The article deals with the results of using audio texts while teaching the Russian language to students of universities of Kazakh departments as a non-native language. There are recommendations on the use of such listening mechanisms as speech hearing, memory, probabilistic prediction and articulation. Particular attention is paid to various ways of using audio texts in the educational process, aimed at developing skills of listening and speaking. The article presents a complex of exercises using audio texts that form skills and experience of oral speech based on listening.
In modern conditions of globalization and convergence of educational markets, the emergence of a common educational space and the high quality of education is strongly associated with the goals of the Bologna process: academic mobility, recognition of diplomas, introduction of credit systems, invariative technologies of education and knowledge management.
The main purpose of vocational education is the training of a qualified specialist, who is capable ofdoing effective professional work in the specialty and competitive in the labor market.
Traditional training of specialists, focused on the formation of knowledge, proficiencies and skills in the subject area, more and more lag behind the modern requirements. The basis of education should be not so much academic disciplines, as ways of thinking and acting. It is necessary to not onlygraduate a specialist, who has received a high level of preparation, but also to include him at the learning stage in the development of new technologies, adapt to the conditions of a specific production environment, and make him a guide for new solutions.
The implementation of these priority requirements promoted by pedagogical innovations. Innovations in educational activities are the use of new knowledge, techniques, approaches, technologies to get results in the form of educational services that differ in social and market demands. The study of innovative experience shows that most innovations are devoted to the formulation of technologies.
One of the effective innovative technologies in teaching Russian to students of university of Kazakh departments as a non-native language is the use in the educational process the audio texts aimed at developing proficiencies and skills in listening and speaking.
In modern conditions, in connection with the development of international political, economic and cultural ties, the need to teach more people to speak Russian and understand Russian speech is growing every year. The main difficulty in mastering the Russian language is the elaboration of proficiencies and skills of listening and speaking. Along with this, speaking cannot be learned without listening. (Moonon , Lhamsuren , 2015: 337) They together form one act of oral communication. Listening is a derivative, secondary in the process of communication, it accompanies speaking and synchronous to it. The development of listening skills as a type of speech activity is one of the independent tasks of teaching the Russian language as a non-native language. It is an important type of speech activity, since it is impossible to master oral speech in Russian by university students of Kazakh departments without the ability to understand the speech of other people, both in direct communication, and on radio, television and other mass media. In real conditions of communication, the specific proportion of speech perception by hearing is in the range from 40% to 50%. At the same time, listening is the most difficult for learning the type of speech activity, because the purpose of learning to listen is a normal understanding the speech of other people. The main thing is that we should not just hear, but also understand someone else’s speech, understand correctly, fully and deeply enough. For students of the Kazakh department, the additional difficulty lies also in the fact that the pace of Russian speech, for example, is much higher than the pace of native speech. Listening is receptive activity, which is the simultaneous perception and understanding of sounding speech. The process of perception consists of analyzing and synthesizing different-level linguistic units, because of which the perceived sound signals transformed into a semantic record, i.e. there is a semantic understanding. Practice shows that it is necessary to form this type of speech activity in the general system of teaching the Russian language in the classroom with the Kazakh language. When doing receptive exercises, Kazakh students have to use such mechanisms of cognitive activity as remembering, recognizing, analyzing, synthesizing, guessing, inferencing and generalization. It becomes clear that receptive exercises for teaching audition are creative.
In the methodology of teaching the Russian language as a non-native, the fourmain mechanisms of listening singled out. Let us consider them in connection with language exercises for the development of these mechanisms. To perform the following exercises in the training of the Russian language forthe students of the Kazakh department of the Faculty of International Relations, audio micro-text was prepared in advance. Moreover, this record can be used in the educational process in all modules of the exemplary program. So, for example, in first module «Language and Speech» while teaching students to compose texts reasoning.
In the second module, «Structural-semantic division of the scientific text» in teaching students to define the communicative task of the text. In the third module «Writing secondary texts» while teaching the creation of texts-reviews and reviews. Finally, in the fourth module «Culture of professional speech» while teaching oratorical skills.
- Speech hearing is one of the most important mechanisms. It ensures the perception of oral speech, its division into syntagma, word-combinations, and words. Thanks to this mechanism, recognition of familiar images occurs in the flow of speech. Exercises for the development of verbal hearing:
- Listen to the audio recording and repeat a few words;
- Listen to the words; find each of them in a graphical key;
- Determine aurally the rhyming words, mark them with numbers;
- Learn specific words, structures and specific information;
- Fill in the blanks: missed words, articles, prepositions, the beginning, the end of the sentence.
- Memory is the next important listening mechanism. In psychology, there are two main types of memory: long-term and short-term. The latter holds the perceived for 10 seconds. During this time, there is a selection of what is essential for the person at that moment.
Exercises for the development of memory:
- Listen to the micro text; reproduce the keywords that relate to one topic;
- Listen to the microtext and write 2-3 short phrases that you remember and make a complex sentence;
- Repeat after the teacher phrases, the length of which is 10 or more words;
- Listen to the microtext, write down the quotes that you remember, explain their semantic content.
- Remember all dates, names, place names, use and repeat them in the same sequence.
- Probable prediction is the anticipation of the course events. In the methodology, the semantic and the linguistic forecasting are distinguished. (Manayeva, Novikova, Kuida, 2013: 27) Semantic forecasting determined by the knowledge of the context, and accordingly, of possible situations, which, in turn, involve the use of certain structures, clichés and speech formulas. What is linguistic forecasting? Every word has a certain spectrum of compatibility. The appearance of a new word greatly narrows the use of other words. The stronger the lexical and grammatical skills of the student, the
better a person knows the typical speech situations and owns speech patterns, the easier it is to recognize them from the ear. Listening and speaking, reading and writing, vocabulary and grammar are inseparable in real communication, and all the more so in classes. Linguistic forecasting corroborated by the semantic and vice versa. Exercises for learning probable forecasting:
- Determine the content of the text and the title by the keywords.
- Listen to the micro text; write down adjectives, nouns, and verbs that you remember. Name those that are used;
- Make possible word combinations with nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives;
- Listen to the text, and then fill in the blanks in the graphic version of the same text;
Exercises for the development of word-building and contextual guesses:
- Listen to the microtext, write down a number of verbs, form nouns with the help of certain suffixes;
- Listen to the microtext and write down the verbal nouns that you remember and make sentences with them;
- Determine the meaning of international words in context;
- Determine the meaning of new words using definitions (the definition is given in Russian).
- Psychologists distinguish articulation by the 4-th mechanism of listening. They note that in the listening task happens an internal spoken speech. The more pronounced the pronunciation, the higher the level of listening. Anyone who has a habit of speaking internally, fixing information, will better understand and remember it. (Gez, Lyakhovitskii, Mirolubov, 1982: 139)
Results and discussion
The progress of listening depends on the ability of the listener to use probable prediction, the degree of speech hearing development, memory, attention, interest and motives of learning and, on the other hand, on the conditions of perception – temporal characteristics, number of presentations, duration of sound. Secondary presentation of the audio text increases the mastering by 20%.
A great role is played by well thought-out work with audio texts, because, in conditions of real training, we teach the students the ability of distant listening, i.e. perception and understanding of audio texts in conditions of indirect communication. Audio texts are the main means of learning; they should create motivation for learning the Russian language, in particular, the need for listening as a new knowledge of language and the world, as an active participation in communication. Motivation is the main condition in the formation of listening skills. In the initial stages, preference must be given to monological texts, use pre-text and post-text assignments. Regular classes will fill the gaps in the skills of perception of Russian speech; remove the emotional barrier and fear of listening.
What should be the exercises when working with audio texts? Methodists distinguish pre-text exercises, actually «listening» and post-textual exercises.
1 group of exercises. Pre-text exercises. Their goal is to motivate students to listening, to discard the difficulties of lexical, grammatical, phonetic and socio-cultural nature. In pursuing these aims, listeners are told the meaning of unfamiliar words, the meaning of which cannot be guessed in the context, the realities are explained. The teacher gives a list of key phrases necessary for a common understanding of the text.
2ndgroup of exercises. Before listening, the teacher must determine the communicative task of how students should listen to the text: understand the main content and answer questions or perform a test during the listening process, fill out the diagram, the table. The following exercises identified:
- Agree or disagree with what was listened;
- Insert the missed word;
- Complete the sentence;
- Find an equivalent, a synonym or a definition of the word;
- Write out individual information.
3rd group of exercises. Post-textual exercises are aimed at developing skills to interpret, comment, analyze information and reproduce it. These exercises also perform a supervisory function. The following exercises are offered:
- Check the general understanding of the text;
- Check the requested information;
- Retelling the text one by one;
- Think of the continuation of the text;
- Give a comment to what was interesting, new or significant to students;
- Evaluate events, actions of heroes backed by keywords.
In practice, the most accessible source of information is a tape recording or therecordings on CD, DVD discs. Based on the results of work with audio texts, students do creative tasks: they make dialogues by roles, prepare for a discussion on the material of the text they have listened to, and select additional material for presentation. The purpose of the exercises in this section is to ensure the creative activity of students to use the learned material in speaking. Thus, we can submit, that the result of learning to listen is the way to speaking, so it seems reasonable to pay attention to the development of an exercise system for teaching not only listening but also speaking. In the process of teaching listening to Kazakh students are formed general educational skills, such as:
- the allocation of necessary, meaningful information;
- comparison, classification of information in accordance with a specific learning task;
- linguistic and contextual conjecture about the meaning of unfamiliar words;
- generalization of the received information. Thus, from all that has been mentioned above,
it can be concluded that when using audio texts in the learning process, there is a real possibility of forming oral speech proficiency and skills based on listening, a natural way out to communication. The most beneficial are the situations of verbal communication, which stimulate students to speak out, exchange opinions. Tasks on the text should be creative; students’ actions should be internally motivated. It is desirable that they have a problematic nature, encourage students to apply the knowledge they received before in their answers, put them before the need to compare, guess, look for a solution in the given text, that is, independently solve communication problems based on their language experience. Training in listening carried out in a comprehensive manner, in the framework of training all four types of speech activity. Following such an integrated approach, we fulfill the practical goal of teaching the Russian language – mastering them by students in the sphere of professional communication for the successful implementation of intercultural communication.
- Gez N.I., Lyakhovitsky M.V., Mirolubov A.A. (1982). Metodikaobucheniainostrannymyazykam v sredneischkole. [Methods of teaching foreign languages in secondary school.] M.: Vyssh. School. P. 373. (In Russian)
- Moonon N., Lhamsuren M. (2015). (Ulan-Bator, Mongolia). O vzaimodeitviiobucheniachteniu s obucheniemaudirovaniu, govoreniu, pis’munarusskomyazyke. Russkiiyazykkaknerodnoi: novoe v teorii I metodike. [On the interaction of teaching reading with teaching listening, speaking, writing in Russian.Russian as a non-native language: new in theory and methodology.] Russkij yazyk kak nerodnoj: novoe v teorii i metodike. IV mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-metodicheskaya konferenciya. Sbornik nauchnyh statej. Vypusk 4. Moscow: MGPU. P. 368. (In Russian)
- Manaeva G.S., Novikova I.G., Kuyda N.Y. (2013). Rol’ imestoaudirovanie v prosesseobucheniayazykuspesialnostiinnostrannyhstudentovnapodgotovitelnomfakultete. [Role and place of listening in the process of teaching foreign languages at the preparatory faculty.] Tendencii i problemy yazykovoj podgotovki inostrannyh studentov v sovremennyh usloviyah: Materialy zaochnoj Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj internet-konferencii. Zaporizhie, Publishing house of ZSMU. P. 220. (In Russian)