At the turn of the XX and XXI centuries the Republic of Kazakhstan is in a situation of acute systemic crisis affecting all sectors of society, state and the individual that caused the search for innovative ways and means of exit The crisis in the Kazakh society urgently requires changing the entire system of values and functioning of political institutions, the urgent need of a democratic unitary transformation of Kazakhstan's statehood, search, and formation of qualitatively different subjects of social communication, a significant change in the essence and nature of activities and relationships, developing a new model of social choice that meets the needs of identity of Kazakhstan as a modern, strong, democratic state.
The prospect of bringing the country out of crisis, we associate with political modernization, which, like other modernization is inevitable and necessary.
Speaking of political modernization in general, it can be noted that this process is a powerful factor in consolidation, which is so necessary for modern Kazakhstan. In turn, consolidation – is a consent, based on a variety of operating and trust of political factors; cooperation and assistance of the parties and patriotic forces involved in political modernization; solidarity of views and positions of Kazakhstani citizens, aimed at the establishment and strengthening of Kazakhstan's government, based in the activity first of all, democracy, high spirituality and support of Kazakh citizens.
In the process of political modernization and consolidation of multinational Kazakhstan society is fragmented. Speaking of consolidation from the perspective of political science teaching, in our opinion, it would be correct to speak of political consolidation, as the basic level of political modernization of Kazakhstan's society in its value measurement.
The essence of the people’s political consolidation is determined, above all, a way of production of material goods, the type of industrial relations and civilization. Political consolidation of peoples is a specific law of development and bringing people closer together, due to the necessity of interaction of nations, peoples, tribes, national and ethnic groups, and states. В связи с этим следует сказать, что изучение данной проблемы является приоритетным и для Республики Казахстан. In this connection it should be noted that the study of this problem is a priority for the Republic of Kazakhstan. The President Mr. Nursultan Nazarbayev said: "I would particularly like to ask our experts, political scientists, scholars of social science. In my opinion, the problems of interethnic relations can and should be the key to your research. Society needs to be extremely precise characterization of the processes occurring in this area, not only in Kazakhstan but also throughout the world, knowledge of the possible prospects of becoming inter-ethnic relations." .
The sovereign, independent Kazakhstan has a population of 140 nationalities, overall size is about 16 million people. Its independence was recognized by around 150 countries, with the 120 countries diplomatic relations were established. Scientists project that by the end of the twenty- first century, our population will reach 50 million, and Kazakhs - 30 million. . Moreover, Kazakhstan is a unique state-centered of Eurasia and can become a kind of bridge between Asia and Europe, East and West, between the world religions, between the Slavic and Turkic peoples and etc.
In our opinion, it would be advisable to begin to consider the comparative aspect of the concept - "political consolidation" and "national consolidation". In turn, the national consolidation of its nature and content – is a specific historical phenomenon. It reflects the totality of social life of the nation, describing the content, level, and especially its spiritual development. This is a subjective images of the objectively existing factors of national life of the people. National consolidation, for example, representatives of the Kazakh people or other people is not generated by its individual members, as occurs in the collective consciousness of the national community and every individual in a variety of reasons may be manifested differently.
In this connection it should be noted that national consolidation – is a conscious, formed on the basis of common interests, merger, consolidation of the people in order to strengthen, intensify joint efforts to solve pressing problems, to achieve common goals.
The core and essential part of the national unity of the peoples is their political consolidation. Its object, the object of it is specific etiquette, its past, present and future role and place among other nations. For example, in the national consciousness of the Kazakh people recorded primarily related to other national entities, awareness, understanding of the similarities and differences of their own and others, for us and them. Refracted in the "I am" for each individual in his political consolidation, the real situation may be finding the correct or distorted reflection. Only the free non-scientific ideas, nationalist and chauvinist feelings, imbued with a genuine internationalism reflects the consolidation of the true national interests of the people.
Political consolidation of the Peoples of Kazakhstan is very dynamic and changing over time. Their political consolidation - is essentially the knowledge of his own essence, the system of representations of the people about himself. Political consolidation of Kazakhstan has a certain structure. Its structural elements include the recognition of national identity, national pride the best traditions of its people, its contribution to the development of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the progress of humanity, ethnic consciousness, national stereotypes, perceptions of the territory, culture, language, historical past and national interests, relation to other Populations
Thus, the political consolidation of the Peoples of Kazakhstan – is an awareness of national and Kazakhstan life: as an expression and reflection of aggregate socio-economic, territorial, cultural, ethno-linguistic characteristics of the national community awareness and assessment of the people themselves in the past and present, place and role in the progress of society as well as awareness of Kazakhstani people of another nation as an equal to his people and Kazakhstani relationship to other people as an equal
Political consolidation of nations is characterized by those traits, which manifests itself in the sphere of economy, culture, life, relationships (eg, language), the territorial dispersal of peoples, as well as within its sphere of consciousness - in the ideological field. It should, therefore, to distinguish the political consolidation of the nations as an independent against the will of some individuals and some of the political strategy.
A prerequisite for political consolidation was geographical exploration of the globe, the study of core areas of the planet and its peoples. On this basis, conditions for the development of international economic relations, international trade began to develop. Development of economic relations contributed to the formation of cultural ties, exchange of research activities, development of art.
Based on these objective processes of political consolidation of the people there is an ideological understanding of the international unity of mankind. Erasmus of Rotterdam supports the idea of humanism, the concept of unity of all peoples, Rousseau and the French enlightenment refer to the universal nature of all human beings as an argument of social equality and democratic development of society. We can say that the emergence of centralized states and the integration of certain grounds of their population increased the need for political consolidation of the peoples of the historical process.
In this respect the political consolidation of peoples is not only the past and present, but also describes, predicts features of the future. In this aspect, the political consolidation of nations, understood in terms of how the dialectical mechanisms can be described as a category of the historical process and predicting the future of some of the features in the life of nations.
Political consolidation that characterizes the uniqueness of life of specific people, appears: the language factor in the form of a single, common language. Political consolidation of nations - it's a way to survive, ensuring the continuation of their own kind, to preserve and promote the heritage that has been created by previous generations in all its diversity, and on this basis, to protect it from self-destruction and self-destruction of mankind. Preservation and development of people's own ethnicity can not be achieved by staying within the strict limits of nationalism or mankurtizm, cosmopolitanism. The movement of human history in the direction of achieving unity in diversity is possible only on the basis of allegations in the relationship between the peoples of the principle of political consolidation, which avoids violence and coercion on ethnic grounds.
Political consolidation of the peoples in the period of political modernization, along with democracy, human rights and freedoms is the core of the system of basic values of the new social order sought by Kazakhstan. By its parameters as it relates to the values of humanism in full, because orients people, regardless of their ethnicity, the co-existence, the common goal is not at the expense of each other, and together, on the basis of mutual understanding and constructive cooperation.
Political consolidation of nations is a system of value relations, the object of which is external to the subject of an ethnic phenomenon - a set of elements of economic and political content. Obviously, the system of ethnic entities, retain and develop the integrity and unity of society, serves the criterion value relations that serve the interests of the social whole. This is the categorical nature and value content of political consolidation of nations.
Political consolidation of peoples reveals itself through the human relations in various spheres of social life. The economic substance of political consolidation of the peoples is expressed: first, the common concern of citizens of various nationalities in the augmentation of national wealth; secondly, the development of material and technical foundation of the state; thirdly to establish such a relationship would preclude discrimination, the division people based on ethnicity in the field of management.
The political content of political consolidation of the people is the foundation that ensures the functioning and development of a democratic society, equality before the law, manifests itself through the socio-economic and political stability, civil peace, mutual understanding and cooperation among the various national entities.
In the spiritual and moral aspects in the process of political modernization, political consolidation of peoples reveals itself through extensive networking of national cultures, their mutual enrichment and mutual comprehension inclusion of subjects mutual communicative the spiritual values of each other, the formation of spiritual communion, which can adopt in relations between people of trust and openness, open-mindedness and respect, leading to overcome the existing negative stereotypes.
Thus, the political consolidation of the people as a type of social behavior and communication of ethnic peoples can be structured in the unfolded form, highlighting its main features:
- the existence of common philosophical grounds, common historical destinies, communicating spiritual closeness of the peoples;
- achieve genuine understanding is not only in understanding other ethnic entity, but also his relationship to himself as an equal partner in Understanding is always mutual, and it is reciprocal;
- creating conditions and opportunities for mutual exchange and continuous constant in all spheres of Political consolidation of nations - it is not mutual adaptation to changing situations or changes in behavior under the influence of certain external requirements. Political consolidation – is a process consisting of a consecutive series of interactions and exchanges, on the basis of what is a deep understanding of identity and community actors to each other;
- seek for opportunities for common interests mutual communicative ethnic entities. Political consolidation of nations does not mean full harmonization of the interests of ethnic entities, but excludes the use of violence towards them, leading to mutual correction, both the interests and the ways and means to achieve them;
- achieving adequacy mutual appreciation mutual communicative ethnic entities. The highest level of political consolidation implies the coincidence of the peoples not only systems of social, political, ideological, spiritual and cultural values, but levels of mutual evaluation of relations of mutual sympathy and respect traditions, customs, values, behaviors of all;
- formation of political consolidation of nations – is a
The above mentioned signs are kind of measurement parameters of the political consolidation of nations, they are values that have a constant value for the formation of social and ethnic behaviors, characterized by mutual understanding and a desire to cooperate with people.
Consequently, during the period of political modernization in its value measurement key factor in socio-economic and political development of Kazakhstan's multi-ethnic society is a political consolidation of the Peoples of Kazakhstan, which, in turn, has highlighted the important task of strengthening national security, political stability and its democracy. The successful solution of problems arising from a complex period of development of Kazakhstan's statehood, the transition of the republic to the market economic relations, the beginning of democratic changes, required the adoption of measures aimed at economic and social consolidation of the peoples of Kazakhstan's society in general.
- Nazarbayev N.A. “For peace and harmony in our house” // Kazakhstan March, 25, 1995.
- Arguments and Facts – №40. – – С. 7.