After disintegration of the USSR in territory of the Central Asia within the limits of borders of the former union republics it was formed five sovereign states – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Any of them is never independent in such kind existed. In the past the given region represented set of local areas not coinciding absolutely not neither with political, nor with ethnic borders of modern republics.
Therefore it is possible to say with confidence that the Central Asia is rather recently arisen international region which yet has no accurate and internally consistent system of the international institutes and the organisations, after all delimitation of the Central Asia is influenced in own way by each of large extraregional international factors (Russia, the USA and EU states, China, India, the Islamic countries). The states Central Asia region enter in or actively co- operate with the regional international organisations representing absolutely different regions of the world:
Russia and the post-Soviet territory (the CIS, ОДКБ, EvrAzEs); Europe (OSCE, "Partnership for Peace" and programs of cooperation with the separate states of the NATO, the program of technical and economic assistance of EU); the Islamic world (ЭКО, ОИК); and the countries of East Asia (the program of economic cooperation and transport integration) etc. Thus, a parity of the forces having interests in the Central Asia, it is possible to present China in the form of a parallelogramme which one party is made by Russia, the second – China, third – the Islamic world, the fourth – the West.
Hence, the urgency of given article consists that economic cooperation of the countries Central Asia region is defined by importance and perspectivity on many both sociopolitical, and to economic reasons.
So, the Tsentralnoaziatsky region has the richest stocks mineralno-raw and vodno-power resources that predetermines necessity of deepening of integration interaction of the countries of region for real sector of economy. Besides, the states of the Central Asia possess the huge transit potential which effective utilisation becomes the important factor in formation of a global communication infrastructure of region. The countries of the Central Asia have all conditions for a sustainable development, increases of competitiveness of national economies, formations in the long term a common market of the goods and services and successful occurrence in the world community.
Necessary condition of realisation of the specified possibilities is deepening of integration interaction Central Asia the states, carrying out of the co-ordinated economic policy, interaction in struggle against terrorism, extremism, narcobusiness.
It is obvious that the economic sphere in regional cooperation acts as the base of interaction of the countries of the Central Asia. In this connection the actual meaning is got by working out of the mechanism of deepening of integration interaction of the countries of the Central Asia both in political, and in economic spheres. In the conditions of integration into the world community it is represented to accurate strategy of interstate interaction of the countries necessary development Central Asia region for the purpose of formation in the long term uniform economic space. The basic priorities in this sphere now are questions of formation of the general power market, interaction of transport complexes and development of transit potential. Actual there are also problems of an effective utilisation of water resources, increases of efficiency of irrigated agriculture and introduction of modern technologies in agriculture . The decision of the specified problems consists, first of all, in carrying out of the co-ordinated economic policy by the states of the Central Asia.
In this context of special attention latest developments in sphere of integration CAR deserve:
- the decision on integration of the Organization of Tsentralnoaziatsky cooperation (OCAS) in the Euroasian economic community (EvrAzEs);
- the decision on acceptance in EvrAzEs of
It is quite probable that in the near future we become witnesses of one more association – Uniform economic space (ЕЭП). It is quite realizable, as ЕЭП has the same purposes, as well as EvrAzEs. Thus, the integration tendency Central Asia the countries, carried out with a view of progress of all region and movable, first of all, is traced by national interests of integrated republics.
Integration is carried out within the limits of activity of such associations, as ШОС (the Shanghai organisation of cooperation), EvrAzEs (the Euroasian economic community) .
As it has been noted above, the Central Asia rather perspective and dynamically developing region having rich natural resources and the big tranzitno-transport potential. The neighbourhood with Afghanistan, the countries of Southern Asia, Near and Middle East defines its geopolitical importance. Events of last time have shown interest of the leading states of the world in cooperation with the countries of this region. The increased economic and political possibilities allow Kazakhstan to play more active and a weighty part in regional integration processes. The central Asia already became the important subject of modern geopolitics. During the informal summit which has taken place in September, 2006 in Astana, presidents of Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan have expressed aspiration to develop all-round regional cooperation, In common to solve vodno-power, transport, migratory questions. Considering the high indicators of social and economic development which are available investment possibilities, Kazakhstan is ready to promote the accelerated development of all countries of region, actively to participate in common market formation, to support all directions of integration – creation of the branch consortia, special frontier zones of trade, joint holdings and investment structures. Activity of Kazakhstan in sphere of regional cooperation, readiness to take up additional duties and responsibility are dictated by sincere aspiration to use potential of this region for the good of all people occupying it .
Now it is possible to speak about the developed policy of the centres of influence concerning the states of the Central Asia and their integration interaction both in economic, and in political intervention in the given region. So, for example, the USA aspire to counterbalance economic penetration into the Central Asia military-political presence, China is fixed in region by means of mechanism SHOS, Japan stakes on dialogue development «the Central Asia + Japan», and the republic Korea attaches important significance to presence in region of economically active Korean diaspora.
In this connection we will notice that the divergence of interests of the USA, Russia and China in relation to Central Asia is appreciable integration. The USA it is too long critical enough concerned formation in the Central any Asia regional associations. An overall objective of activity of the United States in this area would be to lead to revival of neoimperial ambitions of great powers. Consistent policy carrying out on reorientation of interests of Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova and of some other states of the post-Soviet territory on partnership with the West in certain degree promoted easing of a position of Commonwealth of the independent states. The United States support processes of expansion of trade and economic relations between the states TSAR and deepenings of regional integration in such areas as preservation of the environment, security water resources and development of the transport system, putting a basis for regional safety.
In the regional policy China pays increasing attention to republics of the Central Asia. This region has special value for Beijing and from the point of view of country safety, and as the major source of deliveries of hydrocarbons, and as the extensive market for sale of own production. The special place is taken away to relations with Kazakhstan.
Europeans three things interest in the central-Asian region:
- a diversification of power streams to be independent of Russia;
- the decision of historical and ethnic conflicts - the important factor for turn of Europe to the central-Asian region and including to the CIS countries;
- questions of values of democracy. Europe wishes to transport the values as she is proud of the liberal model of democracy in all regions of the
The big question – values of democracy in the Central Asia will be perceived how much. If values of Europe are perceived here as cynicism EU here will be powerless, something to undertake, but if all is conducted cultural enough with sufficient mutual understanding, diplomatically the central-Asian states can win much from it. It is important to notice that Europe now prepares new strategy of EU on the countries of the Central Asia for the six-year period to fix the interests and the purposes in region, and also mechanisms of their realisation.
The particular interest for Russia is represented by the Central Asia (some kind of «a sanitary cordon»), protecting its southern flanks. The central Asia and Kazakhstan is an irreplaceable source of valuable natural resources for needs of the Russian economy, especially for the Russian military-industrial complex. The central Asia is a region to which it is possible to direct investments and to receive from them effective return. From this point of view as experts mark, strong, uniform and independent Central Asia representing powerful geopolitical region is not so necessary to Russia. Russia the Central Asia as basically arranges the crisis region requiring the manager, in the external managing director. Russia the situation at which the states of the Central Asia develop with it mutual relations is favourable enough, and in case of occurrence of interstate conflicts – appeal to Russia as to the unbiassed arbitrator. The Russian experts appeal to region heterogeneity, to struggle for regional leadership, to distinction of models of the economic and political development added to the arsenal by the states of region. As a result they come to a conclusion that integration is desirable, but is impossible. Behind this conclusion the actual unwillingness to deal with uniform region is covered.
As a whole, it is possible to assume that in historical prospect economic well- being of the central-Asian countries will depend on stability of adjacent powers. Only this factor can provide uninterrupted operation of trading streams on overland communications, and it is, apparently, the most serious argument in advantage теснейшего cooperation of the former Central Asian Soviet republics. Obviously, as in foreseeable prospect such factors, as presence in the countries of the Central Asia of a complex raw-material base of the minerals adjusted by system pipeline and other types of transport will affect; adaptedness of market conditions in the countries of the Central Asia to a supply and demand on взаимопоставляемые the goods and services; interest in preservation of cooperation and technological communications, first of all in power and on transport, for the purpose of preservation of viability of the created before and focused objects created before on teamwork.
Summarising all aforesaid it is possible to draw a conclusion that the regional integration, the organised association into the regional unions – a way, first of all, an economic survival, consolidation of the states and simultaneously preparation and the adaptation to conditions of the world competition, the world standards of quality and consecutive occurrence in the world integration. Any national economy cannot remain competitive in the world market without real integration as a part of this or that region. Thus not states and the companies, and regional political- economical groupings will be the basic operating subjects in this market. At last, an integration essence is formation of closely bound economic enclaves, i.e. connection of all cycles of economic activities in a single whole, on an example Central Asia integration.
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