Due to the intensification of the contradictions in the dynamics of labor relations between employers and employees and the actual devaluation of the social protection of workers currently pressing issue is the regulation of social and labor relations. The article deals with the regulation of social and labor relations, aimed at providing enhanced (with quality increments) the reproduction of the labor potential of individual employees and companies need to ensure improvement in the quality of products, its competitiveness and economic indicators of economic agents.
Great changes have taken place in the content and structure of labor relations. Many workers have come to feel insecure, both the employer and the state. Trade unions as representatives of workers in the tripartite system do not actually able to protect their rights. The conflict in production sphere and in the entire system of developing relationships is worsened.
These are: first, the contradiction between resource failure and the need for swift and dramatic introduction with fundamentally new parameters in enterprises: a large-scale renovation of fixed assets, reorganization of internal management and external production and economic relations, changes in the quality parameters and quantitative relations staff.
Secondly the contradiction between the requirements for social and productive systems which is imposed by market economy, and stereotypical social expectations of the staff developed in the Soviet era.
In addition, the following contradictions were intensified in the structure of labour relations; contradiction between the demands and outdated approaches to harmonize the real interests of production; between the need for a permanent operational control of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the staff and outdated approaches to employees motivation; between the need to optimize the formal officials units and informal social relationships between individuals; between the requirements of market competition based on the reality of the system performance of labor relations.
These contradictions need to actualize the theoretical development and implementation of social management technologies of social and labor relations in practice.
Thus, the relevance of research topic due to: first, the intensification of the contradictions between employers and employees and the actual devaluation of the social protection of workers; second, the differences between social and professional expectations of the workers and the actual state of the production and social infrastructure and the actual requirements of the professional production of the labor market.
Conceptual assumptions of the issues in the world of sociological and economic science are formulated by V.A .Alien, M. Weber, T. Hobbes, J.T.Dunlop, R. Dahrendorf Emile Durkheim, G. Koula, V.I .Lenin, N. Luhmann, Marx, J. Mill, T. Parsons, J.J .Rousseau, P.A. Sorokin, A. Sutherland, G. Tarde, F. Taylor, P. Sztompka, Engels, D. Hume, Karl Jaspers, and others . In the works of these scholars are considered general methodolog.al issues of the essence of human society, the need to optimize the relationship between people in the different social groups, and the mechanisms of this optimization. Special attention is paid to research these professionals the fundamental problems of productive labor, social resources to enhance its efficiency and work motivation.
The essence of the content and specificity of social relations, the criteria and reasons for their differentiation from other types of social relations with different theoretical positions are studied E.M. Babosov, N.M .Bagnovskoy, V.A .Zubarev, E.E. Karpinsky, J.E. Volkov, N.V. Ivchenko, A.S. Carmine N, V.Y. Barkov, Y. Kotsyubinskaya, L.V. Orlova, G.I. Osadcha, M.N. Perfilev, E.I Khlostova and etc.
Different types of relationships between people involved in making employment in the manufacturing and non macro-, meso-and mikro labour systems are analyzed in the works of V. V. Adamchuk, E.V. Boikova, J.E. Bulygina, E.I. Vorozheykina, V.I. Gerchikova, N.I .Gorin, A.A .Dikareva, S.E. Maikova, M.I. Mirskoy, A.K Zaitseva, E.P. Zaymalina, L.I .Yevenko, L.V. Karta§ova, N.E. Kolesnikov,
R.P. Kolosov D.Zh. Markovic, G.G. Melikyan, N.B. Nazarova, A.E. Neretina, Nikonov, D.V. Okuneva, V.D. Popov, T.O. Strawnidina, V.A. Spivak, A.P. Fomin, S.F. Frolov and etc. These authors examine specific issues need to build interaction between the subjects of labor relations through constructive dialogue, careful matching their interests. Problem of the influence of human behavior to the economic efficiency and social functioning of the enterprise are also in the focus of these scholars
Social and labor relations in abroad enterprises are investigated in domestic and published in Russian foreign works of such scientists as; R. Ackoff , Eric Berne, P. Weil, N.A. Volgin, M. Grachev, John (Jr.) Grayson, Z.A. Grunt, E.R. Zimenkova, V. Iglina, X. Inohary, M. Kornilov, G.M. Costjunina , F. Kotler,G.St. Mill, G. Myrdal, O. Dell, T. Peter, V.D. Royko, R.S. Smith, R. Waterman, J.M. Hiltropa, R.J. Ehrenberg , H. Armstrong, T. Burns, J.A. Kleg, G.D. Green, HFlema, R. Hyman, R.P. Putman, X. Reddish, I. Valershtayn. In these studies, the authors focus on the specifics of the capitalist approach to the management of social development and construction of the social and labor relations system in industrial enterprises.
In these studies, the authors focus on the specifics of the capitalist approach to the management of social development and construction of the systems of social and labor relations in industrial enterprises and the transition to a post-industrial society. Social responsibility of the entrepreneur, the mechanisms of collective and individual motivation to work effectively, and the ambiguous role of the state in ensuring the various actors of the production occupy a central place.
As one of the most important concepts of any socio-labor system, the motivation of human activity, including socially useful work, many scientists stands out requiring special study area within the perspective of the production of social control and management of social and labor relations. For example, in the works of K. Alderfera, Herzberg, D. McClelland, Maslow are studied human needs as the main endogenous (internal) factors of labor motivation. In studies of S. Adams, W. Vroom, K. Levin, E. Locke, E. Lawler, L. Porter focuses on the analysis of the dynamics of the process of motivation, development of mechanisms of targeted exogenous (outside) encourage individuals and groups to optimal dedication necessary to achieve the objectives of the control subject.
The features of modern Russian system of labor relations are analyzed in the works of R.L. Agabekyana, N.E. Andreev, V.E. Boikova, M.P. Bocharov, V.I. Verhovina, M.H. Garcia-Iser, C.J. Glazyev, L.A. Gordon, M.K. Gorshkov, V.I. Zhukov, V.N. Ivanov, A.M. Katsvy, E.P. Sigareva, G.E. Slezingera, J.T. Toshchenko, G.R. Khasaev, R.G. Janowski and others.
Social partnership as the modern Russian regulatory mechanism in organization of labor relations at various levels are investigated in works F.I. Gainullina, V.M. Kiselev, S.I. Kubicki, K.G. Kazimov, V.A .Mikheev, V.G. Smolkovy, L.D. Chernyshova, C.J. Chuchey, S.N. Shcheglova and etc.
However, despite the growing scientific interest of domestic and foreign researchers the theoretical and empirical aspects of the regulation of social and labor relations aren’t tended. The concept, methods and methodology for studying the specificity of social and labor relations in the modern Russian industrial enterprises, mechanisms of social regulation of these relations in the impossibility of a fundamental change aren’t developed.
T he introduction of new parameters and their functioning in the long term, the mechanisms of social control to optimize the system of labor relations are the most relevant, forward-looking and affordable means of social economy essence of our state.
Qualitative and quantitative features of the development of social and labor relations in the modern Russian industrial enterprises and public transport engineering can be attributed. Among the first: a combination of multi-level, multi-directional and non linearity of the considered relations with the spontaneity and passivity of the participation of employees, their low interest in the affairs of the company. Among the latter: the dominance of involvement of employees in operational needs, forms of social and labor relations on the amount of involvement in the relationship, by the nature and operation of the business, but having a "public" color . Among their concerns are the relative values of qualitative and quantitative methods, of using primary and secondary data. The primary data is a combination of multi-level, multi-directional and non-linearity of the considered relations and low interest in the affairs of the company. Secondary is the dominance of involvement of employees in needs.
Special attention should be paid to the analysis of the specifics of actually existing approaches and factors of the two levels: conceptual and practical. Among the first: the widespread consideration of the social and labor issues as minor and not directly related to the production. Among the latter: the negative attitude to the existing employees in enterprises "unfair" system of material incentives; inequality amounts actually received by them in corporate benefits and advantages, low interest of the majority of workers in the affairs of the company; excessive bureaucratization established in enterprises management systems, lack of system software environment for professional development and self-realization.
The author suggested and substantiated mechanisms and instruments of social and regulatory to optimize the system of labor relations in industry, and to overcome the factors of their development degrades. Among them: the concept of adoption and implementation of management decisions, which implies the creation of specialized centers to ensure the replacement of the practice of making production decisions (such as primary in relation to social secondary), the practice of evidence-based socio-technical decision-making; transformation of traditional teams, based on a rigid functional specialization workers in autonomous teams , a free combination of vertical and horizontal job functions, modernization of the pay system, a gradual transition to the updated contract system, improvement of the existing systems in enterprises, transformation technologies account for various characteristics of potential workers in their employment, democratization of labor relations, development of comprehensive programs coordinated work of existing businesses in the states of sociologists, ecologists, engineers, security, psychologists, fire safety inspectors and etc.
Regulation of social and labor relations, aimed at providing enhanced (with quality increments) the reproduction of the labor potential of individual workers and businesses as a whole, together with other measures, modernization of industrial production systems should ensure improvement in the quality of products, its competitiveness and economic indicators of economic agents. This, ultimately, will provide the basis for the formation of the acceleration of social and economic growth in our country, will steadily improve the welfare of its citizens, how it is defined in Article 7 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
General (universal) model of labor relations should serve as a reference point, the ideal prototype for the design of optimal parameters of social and labor relations for the modernization of the existing facilities.
Building a common model involves identifying ethno features (linked to the traditions, the specific culture, mentality), global trends (humanistic paradigm of management) development of social and labor relations, description of levels and forms of existence of the relationship, the horizontal and vertical linkages between them and the factors, methods, and principles of modeling, compulsory registration which will ensure the success of the practical implementation of the theoretical model of the company.