We can not think of any sphere of life without management; time management, money magement, resourse management, education management, office mangement and etc.According to Lous and Miles management refers to ‘Designing and carry out plans,getting things done, and working effectively with people . To be successful and reach up to our plans, over come the problems we face in ur lives we should plan our lives, working ours, manage our time, money and put our works in order. Low and Golver say that each manager needs a pocket theory of management . Management is a must especialy in our century to fulfill our duties. People should have mentality, approache, perspectives even strategy for planned lives. Classroom management is one of the mailstone factors in settling better learning environment and getting better results in education. Students are human beings, not benchbound listeners or computers to be installed/input all the planned and demanded knowledge and also to perform, produce or recall the outputs when required. Thus, all durations of management of classes are of crucal importance.
Classroom management is the ability of managing time, space, resource, students’ roles and behaviours to provide a climate that encourages learning . Students are human beings, sensitive effect each other, techers are no exceptions bringing lots of problems, anxieties, prejudices, expectations, fears to the classroom environment. So, in order to be effective teachers, they must be proactive, facilitative, imaginative classroom managers . There is also a common idea that the better the teacher is the more successful the class is and the higher quality of teaching and learning instructions occure. Smith (1995) mentions that what makes a teacher good is the organization of a classroom and the tecniques involved rely heavily on the teaching style . This is primarily concerned with the managment of pupils, students, classroom instructions and resources within the finite space of a classroom. Good teacher is able to raise pupils’ self-esteem, develop a positive work methos without resorting to a punitive regime, praise rather than criticize and use pupils’ enthusiasms and interests in a creative and positive way . According to students what makes a good teacher are; kindness, being patient, dealing with the students’ problems in tolerable way and paying attention to them.
We think the ideal size of a language class is big enough for students have a variety of personalities, diverse intellectual styles to interact with, and not so big that you can’t construct a community of learners. For various reasons teachers’ classes are offen overcrowded. Therefore, teachers should know how to use and apply strategies that will allow and also help students to learn . The following pages are a quick attempt at identifying the problems that overcrowding and heterogenety create both for teachers and students, and then we discuss different kinds of issues leading to their solutions. We think these comments can help the educators see some of the problems more clearly and remind them of creating and performing more successful, effective classroom activities and bettter results in education.
Classroom management profiles
There are many factors playing roles and influencing classroom management such as, teachers, students, calssroom size and design, number, types and levels of students. Among them we think that teachers, students and the nature and form of interactions play the main role in classroom management. In this paper we will discuss about the types of teachers in terms of classrom management styles, attitudes and reactions of the students to each managing type and style. Each teacher and instructor has his/her own way of managing the classes. But in general most of educators are not aware of actuality and reality of the scientific innovations in this field. It can be said that the teachers do know a bit about what appropriate techniques and methods are to be applied in depending on positions and times or do not give enough attention to them. Thus we believe that teachers should get the awareness of what they do to manage their classes. So we prefer presenting the classroom management profiles below first. Because we think that one of the most important factor in efficient and successful classroom management is classroom management profile depending on teacher type.
The authoritarian teacher places strict limits and controls on the students. The desks are usually in straight rows and there are no deviations. Students
must be in their seats at the beginning of class and they frequently remain there throughout the period. This teacher rarely gives hall passes or recognizes excused absences. Often, it is quiet. Students know they should not interrupt the teacher. Since verbal exchange and discussion are discouraged, the authoritarian’s students do not have the opportunity to learn and/or practice communication skills. This teacher prefers vigorous discipline and expects swift obedience. Failure to obey the teacher usually result a trip to the principal’s office. In this classroom, students need to follow directions and not ask why. At the extreme, the authoritarian teacher gives no indication that he\she cares for the students. Mr. Doe is a good example of an authoritarian teacher. His students receive praise and encouragement infrequently, if at all. Also, he makes no effort to organize activities such as field trips. He feels that these special events only distract the students from learning. After all, Mr. Doe believes that students need only listen to his lecture to gain the necessary knowledge. Students in this class are likely to be reluctant to initiate activity, since they may feel powerless. Mr. Doe tells the students what to do and when to do it. He makes all classroom decisions. Therefore, his style does little to increase achievement motivation or encourage the setting of personal goals.
One Middle-school pupil reacts to this teaching style: I don’t really care for this teacher. He is really strict and doesn’t seem to want to give his students a fair chance. He seems unfair, although that’s just his way of getting his point across.
The authoritative teacher places limits and controls on the students but simultaneously encourages independence. This teacher often explains the reasons behind the rules and
decisions. If a student is disruptive, the teacher offers a polite, but firm, reprimand. This teacher sometimes metes out discipline, but only after careful consideration of the circumstances. The authoritative teacher is also open to considerable verbal interaction, including critical debates. The students know that they can interrupt the teacher if they have a relevant question or comment. This environment offers the students the opportunity to learn and practice communication skills. Ms. Smith exemplifies the authoritative teaching style.
She exhibits a warm and nurturing attitude toward the students and expresses genuine interest and affection. Her classroom abounds with praise and encouragement. She often writes comments on homework and offers positive remarks to students. This authoritative teacher encourages self-reliant and socially competent behavior and fosters higher achievement motivation. Often, she will guide the students through a project, rather than lead them.
A student reacts to this style:I like this teacher. She is fair and understands that students can’t be perfect. She is the kind of teacher you can talk to without being put down or feeling embarrassed.
The laissez-faire teacher places few demands or controls on the students. «Do your own thing» describes this classroom. This teacher accepts the student’s
misbehaviours and is less likely to monitor their behavior. Mr. Jones uses a laissez-faire style. He tries not to hurt the student’s feelings and has difficulty saying no to a student or enforcing rules. If a student disrupts the class, Mr Jones may assume that he is not giving that student enough attention. When a student interrupts a lecture, Mr. Jones accepts the interruption with the belief that the student must surely have something valuable to add. When he does offer discipline, it is likely to be inconsistent. Mr. Jones is very involved with his students and cares for them very much. He is more concerned with the students’ emotional well being than he is with classroom control. He sometimes bases classroom decisions on his students feelings rather than on their academic oncerns. Mr Jones wants to be the students’ friend. He may even encourage contact outside the classroom. He has a difficult time establishing boundaries between his professional life and his personal life. However, this overindulgent style is associated with students lack of social competence and self-control. It is difficult for students to learn socially acceptable behavior when the teacher is so permissive. With few demands placed upon them, these students frequently have lower motivation to achieve.
Regardless, students often like this teacher. A Middle School student says: This is a pretty popular teacher. You don’t have to be serious throughout the class. But sometimes things get out of control and we learn nothing at all.
The indifferent teacher is not very involved in the classroom. This teacher places few demands, if any, on the students and appears generally uninterested.
The indifferent teacher just doesn’t want to impose on the students. As such, he/ she often feels that class preparation is not worth the effort. Things like field trips and special projects are out of the question. This teacher simply won’t take the necessary preparation time. Sometimes, he/she will use the same materials, year after year. Also, classroom discipline is lacking. This teacher may lack the skills, confidence, or courage to discipline students.The students sense and reflect the teacher’s indifferent attitude. Accordingly, very little learning occurs. Everyone is just «going through the motions» and killing time. In this environment, the students have very few opportunities to observe or practice communication skills. With few demands placed on them and very little discipline, students have low achievement motivation and lack self-control. Mrs. Johnson is a good example of an indifferent teacher. She uses the same lesson plans every year, never bothering to update them. For her, each day is the same. She lectures for the first twenty minutes of class. Sometimes she will show a film or a slideshow. If there is any time left (and there always is) she allows students to study quietly and to talk softly. As long as they don’t bother her, she doesn’t mind what they do. As far as she is concerned, the students are responsible for their own education.
According to one student: This teacher can’t control the class and we never learn anything in there. There is hardly ever homework and people rarely bring their books.
Conflict Mediation (how to deal with the problem during lesson that does not relate to lesson directly) Kris Bosworth, Professor, School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
- Joe shoves Mike into a locker because Mike picked on Joe’s younger brother at the bus stop.
- Theresa is worried because she’s heard that Tanya is going to beat her up after school, because Theresa is now dating Tanya’s boyfriend.
- Maria and Darren are screaming and swearing at each other in English class.
These brief scenarios represent interpersonal conflicts that might occur between students in any secondary school in the country. Traditionally, schools have dealt with these kinds of conflicts punitively. However, with increased concern about violence in the schools, many institutions are trying a new approach: peer conflict mediation. In mediation, the two conflicting parties sit with a trained peer and discuss their differences. The peer mediator guides the discussion to help the quarreling students find solutions to their conflict. Once the two parties agree, they each sign a contract that outlines what each will do to solve the problem. All mediation sessions are confidential. Mediation differs from trial in many ways:
- Trial assumes guilt and innocence.
- Mediation assumes no fault.
- A trial seeks to learn the truth.
- Mediation seeks to find an equitable solution.
- A trial deals with facts
- Mediation deal s with the feelings and perceptions behind the facts.
- In a trial, a judge makes a decision.
- In mediation, the disputants make the decision A senior who has been a mediator for four years at an inner-city school, said that if there were no mediation program there would be nobody learning in this school. For more information on mediation, contact:
Having given the classroom management profiles depending on the teachers’ characteristics, believes, his/her way of interactions with the students and so on, we think it is convenient to present here a test that the teachers can check recognize themselves. It could be useful and beneficial in settling right classroom management strategies. We could say that after reading the classroom management profiles and students’ reactions to each profile type, checking, determining and finding out their own profile they can develop appropriate classroom management styles and methods.
Determining the classroom management profiles of teachers we think each question should be read carefull and answered seriously to be able to find out the right classroom management profile for each educator. The steps are simple to follow:
- Read each statement carefully.
- Write your response, from the scale below, on a sheet of paper.
- Respond to each statement based upon either actual or imagined classroom experience.
- Then, follow the scoring instructions below.
It couldn’t be easier!
- 1= Strongly Disagree 2 = Disagree 3= Neutral 4 = Agree 5 = Strongly Agree
- If a student is disruptive during class, I assign him/her to get out, without further discussion.
- I don’t want to impose any rules on my students.
- The classroom must be quiet in order for students to learn.
- I am concerned about both what my students learn and how they learn.
- If a student turns in a late homework assignment, it is not my problem.
- I don’t want to reprimand a student because it might hurt his/her feelings.
- Class preparation isn’t worth the effort.
- I always try to explain the reasons behind my rules and decisions.
- I will not accept excuses from a student who is late.
- The emotional well-being of my students is more important than classroom control.
- My students understand that they can interrupt my lecture if they have a relevant question.
- If a student requests a hall pass, I always honor the request.
To score the quiz, Add your responses to statements 1, 3, and 9. This is your score for the authoritarian style, Statements 4, 8 and 11 refer to
the authoritative style, Statements 6, 10, and 12 refer to the laissez-faire style, Statements 2, 5, and 7 refer to the indifferent style.
The result is your classroom management profile. Your score for each management style can range from 3 to 15. A high score ndicates a strong preference for that particular style. After you have scored your quiz, and determined your profile, read the descriptions of each management style. You may see a little bit of yourself in each one. As you gain teaching experience, you may find that your preferred style(s) will change. Over time, your profile may become more diverse or more focused. Also, it may be suitable to rely upon a specific style when addressing a particular situation or subject. Perhaps the successful teacher is one who can evaluate a situation and then apply the appropriate style. Finally, remember that the intent of this exercise is to inform you and arouse your curiosity regarding classroom management styles.
That the right classroom management is crucial in education is rather clear. It could be said that one of the most important factors to get better result and outputs in education is classroom management. To apply appropriate and convenient strategies and method in efficient classroom managemt teachers should recognise themselves and their classroom managent profiles as far as they must recognise their students and know about the classroom management itself. Then they can develop more appropriate strategies, better classroom environment, develop more successful inteactions with the students and reach up to higher achievements in education and classroom instructions.
- Louis, K.S. and Miles, M.B. (1992), Imroving the Urban High School: What Works and Why, London: Cassel.
- Sue Law and Darek Golver (2000), Educational Leadership and Learning, Open University Press, Buchingam.
- Alberto, P.A., & Troutman, A.C. (1986). Applied behavior analysis for teachers. In K.T. Henson & B.F. Henson & B.F. Eller (1999:404) (Ed.); Educational Psychology for Effective Teaching, Wadsworth Publishing Company, USA.
- Henson, K.T., & Eller, B.F. (1999). Educational psychology for effective teaching, Wadsworth Publishing Company USA.
- Smith, R. (1995). Successful School Management. London: Cassell.
- Smith, R.,(1988),Child Education, ed.
- Zuckerman, J. (2007). Classroom management in secondary schools: A study of student teachers’ successful strategies. High Beam Research Inc., USA.
Internet references (Related Links)
- http://www.onestopenglish.com/methodology/methodology/classroom-management/classroom-management-team-eng- lish-for-large-classes/146452.article
- https://books.google.kz/books?id=feeRCPDxXOsC&pg=PA455&lpg=PA455&dq=management+of+heterogeneous+and +crowded+classes&source=bl&ots=SEhiTVSxwx&sig=HIHdDBivEXmdr7QD1SAH_3_xOL8&hl=ru&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi yuL3KhcLLAhXKa5oKHXcsDcgQ6AEIMzAD#v=onepage&q=management%20of%20heterogeneous%20and%20crowded%20 classes&f=false