The article attempts to analyze features of modus explication of meanings associated with the concept «city» in the author’s narration of Russian-speaking writer. The material of the study is based on the story and essay of the Kazakh poet, writer and public figure B. Kanapyanov. We give a proper definition of «modus meaning». On the basis of the explication of modus meaning a unique author’s world view and attitude are revealed. The study used methods: continuous sampling, observation, analysis and synthesis, classification, comparative descriptive method and others.
It is known that the city is the center place of culture and civilization, result of human transformations and ways of people’s judgment, unique phenomenon in which the system of the human relations functions. In humanitarian sphere of knowledge a large number of researches is devoted to studying the city in the field of philosophy, cultural science, sociology, political science, art criticism, cultural history, philology, etc.
In the Russian science the major period in studying the city were the works of the Tartu semiotics school, researches of M.S. Kagan, V.N. Toporov,
M.S. Uvarov under the general name «Metaphysics of St. Petersburg» and also the works of B.L. Uspensky, A.N. Pyatigorsky, V.V. Ivanov, etc. The city research methodology from the point of view of the semiotics approach which has given the impulse to development of various humanitarian fields of the Russian science is presented in them.
In the field of philosophy, sociology, linguistics and others etc. the works of the Kazakhstan scientists (the works by Kasymbayev Zh.K., Abzhaliyeva A.T., Alimova S.B., Akhmedyarov K.K., Syrgakbayeva A.S., Sultangaliyeva A.K., Adilova A.S., Kogay E.R., etc.) are devoted to the research of the city.
In our opinion, the study of modus meanings connected with the concept «city» allows to reveal studying not only various aspects of its knowledge and development, substantial communications, but also the unique parties of subjective attitude of the writer.
Within this article we have made an attempt of the analysis of explication the modus meanings in the author’s narration by the Kazakhstan Russianspeaking poet, writer, translator, film director, honored worker of Kazakhstan Bakhytzhan Kanapyanov. The actual materials are the fragments from prosaic works by B. Kanapyanov in the genre of story and essay: work «Coffee break (Notes. Essays. Dialogues)», story «Walk before Eternity». By means of the feelings expressed by the author, experiences, states connected with the concept «city» in them the originality of attitude of the writer is reflected. In the research the following methods are used: method of continuous selection, observation,analy sis and synthesis, systematization, comparative and descriptive methods, etc.
It is reasonable to stop on the definition of the concept «modus meaning» in the beginning. The concepts «dictum» introduced by the Swiss erudite Sh. Balli is a part of the sentence, correlative to image representation process, and «modus» is the correlative operation produced by the conceiving subject (Balli Sh., 1955: 44) in linguistic science in various research concepts (see also the works by Vsevolodova M.V., 2000, V.G. Gak, 1978, Arutyunova N.D., 1981, Alissova T.V., 1971, Cheremissina M.V., Kolossova T.A., 1987, etc.).
So, M.I. Cheremissina, T.A. Kolossova correlate the concepts modus and dictum to the concepts event, proposition. Dictum is understood by scientists as follows: «the main message which reviewer is some situation in the reality which is displayed in the speech (Cheremissina M.I., Kolossova, T.A., 1987: 34-95). The objective reality resists to the mental experience connected with it which expression in language is understood as modus – «verbalized subjective interpretation of dictum event which can be given in the aspect of modality (that is opportunities, probabilities of the event and degree of its reliability) or in aspect of nature of mental processing of representation/information about dictum event» (Kolossova T.A., 1979: 47-53). Within this research we adhere to the following determination of the category «modus meaning» in the art narration that is the author’s assessment, the author’s subjective sense put in the statement, expressing features of the author’s outlook and world perception.
Results and discussion
Тhe basis of the conducted research of the actual material we conditionally systematized the received results in the form of groups the modus meanings: the city causing feeling of love; the city causing feeling of admiration, shock; the city promoting creative inspiration; the city promoting understanding of feeling of unification, relationship with it; the city causing feeling of consent with urbanization conditions.
Further we will consider the features of an explication of the modus meanings connected with the concept «city» on the basis of concrete fragments.
The city causing feeling of love
In the story by B. Kanapyanov «Walk before eternity» «the city causing feeling of love» promotes the explication of modus sense use of the emotivny verb ‘to love’ in a personal form:
«The owner loved these early walks when the city is still shipped in sweet dreams at dawn and there were depot and the park no first buses and trolleybuses when it was desert at intersections and stops, but night lamps already died away, conceding the neon light to live gleams of the coming morning» (B.K. «Walk before eternity»).
Also this verb is often used when explication of the modus meaning «the city causing feeling of love» in memories of the author of the famous people, friends, colleagues in the book «Coffee Break (Notes, Essay, Dialogues)». Let’s compare:
«… Dmitry Fedorovich Snegin is one of the people who remain faithful to the place of the birth all life. They remain true both their calling, creativity and the real life. Somehow unostentatious, but all depth of his fine soul he loved Semirechye landscapes and was a great son of the White city at the foot of Zailiysky Alatau …» (B.K. «Coffee break»).
«… His forever young city was known about all over the world. Thanks to diverse creativity of Dmitry Fedorovich, the native of the city Verny, remained faithful to the city of mountains …» (B.K. «Coffee break»).
The city causing feeling of admiration, shock
When explication of this modus meaning the writer frequently uses the verb of mental action to remember in the context of the using expressivelycolored lexemes-nouns, adjectives:
«In September of last year it was thirty years since conducting the Fifth conference of writ ers of the countries of Asia and Africa which has taken place in Alma-Ata. I remember that amazing time when in the autumn city at the foot of mountains, among its small streets and squares the poetic speech in glory of creativity of freedom sounded, it sounded in many languages under cheerful murmur of streams and easy rustle of the falling foliage. It was possible to meet, talk about poetry or, at last, to take the autograph from Chinghiz Aitmatov, Mumin
Kanoat, Yury Rytkheu, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Nikolay Tikhonov...» (B.K. «Coffee break»).
In our opinion, the verb to shock in the past tense isn’t casually used to transfer of the first impression of the city perception. Use of this verb with the meaning of strong emotional influence also promotes the explication of modus meaning «the city causing feeling of admiration, shock». Let’s compare:
«… Then we moved to Alma-Ata. I was shocked by mountains. Olzhas Suleimenov has an expression
«Presentiment of mountains». The most important is to be able to rise the look from the earth and to see mountains. And it doesn’t make seemingly great effort, but what really issues thist, only the person himself knows…» (B.K. «Coffee break»).
In the situation of memories about friends, colleagues the explication of this modus meaning is carried out due to the inclusion in the narration the exclamations like what, how, strengthening feeling of the impression, shock. Naturally the expressively-colored lexemes-adjectives fine, unique fit into this context in expressive way. For example:
Vyacheslav Kiktenko: «What panorama surrounded us! Mountains, hills, pyramidal poplars, the city stretched clearly like on the palm, – all this sank in a haze, gave us fine hope about the future of our calling. The conversation was about anything, but only not about manuscripts of the publishing house authors which we had to read and correct …» (B.K. «Coffee break»).
Rasul Gamzatov: «… I remember how Rasul Gamzatov, being on the Mount Kok-Tyube, exclaimed: «As in my Dagestan!» And these words of recognition of the fifty-year-old mountaineer were carried away down to the beautiful city by barbecue smoke, to its white houses which had a rest in a shadow of trees, in that unique evening cool which happens only in September …» (B.K. «Coffee break»).
A special role in updating of the considered modus meaning is played by the constructions with negative particles and use of lexemes-adjectives (blessed) with the positive connotation:
Olzhas Suleimenov: «Our Olzhas Suleimenov, being the ambassador in Italy,has brought the fundamental work «Letter Language». I would like to wish to the dear author, Mr Frantsisco Pascual to De La Parta to write one more novel or the story about life in Kazakhstan, for believe my experience, it isn’t written and creatively thought anywhere, as in the blessed city at the foot of mountains – AlmaAta» (B.K. by «Coffee break»).
Thus, the research of the actual material from the art discourse of the public figure, the writer Bakhytzhan Kanapyanov, where the concept «city» is presented allows us to draw the conclusion on the uniqueness of attitude of the writer concerning this concept. The analysis has shown that the most effective in explication modus meanings are emotive verbs, verbs with the meaning of strong emotional influence, verbs with the meaning of mental action with use in expressive way of the painted lexemes nouns and adjectives, the construction «negative adverb + negative particle», exclamations, etc.
- Balli Sh. (1955). Obshhaja lingvistika i voprosy francuzskogo jazyka [The general linguistics and questions of French] pod red.
- R.A. Budagova. M.: Izd-vo inostrannoj literatury, Р. 44. (in Russian)
- Cheremissina M.I., Kolossova, T.A. (1987). Ocherki po teorii slozhnogo predlozhenija [Sketches on the theory of compound sentence]. Novosibirsk: Nauka, Р. 34-95. (in Russian)
- Kolossova T.A. (1979). O diktume i moduse v slozhnom predlozhenii [About dictum and modus in compound sentence] Filologicheskie nauki. № 2, Р. 47-53. (in Russian)
- Kanapyanov B. (2004). Kofe-brejk (Zametki, Jesse, Dialogi) [Coffee break (Notes, Essays, Dialogues)] Almaty. (in Russian) Kanapyanov B. (2015). Progulka pered vechnost’ju [Walk before eternity] Neva. №12. (in Russian)