett Elizabeth, in whose character there was a lot of spontaneity and independence, sometimes calls Mrs. Benet «mother», but she more often uses the forms of «Madame» (ma’am).
In the novel of the same Jeffrey Farnol «money Moon" is observed less restraint in the use of requests when communicating with family and friends also that can be explained by the difference of interpersonal relations.
So, turning to the husband, the wife uses the following treatment:
«My dear, dear, brave Georgy!» said she, and would have kissed him, but he put her off (Farnol, 20).
«But, Georgy dear, fortunes are very hard to find, especially round, I'm afraid!» said she, with a Farnol, 25).
Having considered the treatment of used in Britain in the 19th century. It is possible to make following conclusions.
In the early 19th century there was a restraint in communication, so that children, as a rule, turning to the parents, called them «Madam» (Madam, ma’Am. sir). If relations were more close, that alone could be used for the treatment of «Papa», «Mama» (mom, dad), but the preference was given to official forms.
When referring to relatives in the 19th century was widely used words denoting relationship (uncle, aunt, my dear brother).
The US in the first half of the 19th century experienced a process of rapid development of market relations. Ha North-East of the country were rapidly growing factory industry, vigorously develop the farm. Ha West of the United States, there were a huge number of small farmers and independent artisans, constantly increased the use of hired labor. Increased flow of mass immigration to the US from Europe, which no opinion of ours, undoubtedly, influenced the development of language culture of the country.
So, consider the treatment used in America in the beginning in 19.
In the novel B. brown Talbot Jane" in the family same as in the British literature of the 19th century was dominated by the treatment of kinship degrees:
Oh, mother! Can such wines as it is always spot on heart is made of your gentle care? (Brown’s books).
«It is a subject, brother, on which it is impossible that we should think alike; (brown, e-book)
«Dear, dear brother, be always most kind and the most good, and I lay down my life for you» (brown, e-book).
Ho wife, addressing, did not use official forms, calling a friend not name or using an affectionate form of address:
«My heart, I believe you know, Harry, sport, simple toy, gratitude and compassion» (brown, e-book).
«And it will always be so, my dear?» (Brown, e-book).
«The best man, Henry, can you forgive me?!» (Brown, e-book). In Common circle of friends was the address my friend:
«Ah! my friend! Weak-very weak-being with Jan». (Brown, e-book).
«And it will always be so, my dear friend?» (Brown, e-book).
As for the development of Canadian literature, I should say that by the end of 90-ies of the 18th century, in fact there is a crisis. Closes leading literary and social journal «the Week». Many prominent writers in earnings are forced to emigrate to the United States and England.
Therefore, in the beginning-middle of 19. Canadian in prose basically exhausted the historical novel, and then «local lights» genre, meet the desire of some writers to preserve and strengthen the Christian and Patriotic values, which were put down about era of rapid industrialization and the triumph of monetary relations.
In Canadian literature the late 19th century, unlike the British and American, in both the studied used more varied forms of treatment, including the treatment itself, not the names, tender forms, and various variations in the naming of parents.
So, in the novels by S. Duncan «his honor and ladies» and journey of solace» when referring to parents used forms of father, mother, Mammy, Mammy, mom, dad, and dad.
In this subsection, we consider the treatment, used the beginning, middle and at the end of the 20th century British, American and Canadian versions of English.
In the beginning in 20. In Britain in informal situations of communication (family, friends) preference for the following forms of treatment.
In «Theatre» by S. Maugham Julia and her son Roger in the process of communication use the following address:
«It will do you good, mother. You look awfully exhausted» (Maugham, 134).
«Oh, my dear, it takes much more to make me angry. I promise you, I won't say a word» (Maugham, 88). He pulled away from her and went to the door. «Mama, Mama!» (Maugham, 178)
In the novels of British writer N. Hornby «My boy» and «hi Fi» written in the late 20th century, in the family discourse is mainly used for the treatment of Mum, dad:
«Mum, what sort of sick?» (Hornby, about a boy book).
«What about you, Mum?» (Hornby, about a boy book).
"Mum, how many more times, for Christ's sake? Laura didn't want to get married. She's not that sort of girl. To coin a phrase. That's not what happens now» (Horn by, About a Boy, e-book).
In fellowship in America in the mid-20th century was used for the treatment of fell, handling the names of, and the impersonal treatment:
The man lets the bonnet slam down and smiles over at Harry. «That's three-ninety on the gas, young fella»: the words are pronounced in that same heavy cautious crippled way (Updike, 130).
«To eat, Harry, to dine D, I, N, E. Rise, my boy. Aren't you hungry? Hunger. Hunger» (Updike, 127).
«Good girl, thank you» he says, and leads her into the bedroom (Updike, 94).
British literature, V. 21 represented in our work a novel D. Rowling's «Harry Potter and the philosopher's stone» with works by S. Kinsella «the Secret world of a Shopaholic», «Shopaholic and baby».
- Rowling's «Harry Potter» uses colloquial forms of references when describing family communication. So, Ron and Dudley when contacting parents often use abbreviated forms of treatment:
«Mom, can't I go…» (Rowling, 45).
«Dad!» said Dudley suddenly (Rowling, 134).
Parents often look to children's names, or use affectionate form of address:
«Ron, you've got something on your nose» (Rowling, 78).
In Canadian literature 21st century in family discourse used abbreviated forms of the references, calling the recipient by blood.
For example, to the parents:
«Goodnight, Ma. And Bugs, don't forget the Bugs. (Donoghue, the Room of 45)
«Where's Ma, Dad?» asked I. (Donoghue, The Room of 45)
«Hi to you, too, Mom» (Coup land, The Gum Thief, eBook).
Hi, Dad. I really love Maui Movie and today I found a clam. We had a swordfish for dinner last night. (Coupland, The Gum Thief e-book).
«Mom, I don't do bad stuff anymore. This was a fluke» (Coupland, all Families Are Psychotic, 34)
In family discourse when referring to parents, as well as in all the examined works of American authors 21st century, has been used for the treatment of Mom, Dad:
«Oh, hi, Mom» I mumbled, lapsing back into tired-voice mode. «I thought you were her» (Weinberger, 120).
«Oh, Dad. You shouldn't have!» I knew the board cost well over two hundred dollars. «Oh! I just love it!» (Weinberger, 129).
Treatment buddies were characterized by considerable diversity. It should be noted that these appeals are brighter, reflect the relationship between people.
«Hi, pumpkin, it's me» I'd say, propping the phone against my shoulder so I could start logging into Hotmail (Weinberger, 89).
«Hey, baby, I'll send one of the boys over right away. Is she there yet? «He asked, understanding that «she» was my lunatic boss and that she worked for Runway (Weinberger, 89).
They were replaced by lightweight, peculiar to American options for the treatment of ma, pa, which in our opinion, due to the consolidation of the status of U.S. as a world power, and with the advent of television, which in turn gave the opportunity to learn more information about the life and culture of people.
On the other hand, new forms of address mum/mummy, dad. Other forms of treatment to the relatives have not changed.
In communication people who are in friendly relations, became evident a lot of freedom, as is shown by the use of forms of address in conflict situations. So, in the 19th century, treatment was mainly neutral or wore soft character (you skulking little devil), while in the 20th century they become more rude (jerk) .
In addition, cease to be used for the treatment of friend, fellow, an increasing frequency of man and new forms: guys, boys, and lad.
Treatment of ma, pa, widely used in the United States in the 19th century, hardly used in the mid-to-late 20th century, They are replaced by the treatment mom/mommy, dad/daddy. Common appeal to the child becomes a form of kid.
There is a tendency to reduce, for example, in the treatment according to the degree of kinship (sis, gran).
The entry of the U.S. in the second half of 50-ies of the 20th century has been marked by shifts in economic and social development, due to the beginning of the technological revolution. It occurred against the background of demographic change and the further deepening of urbanization, with the result that there is a strong tendency to simplify words (http://www.bestreferat.ru/referat-23908.html).
Cultural peculiarities are also evident in communication between spouses. In the analysis, we drew attention to the use of the form of lady, with references to his wife in British English and in American woman that, in our opinion, demonstrates courtesy, self-esteem, as the leading features of British culture, and simplicity of American culture.
The relationship is seen more openness, communicants use non-standard forms of requests (chicken flower, lady bug), a tenderness is emphasized in the communication of words like angel, baby.
Thus, considering the use cases in the 20th century, we can conclude that the three English-speaking cultures are in constant interaction, which is reflected in the choice of forms of address used in an informal situation of communication.
The main reason was the advent and wide spread of television in the early 20th century It therefore becomes apparent the use of a specific set of treatment common to all the analyzed variants of the English language, as well as in family discourse and in the fellowship of friends. So, overall, the fellowship was to allow more freedom, so, along familiarity, also appearing ill-treatment .
In the early 20th century in Britain, the United States and Canada the common calls to parents to have the full forms mother, father and abbreviated ma, pa. Then, they are replaced by new forms.
To the father in all the countries began to turn dad, a mother varied depending on the language of culture: in British English mum, American mom, Canadian used both forms. This can be seen in the example described above, treatment to the child.
In reference to other family members it should be noted the appearance of shortened forms as well as the use of more diverse forms of communication spouses in American English. In Britain and Canada, the preference was given to use the traditional dear, darling, honey.
It should be noted that for the British variant of the English 19th-20th century typical was the treatment of Mama, Mum, and while in the 21st century use came Mom used in American English.
Analysis of literary works of the 21st century shows that the differences in the addresses British, American and Canadian culture almost erased. In addition, treatment brighter reflects the relationship between people and become more diverse. We associate this fact with the systemic nature of globalization, which covers all aspects of society and leads to interaction and interpenetration of different cultures. As you know, the popular international cultural phenomenon may displace national or turn them into international. Modern moves appear on the screen simultaneously in many countries of the world; books are translated and become popular with readers from different countries. A huge role in cultural globalization plays a pervasive spread of the Internet. In our view, are particularly susceptible to this process in close relation to linguistic and cultural community, which regional varieties of a single standardized literary language.
Summing up, it should be emphasized that language is inextricably linked with culture and history of the country.
British English can rightly be considered the ancestor of all available options. The American version differs from its ancestor in a number of aspects. Its development has long influenced the various cultures that comprise the American nation, and their language rules.
In the late 20th century American culture and American English is widespread because of number of reasons, which undoubtedly is reflected in the vocabulary of British and Canadian variants.
Canadian English is intermediate between British ("Oxford") and American options. And culture, and the English language in Canada throughout its development was strongly influenced as the British version (the progenitor), and the American version (the neighbor on the continent). Our research allowed to revealing and to analyze alternative differences in treatment.
Having examined the basic aspects of the study-treatment in the English language, as well as analyzing the use cases, depending on sociolinguistic factors and functions, we defined treatment as etiquette speech unit that plays a primary role in interpersonal communication and creates a special communicative space.
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