To create the current situation in the Kazakh market of tourist services urgently requires coordination. First of all, because, in spite of the huge tourist potential, Kazakhstan is a country with a low level of inbound and outbound tourism. The necessary conditions for the successful development of domestic tourism in Kazakhstan during the financial and ecological crisis are the formation of quality tourism product, development of strategies to promote domestic tourism product in the Kazakh market, proven methods of advertising and information policy, a system of vocational training, investment in the development of tourism infrastructure. In addition, it should be noted that to date tourist industry is not efficient: the infrastructure is worn out and slowly reconstructed, in underdeveloped regions of the conditions for the development of the tourism market, dominated by monopoly and outdated management practices as a result the high price of services at low service.
Dynamism and originality of the changes in society and the economy of Kazakhstan during the global financial crisis, demand a creative rethinking of many fundamental and applied problems of the economy. Among these is the problem of effective management of individual sectors of the economy that are in direct proportion to the global trends of this kind of activity.
Market of tourist services, as one of the most dynamic sectors of the world economy, has a stimulating effect on the development of related industries: transport and communications, construction, agriculture, consumer goods, estimated significant multiplier effect, acts as a catalyst of social and economic development, both directly and indirectly improves the quality of life of the population .
At the same time, to create the current situation in the Kazakh market of tourist services urgently requires coordination. First of all, because, in spite of the huge tourist potential, Kazakhstan is a country with a low level of inbound and outbound tourism . The necessary conditions for the successful development of domestic tourism in Kazakhstan during the financial and ecological crisis are the formation of quality tourism product, development of strategies to promote domestic tourism product in the Kazakh market, proven methods of advertising and information policy, a system of vocational training, investment in the development of tourism infrastructure. In addition, it should be noted that to date tourist industry is not efficient: the infrastructure is worn out and slowly reconstructed, in underdeveloped regions of the conditions for the development of the tourism market, dominated by monopoly and outdated management practices as a result the high price of services at low service.
Thus, the main task of the state under current conditions the establishment in Kazakhstan and highly competitive tourist complex providing ample opportunities to meet Kazakhstan and foreign customers in a variety of tourist services. In addition, the main tasks of the state in this area are to develop strategies of tourist activities, identify areas of development, encouraging the development of hotel-and tourism complex (including by funding promising tourist programs), an appropriate economic policies, agreements with other states to create better conditions for the development of economic relations.
Function of the state in the process of creating a modern regulatory mechanism tourism market has a dual character. On the one hand, interested in improving the state of the economy should stimulate market relations in the tourism sector as more favorable to improve its competitiveness. On the other, given the fact that the market is not able to solve many arisen now social, and environmental problems the state to counteract the absolute market relations in this sphere. The solution to this problem, of course, requires a scientific basis. Need to develop a systematic methodology that supports the functions and processes of management of the tourist complex and involves the collection and analysis of information, planning and forecasting, development of control actions and regulatory procedures.
Among the latest world trends in tourism industry occupies a special place the concept of sustainable development. The concept of sustainable development provides an opportunity to resolve the growing conflict between the need to meet the growing needs of tourists, leading to the rapid development of tourism, and the limited number of natural, social, and economic resources of the host destinations in the deteriorating ecological environment. The sustainable development of the tourism services now extends to a number of priority issues in the world of tourism management.
A distinctive feature of the tourist complex in Kazakhstan include the fact that the resort was originally the dominant industry in the Kazakhstan tourism, it is the most widespread network of rest and most powerful material base. In addition, the spa industry has been put on a scientific basis in the field of systematic study and protection of natural medicinal resources, and the organization of patient care in the resorts.
Recent changes in the economic and political situation in Kazakhstan led to the need for structural changes in many areas of economic activity, as well as system management. Directional influence of the state on the development of tourism market, is important for the economy of the different regions of the country. In addition, the restructuring of the market of tourist services, carried out in recent times, requires a different approach from the government. That is why the attraction of tourist flows in the different types of tourism has become one of the main objectives of development planning recreational areas of Kazakhstan.
Due to the fact that the promotion of Kazakh tourist services on the international market, as well as attracting foreign investment in the development of domestic tourism infrastructure is complicated by the current economic and political situation in the country and the world at large, it is advisable to send the main effort is to develop domestic tourism. Given the fact that the volume of outbound tourism continue to be high, and, indeed, even in a global financial crisis, slightly reduced, it can be argued that a well-developed domestic tourism will cost no less favorable than the entry, as Kazakh tourists are known around the world are considered the most wasteful. That is why, today, the main task of government agencies that regulate development of the tourism industry, is a reorientation of Kazakhstan tourists in the domestic market and, hence, the development of domestic tourism resources, one of the most important of which is the ability to obtain high-quality recreational services. For the development of domestic tourism to attract the attention of Kazakh citizens, above all, to the unique natural resources of the country, as this is the main advantage of Kazakhstan's recreation.
Thus, the concerns of the domestic tourism market today are:
- overpriced tickets to Clinics;
- insufficient range and low quality of services provided to domestic Clinics;
- not comparable with foreign health institutions infrastructure and physical infrastructure;
- insufficient efforts to promote regional tourism products to the domestic tourism market;
- destruction of the mechanism of regulation of tourism, on a well-functioning domestic
In recent years significantly increased the demand for statistics on tourism. This is due primarily to the rapid development of the tourism industry, increasing its role in the economy and the social sphere. The presence of a full statistical information creates the conditions for the development of effective public policy in the field of tourism, making appropriate decisions in the field of tourism and hospitality industry, enhance the investment attractiveness of the country.
As is known, the source of official information on tourism statistics is Statistics Agency. It should be noted that the result of the active collaboration of the Department of Tourism and Statistics Agency for the past few years has been a significant improvement of the forms of statistical monitoring. However, to date the most complete information on the statistics agency comes only in terms of inbound and outbound tourism flows, as well as data on the volume of paid services provided by travel agencies and hotels. Internal tourist traffic is not subject to statistical reporting Statistics Agency, as well as data on tourist expenditure and assess the role of tourism in the economy of the country .
The absence of such full data has long been a problem in the planning of activities for the executive power in the sphere of tourism, and for the tourist industry. To remedy this unfortunate situation of tourism in 2007 was developed and approved program of domestic tourist traffic directed then to the regions in order to use all the subjects of Kazakhstan uniform method of calculating these critical indicators. The first data obtained as a result of the Program, have shown its timeliness and the need to address the comparability and reliability of information in different regions /3/.
Current status of state regulatory tourism is characterized by the following trends:
- the development and implementation of legal provisions aimed at improving the security and efficiency of protection of rights and legal interests of consumers of tourist product, the quality and safety of tourism;
- increasing economic (financial) liability of persons engaged in tourism activities, violation of civil obligations, and as a consequence, increase transparency, stability and investment attractiveness of the tourism business;
- emergence of legislation governing the classification and standardization in the various segments of tourism industry (accommodation facilities, beaches, ski resorts, );
- Development of legal and regulatory framework in the field of tourism security;
- a legal framework of self-regulation in the tourist market, including the rapid development of standard-setting self-regulated organizations (associations (unions), tour operators, banks and insurance companies);
- A comprehensive legal and regulatory framework in the field of tourism, including the large number of "tourist norms" in the legislation related to the tourism industry of the Law (hereinafter related legislation);
- development of regional law-making in the field of tourism and its unification;
- harmonizing the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the European Union law, the laws of the Commonwealth of Independent States and other
The problem of formation and implementation of state tourism policy is relevant and objectively necessary for Kazakhstan in the new economy. Increased state regulation of recreational activities should contribute to the promotion of the Kazakhstan tourist product in the international market and the quality of tourist services. Consequently, the state policy in the field of tourism should create conditions and guide the development of tourism and other economic sectors aimed at the tourist market.
- 1 Квартальнов В.А. Туризм. – М.: Финансы и статистика, 2002.
- 2 Ердавлетов С.Г. География туризма. – Алматы, 2000.
- 3 Статистические данные: [Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа URL: www.stat.kz – (Дата обращения 17.01.2013).