The most striking feature of the modern world clearly is his dynamic movement, and social change. The need for their understanding, including changes in the occupational structure of society are acutely aware economists, sociologists and philosophers. Study of occupational mobility is a great theoretical and practical interest. It plays an important role in the functioning of society. Through a generational change in the production and socialization of the individual.
In the sociological literature change social structures were only in the most common question. However, the problem of social mobility in General and its individual aspects have not yet received more or less fully developed. This applies to issues such as the scientific, technical and economic basis for occupational mobility, the relationship factor, the ratio of the social and functional in the social structure of social groups, mechanism of action of social mobility and its impact on the effectiveness of the work of employees. In conditions of industrially-innovative development of modern Kazakhstan to study not only external factors influence functioning and change the social mobility of workers, but also its internal mechanisms, improvements in training, methods of study.
Study mobility assumes the following:
- social mobility occurs between real social communities and specific social object determines the nature of the social movements;
- on social mobility should refer, where transfers are a number of characteristics between different positions in society: level of difficulty running, its content, remuneration, access to the material and cultural benefits of the various funds, the prestige, power, and volume orders of various forms of
- study of social mobility implies allocation groups, as well as positions that will be recorded movement of individuals. Mobility not to be considered as the key to understanding the social structure and social relations, but the reproduction of the past is the key to understanding
Social mobility of personality can be seen as a mechanism through which the consistency between occupational structure and other elements of the economic structure.
On the criterion of novelty are such kinds of socio-occupational mobility, as:
- from traditional professional direction to a new professional direction;
- one traditional destinations in other traditional direction;
- one new professional direction to another new professional direction;
- a new professional direction in the traditional professional direction.
According to the author, when examining the professional mobility of social groups in Kazakhstani society must follow:
- changes in the composition of the occupational groups of intellectuals;
- changes in the structure of the intellectuals;
- changing roles;
- developments in relations;
- changes in the
In the theoretical aspect of the study of social mobility in modern Kazakhstan society is divided into four kinds of accessibility-proper-territorial, housing, legal and language.
- Territorial availability is linked to the characteristics of urban and rural accommodation, level of urbanization territory, distances between The real access of the population of the region to urban resources strictly deterministic system of resettlement. For example, the average distance between the cities of Kazakhstan is 250-280 km. The average radius of service one city is greater than 100 km, reaching in some regions of 150 km. Therefore, large numbers of people in these regions almost isolated from urban resources.
- In modern conditions is becoming increasingly important factor in Translation on the paid basis for many services in the field of education, health, culture raises serious interregional contradictions. Many groups in the regions of Central Asia, Russia, Transcaucasia, Ukraine, simply cannot afford the substantial costs of medical care.
- Legal accessibility due to the fact that the establishment of departmental barriers makes problematic the attainment of social equity in the distribution of social wealth between regions and population groups within regions.
- Language accessibility is that the language of the production facilities and outside appointment seriously affects the real consumption of territorial resources. For example, language functioning media can significantly reduce the possibility of cultural and national groups of the other
As a result of the author of sociological research in 1999 and 2007-2009 years regions of Kazakhstan (950 respondents) identified features of social mobility.
Mostly vertical mobility professional groups of intellectuals in Kazakhstan is taking the input and output of social group. According to research from respondents subordinate social groups were in the Group of intellectuals 16.9%. Level of vertical mobility on average 15.5%. This layer of the commercial entities in the private sector. 10.6% fill the higher social groups. Level of horizontal occupational mobility among occupational groups at the beginning of Kazakhstan intelligentsia work 53.5% and 51.5% at the time of the survey. Therefore, the same level. Within the professional horizontal mobility is 22.9%. Part of the intelligentsia develops other occupations that match received a specialty. As secondary employment mainly on horizontal lines. But 2% of the respondents came from this group, which carried out the vertical professional mobility. If the level of vertical mobility at the start of the work is 20.2%, at the time of the survey of 24.3%. A tendency to increase vertical occupational mobili-ty within the labour market. Vertical occupational mobility pronounced among engineers (45.4 per cent), journa-lists (40.7%), military (28.5%), teachers (25.6%). Less is the trend among lawyers (8.1%) and doctors (10.4%). Consequently, these groups of high level horizontal occupational mobility. This group includes teachers and teachers. According to a survey of Kazakhstani intelligentsia mainly consists of people of this layer. 52.0% of the level of self-perpetuation intellectuals. Especially this trend prevails among respondents. Astana and Aktyubinsk oblasts. Entrance to this group gradually decreases. Only 17.9% of the respondents are from working families, 10.1% from peasant families. These data show that the trend towards exclusion groups continues to grow. Nature of the occupational mobility of intellectuals of the Kazakhstani society is defined by the following trends:
- go to several sections of the intelligentsia in the ranks of the workers, intellectuals, e. lowering of personal status (downward mobility);
- care of various sections of the intelligentsia in other social groups, e. the change of the profession as a result of bad choices or poor working conditions, etc. (vertical and horizontal, ascending and descending). For example, no more than 5-10% of people who work as intellectuals, moving then to other groups;
- representatives of other social groups in the sectors of intellectuals;
- self-reproduction intellectuals. Basically, this group is coming from a family of For example, the proportion of Kazakhstani intelligentsia is about 25% of the population and the proportion of children enrolled in universities, almost half of the students;
- reconciliation of occupational and professional mobility (between-and within occupational mobility);
- change place of residence associated with the change of profession (migration mobility). Regulate the professional mobility of intellectuals of Kazakhstan can be through:
- changing factors that lead to professional mobility;
- changes to terms and conditions of the transition to new
However, there are cases where education and qualifications make psychologically mobile and in certain border give him the best chance of getting other jobs, if they are many, i.e. the very possibility of displacement have relati-vely higher than the low skilled. It is not only about the objective, but subjective circumstances, such as the willing-ness of the worker to do more than simple hard or employer that high qualification perspective at this workplace.
Professional people associated with education, re education, requalification, i.e. the need to train. In this case, the value can have such a condition as the availability of funds for education, for the existence of the training period (if it requires on-the-job; important also willed the quality, ability to combine work and learning, some personal, family circumstances etc.).
At the same time, a number of factors influencing the development of professional mobility intellectuals, out- side production (sex, age, nationality, legal norms, climatic conditions, etc.). "Liberty mileage channels" professional mobility intellectuals of Kazakhstan include the availability of skills and capabilities and specific occupations.
Often horizontal and vertical mobility can mean the acquisition of new skills. According to the survey due to the acquisition of a new profession in other socio-professional groups 29.3% of the respondents. I.e. some Kazakh intellectuals seek to have new skills, improve the social status. In this group is dominated by middle- aged workers and young people. Occupational group level of satisfaction of new profession averaging 18.0%. Acquisition of new speciality or combining professions becomes a necessity in the marketplace. From the author of sociological research we are 4 groups of respondents. The first group of intellectuals is characterized by a high degree of self-identification with profession, i.e. they work very much. 63.4% of the respondents in this group. Intellectuals is characterized by serious conscious attitude towards the profession. In this group is dominated by lawyers (86.4%), doctors (78.2%), teachers (69.8%). The second group of respondents differed, however, that attitude to the profession at the secondary level, i.e. not really like the work. (18.4%) especially 22.2% engineers, 25.0%-20.0%-managers, economists, 57.1% of artistic intellectuals are not very satisfied with the chosen profession. This group is characterized by potential professional mobility. The third group of indifferent to the profession. (10%). a large percentage of indifference is teachers (19.1%), journalists (13.3%), engineers (12.9%). Low percentage are doctor So, the most striking feature of the modern world clearly is his dynamic movement, and social changes (4.3%), economists (6.6%), teachers (6.6%). So, the most striking feature of the modern world clearly is his dynamic movement, and social change. Study of occupational mobility is a great theoretical and practical interest. It plays an important role in the functioning of society. Through a generational change in the production and socialization of the individual.