Development of the sovereign Republic of Kazakhstan, the developing new world outlooks in society demand from domestic social science of development of new conceptual decisions and approaches to an assessment of the past and the present, the critical analysis and reconsideration of scientific heritage in the field of historical knowledge.
After gaining independence Kazakhstan, the people easily revived in memory all events of the XX century, including connected and with the movement «Alash». As a result of intensive scientific research became possible objectively to define a role and a place of the movement Alash in the history of national liberation fight of the Kazakh people and to restore historical justice in an assessment of activity of the government of Alash-Orda. The movement Alash is the epoch-making phenomenon. Its activity, ideas, programs laid the fundamental foundation to formation of national statehood.
The movement «Alash» is the first intellectual movement in the history of the Kazakh people which was supported by it, and a crucial role, of course, here was played by the national intellectuals who gave to this process focus. On the level the movement «Alash» is similar with the national liberation movements of the beginning of the XX century in Europe and Asia and, it is possible to tell, it was at rather high level and for its realization the Alash party, and then the Alash autonomy was created.
The movement «Alash» took serious political and organizational steps to the modern national democratic state. The modernization of economy, legal base capable to realize needs and demands of citizens, equality, consent and peace on which figures of the movement «Alash» insisted always, cultural progress of the nation, attraction not only elite, but also broad masses to political processes by means of inclusion in representative bodies, public structures — these ideas remain actual. Representatives of the alash intellectuals were betrayed by those eternal values which today we need most of all: love to the Fatherland and the people, unselfishness, honesty and honor, respect for work and knowledge, fidelity to duty, sacrifice for the sake of high ideals.
In 1991 on the eve of the new millennium the state sovereignty of Kazakhstan was proclaimed. This important document laid the foundation for realization of a cherished dream of the Kazakh people about creation «The eternal state», the world community, full and free among the countries. It is triumph of an unbending will and strength of mind of the people who passed a centuries-old way of creation of the independent state, having endured disturbing stages of historical destiny.
The great steppe which had been on a destiny roadside more than once, having united destinies of people of different nationalities and religions, becomes a native haven for them. At the beginning of the XX century at the initiative of representatives of the advanced intellectuals of the people the autonomy Alash for the purpose of association of all ethnics living in the territory of Kazakhstan and formation of a political platform of further development of the state was formed. As leaders of this movement Alikhan Bokeykhanov, Ahmet Baytursynov, Mirzhakyp Dulatov acted. National independence, a political freedom and territorial integrity of the Kazakh steppe were the first slogans of the movement Alash. The government Alash becomes a harbinger of the Kazakh statehood of a new formation.
On November 21, 1917 the draft of the party program «Alash» was published in the Kazakh newspaper. It had all-democratic priorities: universal suffrage, proportional national representation, the democratic federal republic Russia with the president and the legislative Duma at the head, equality entering it autonomies, democratic freedoms, separation of church from the state and equality of languages, etc.
The draft of the party program on structure corresponded to constitutions of the European states of that time and included the basic constitutional provisions.
Authors of the project and the advanced Kazakh intellectuals supported changes in Russia and supported the all-Russian constituent assembly which would approve the federal democratic device of Russia. They offered such new progressive ideas – the principle of division of the government into branches, general character of elections, creation of an autonomy for all nationalities, equality irrespective of religion, an origin and a gender, the principle of a presumption of innocence, immunity of judges and leaders, about a jury, about freedom of religion, etc.
In the first section of the draft of “the Form of the State” program the question of the form of government and a state system was considered. It was proclaimed that Russia has to be the democratic republic. In the head of the government there will be a president elected for a certain term. Authors of the project offered a democratic electoral system: a general, equal, direct and secret election without distinction of an origin, a floor, religion whereas the first Soviet constitutions rejected general character of elections.
The section «Basic rights» contained all main ideas of the rights and freedoms of the person which are affirmed in constitutions of the democratic states today. The religion separated from the state. In the section «Justice and Court» were proclaimed equality of people before court, immunity of judges and leaders, conducting legal proceedings in language of local population. An element of democratic character of legal proceedings is establishment of consideration heavy a crime a jury that takes place not in all Post-Soviet constitutions.
This draft of the program, according to the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, «I had more constitutionalism in myself, than all constitutions of the Soviet modification» [1, 126 p.].
All Caucasian Congress II conducted in Orenburg on December 5-13, 1917 unanimously decided to form a territorial-national autonomy of areas.
The Congress resolution noted the following: To appropriate to an autonomy of the Kazakh areas the name «Alash». The constitution of an autonomy «Alash» is approved by the All-Russian constituent assembly. Everybody who lives among Kazakhs guarantees the rights of minority. In all establishments of an autonomy «Alash» representatives of all of the nations have to be presented in proportion. Also exterritorial and cultural autonomy is presented for those who stays beyond the autonomy “Alash”. Everbody who lives among Kazakhs is guaranteed with the rights of minority. For the purposes of the Alash area from the general disorder of anarchy to organize the temporary national council of «Alash-Orda» consisting of 25 members, 10 places from which to provide to the Russians and other people living among Kazakhs was decided. Semipalatinsk was elected as a place of stay of «Alash-Orda».
In order to develop the national state and to fight against the “enemy of freedom – bolshevism” which supported only Soviet based autonomies Alashorda leaders paid a lot of attention to founding the national army “national police” and collaborating with political unions against the Soviets [2, 158 p.]. Therefore on June 24, 1918 military board consisting of three people was founded by the provision adopted in General Kazakh Congress II, on June 25 Decree on founding the national police was adopted by Alashorda chair Alikhan Bokeyhanov’s signature. Military Board was responsible for organizing regional and district police. Congress decided to found the army which consisted of 20 000 people and to fix a 100 tenge special military tax.
Alash decided to found police unit in six regions of Kazakhstan: Bokey1000, Oral 2000, Torgay3000, Akmola4000, Semey1500, Zhetisy2000, total 13 500 people [2, 73 p.]. Alash national police was made as a horse army.
To sum up, Alash army had historical importance in founding Kazakh statehood, because forced army is a guarantee of independent country. Certainly, as it was just a programme project, Kazakh intellectuals could introduce only the main problems in this historically important document, Civil War made it difficult to improve and implement them in sufficient level. cultural autonomy is represented to those who without territory will appear within an autonomy «Alash». Everybody who lives among Kazakhs, guarantees the rights of minority. In all establishments of an autonomy «Alash» representatives of all of the nation have to be presented in proportion. Also exterritorial and cultural autonomy is represented to those who without territory will appear within an autonomy «Alash».
The famous scientist historian Dina Amanzholova notes the following significant problems of modernization of the Kazakh society which made the program Alash:
- transformation of economic bases of activity of Kazakhs, their traditional economy;
- creation of political and legal base for realization of especially sensitive needs and inquiries in the sphere of a freedom of worship, the rights of the personality and citizen, national equality in full;
- radical increase of literacy, development of national school, formation of modern general and especially political and legal structure;
- inclusion of etnopolitical elite and broad masses in real political process through representative bodies, political parties and public organizations, governing bodies and self-government.
Thus, figures of the movement «Alash» wanted to see the country free and independent. Dreamed to see the Kazakh nation among with others the advanced developed countries of the world. Unfortunately, within that Soviet system alashsky figures were declared by enemies of the people and underwent the most severe repressions. In conclusion Alash autonomy despite of its short existence was the first autonomy of the XX century, which was based on national interests and oriented democratically.
Activity of leaders of the movement «Alash» was the noticeable political phenomenon in political history of the Kazakh people in their best aspirations to national statehood. «We can tell definitely, N. A. Nazarbayev in the book «In a History Stream» writes, that the activity of the Kazakh intellectuals of the first half of the XX century interfaced to terrible personal tragedies is modern not only on the conceptual level that the unique phenomenon in itself, but also on the civil and cultural level». The main idea of Alash» is a national statehood [4, 107].
The Independence is the main value for any people thinking of the future. From this point of view quite appropriate to estimate the Republic of Kazakhstan as a concrete embodiment of idea «Alash». Ideas of the movement «Alash» is the base of the Republic of Kazakhstan, absorbed ideas and concepts of the Constitution of the developed democracies of the world, the movement «Alash» fixes the main universal and democratic values.
- Matayeva Constitutional history of Kazakhstan and countries of Central Asia. The XX century (comparative and legal research), «Elorda», Astana, 2006, page 414.
- Nurpeisov K. Alash and Almaty: Atatek. 1995. 256.
- Alash Orda: Collection of documents (coll. N. Martinenko).-Almaty:Small publishing house «Aikap».-1992.– 192 p.
- Nazarbayev N. In a history stream. Almaty: Atamura. 1999.-296 pages.