The impact of globalization on the appearance of the english words into the kazakh language

In the 21st century the need for a deep scientific understanding of the nature of the process of globalization from the perspective of linguistics is particularly urgent. Language as a means of communication, traditionally considered one of the main indicators of the state of society as a whole, so any transformation of social relations is primarily manifested in the language environment of the country. The world is developing towards intercultural communication.

Knowledge of foreign languages today is not only cultural, but also an economic necessity. Foreign Language became aware as a communication tool, a means of understanding and interaction between people, the means of familiarizing with different national culture and as an important tool for the development of intellectual abilities of students, their educational potential. The global changes taking place in our society – the expansion of contacts, access to the foreign arena, the establishment of joint enterprises – led to interest in foreign languages.

Globality of language is determined by the role of the state, where it is the official language, in world politics, economics and culture. Race progress, for achievements in the field of science and technology, stimulates the intellectual and research capacity of community. Therefore, any language that is at the center of such a rapid development of international activities, immediately acquires the status of a «global».

The study of interaction and interdependence of language and culture helps linguists reveal the key points of their reciprocal influence upon the ethnic, cultural and social group an individual belongs to. This approach is of special attention in the modern age of rapid development of science and technology and universal globalizing processes [Левицкий (1) 2010, 82].

The Oxford Online Dictionary defines globalization as «the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale» [Oxford Dictionaries Online]. Thus, globalization is first of all defined as the integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, the spread of technology, and military presence [Bhagwati, 2004]. However, as the process of globalization involves drastic transformations of economies and societies as a whole, its impact on culture and language must not be underestimated as it can be traced in every aspect of life.

The question should be answered: to what extent are languages involved in the process of globalization? And on the one hand: If cultural identity is linked to language, what effect does this have on the culture? As Ricento points out, «Can (and should) countries protect their national linguistic resources, or should they «open their markets» and promote languages such as English in order to enhance access to technology, trade, and the like?» [Ricento 2010, 125].

Languages are understood as sets of speech norms of a particular community and people using them signal their cultural identity. Thus a language becomes a part of a culture and differentiates it from others.

The information revolution is based on a computer connected to telecommunications networks, radically transforms the human being. It compresses time and space, opens borders, and allows establishing contacts anywhere in the world, turning individuals into citizens of the world. As the world economy has been integrating actively, a common tongue is now important to promote international commerce. Over the past two or three decades, English has come to occupy a significant position among languages – previously one of the several dominant European languages, it is a world language today, the language people use when they want to communicate both internationally and within their own communities.

Today, English is used largely due to the fact that it is used so heavily in television, film and music; besides ,it is also the predominant language on distributor), доллар (Eng. dollar), копирайтер (Eng. copywriter), нейминг (Eng. naming), пиар (Eng. PR (public relation)), прайс лист (Eng. pricelist), промоушн (Eng. promotion), прессрелиз (Eng. press-release), стар-тап (Eng. startup), офис (Eng. office), холдинг (Eng. holding), (Eng. boicot, bonus , business, cash, check, management, marketing, voucher, tariff , flashmop etc.); IT-related vocabulary (the Russian language): байт (byte), блог (blog, from «web log»), блогер (blogger), веб (world wide web»), интернет сервис провайдер (internet service provider), клик (click), лэптоп (лептоп) ноутбук (laptop), логин,monitor, printer, file, on-line, chat, internet, intranet, modem, multimedia, PC, portal, printer, click (mouse)), display, browser, cd, cd-rom, (login), плагин (plugin), тттррааа--фик (traffic), хакер (hacker), хай-тек (hitech, etc.)

The Kazakh vocabulary also presents a number of borrowings that function alongside with the national words though the former ones are used more often nowadays e.g.lets compare such kind of kazakh variants веб-ғаламтор, (Eng. web, from «world wide web») information – информацияақпарат, universal – универсальный – әмбебап, businessman – ккәәссііппккеерр, broker – дддееелллдддаааллл,, qualifi--cation – біліктілік, visit – іс-сапар, project – жоба. And some authors have pointed out, that some loan words occurred under the influence of foreign culture and foreign words «fashion». For example: rating – (оценивать. oпределять – бағалау) ,(makeup), макияж, (show представление, көрсетілім, (presentation) открытие, ашылу, the dress code (кодекс одежды – киім кодексі, киім кию үлгісі), coffee – break – (короткий перерыв – қысқа үзіліс), volunteer (доброволец – өз ерікімен the internet pages other languages tend to have an еңбектенуші), slogans ((ррреекккллааамммннныыйй девиз – жжжаааррр---

English translation.

In the process of globalization Language borrowings are a clear evidence of linguistic dominance of one language over others; Borrowing has been defined as the introduction of phonological, morphological, lexical, and syntactic items from one language or into another. Borrowings occur when two languages are in contact. For many years now we have been referring to English as a global language – as the language of communication, technology, and business.; to track the stated tendency, we can consider some examples of English loan words into Russian, Kazakh Russian, Kazakh and speakers are using loan words frequently instead of the equivalents business-related vocabulary (the Russian language): бизнес (business), бизнесмен (Eng. businessman), брокер (Eng. broker), дефолт (Eng. default), дилер (Eng. dealer), дистрюбютер(Eng. намалы құран), baby box ((ящик для младенца – жаңа туған нәрестеге арналған жжжәәшшшіікк))),, iiinnttteerrraaccc-tive взаимодействия, очень важная персона. Аса лауазымды адам (VIP – very important person). show-buisness, bestseller, supermarket – азықтүлік сататын дддүүкккееннн,, cruise – морское пппуутттеешшшее--ствие, теңіз саяхаты, such kind of loan words are easy and short to use. If we didn’t use such kind of loan words, while translating them into Kazakh, they would contain several words [46, 48].

Language borrowings are an evidence of linguistic dominance of one language over others. Globalization allows language and their culture to spread and dominant rapidly on global scale and it has lead to extinction of other language and culture, putting them in endangerment. Of course, the pressures of globalization are experiencing not only the languages of indigenous peoples, but also the languages of larger linguistic communities. The most important area of dialogue organized by the national language is the verbal sphere of national culture. Of course, the acquisition of the English language that role can not be treated uniquely. The positive side of this process is obvious: the general command of the English language provides a natural human need for understanding on a global scale.

However, the distribution of a second language violates other natural human need: the desire in all circumstances to use their mother tongue, the development in early childhood. People are forced to have to learn a foreign language, although still is, capable of conscious learning of languages. So every culture tries to learn English and put little effort in learning their native language. Because in doing international business people need to learn English rapidly Many scientists fear that the dominance of the English language can lead to a complete change of the language system, which under the influence of Anglo-American linguistic culture will bend the mental space of the native language. We believe that there is no reason for concern, because the English language – it is an opportunity due to the global information flow, with the result that every person can become an equal part of the global cultural community.

Globalization phenomena will be dominating in the future; it is our urgent task to outweigh the advantages and disadvantages of the globalization process, and find a way to benefit both national language and global values.

 

References

  1. Levickij A. Je. (1) Osobennosti vzaimodejstvija jazykov i kul’tur v jepohu globalizacii / Andrej Jeduardovich Levickij // Russkij jazyk i polikul’turnom mire: III Mezhdunarodnaja nauchno-prakticheskaja konferencija (6 – 9 ijunja 2009 goda, g. Jalta): Sb. nauch. tr. – K. – Jalta, 2010. – S. 82–87.
  2. Oxford Dictionaries Online. http://oxforddictionaries.com/view/entry/m_en_gb0337920#m_en_gb0337920.
  3. Bhagwati J. In Defense of Globalization / JagdishBhagwati.– Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press,2004. – 320 p.
  4. Ricento Th. Language Policy and Globalization / N. Coupland (ed.) The Handbook of Language and Globalization. – L.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. – P. 125
  5. Ota N. (1) Cross-Cultural Communication through Japanese: Communicating with Japan through high school education / D.
  6. J. Dicks (ed.) Communicating with Japan: Images Past, Present and Future – An Interdisciplinary Anthology. – Montreal: Concordia University Press, 1995. – P. 119.
Magazine: KazNU BULLETIN
Year: 2017
City: Almaty
Category: Philology
loading...