The early works of classic Kazakh literature

M. Auezov – great art writer in history, he is so clever, comprehensive, sane and in fact, he is very talented person. A great writer M. Auezov artistic heritage – our literature and the achievments of all humanity. He is epic way of Abay entered the golden fund of stories and novels of Kazakh literature of the XX century. We should pay attention to the essays of Kazkah literary classic M. Auezov which were written in the early 1919-1932. In the essay we can understand his search pass, growth, literary style and his work gives a lot of development of that period. In 1916-1917 years M. Auezov’s picking up a pen couldn’t remain impartial. Drop in the kings leadership couldn’t possibly leave him on the site of the social life.

He gave about training education, cultural issues important in their future articles «Human basicwife» (1917), «Respectivily closer craft to the culture», «Tutorial», «Language of science». At the national university of middle Asia the report of M. Auezov which called Kyrgyz epic «Manas» was in an audience attention in 1923. In the initial stage, road voluminous writer, art, told prove story in their writings. In the early and middle XX century M. Auezov wrote many stories («Korgansizdin kuny», «Orphan», «Thickness», «In the shadows of the old», «Kim Kinaly», «Barymta»), in these stories describes real social person Kazakh villages, social life, folk habitat internal controversy. The flow of life and the type of phenomenon studies writer Kazakh social problem given the chance to pick it up. His first sory complex «Enlik-Kebek» was written in 1917, when he studied in seminar. His first story was published defenseless share in 1921. Several stories of writer were published in magazines

«Sana», ‘Sholpan» in 1922-1923. They are: «In the evening bugar», «Night village», «Winter daily day», «Winter night», «In Sibas grave», and etc. Moreover, «Orphan», «In the shadows of old», «Barymta» and other stories were published in 1924 as well as «Tokal wife», «Kobylandy hero», «Kazakh literature and history» and his translate «Earth birth» were published in 1923. When he was studying in Leningrad during the 1925-1928 at the university of «Karakoz», «Karash-Karash stories’, «Diverse life» wrote this essays in 1928 [1, 32].

«Korgansizdin kuny» (1921) is the first published story of M. Auezov. One scene of disease seized the body of the society is shown with a large artistic power in the short story. There is said about how the homeless orphan girl named Gaziza could not stand an incredible violence and died during a blizzard. The cruel behavior of a malevolent akim of aul like Akan is suspected in this composition. The story «Korgansizdin kuny» has inputted the new expression to the Kazakh literature with its artistic structure. Mukhtar rose to the level of European prose, in the true sense of this word, with his first story named «Korgansizdin kuny». There is an enormous truth in S. Mukanov’s opinion, who said «Since this, the notorious Kazakh literature has been creating a lot of compositions in fine genres and in volume genres such as story and novel, and took a top places in the multilingual Soviet prose». The structure of the story is dense, the artistic means are saturated and the events and the characters are as realistic as possible. The distinctions which were formed in subsequent compositions of M. Auezov were also illustrated there.

The stories, like «Sep pictures» (1923), «Sep stories» (1923), «Thick» (1925), «Qualified man» (1923), «Orphan» (1925), «Beautiful mourning» (1925), «Barymta» (1925) was well described, where given true information of Kazakh history and everyday life, also with artistic ability has become the brightest pages of his oeuvru.

Mukhtar Auezov had written many times about the theme concerning to the pitiful fate of Kazakh women, which was said in his poem «Korgansizdin kuny». So, poems «Kym kinaly», «In the shadows of the world» etc were printed. In general, it is not difficult to notice respect of Mukhtar Auezov to women and mother from his poems. One of his article «The main of humanity is women» was not only his peak of creation,as well as it became like creation of Russian writer Turgenev, one of the most discussing topic [4, 56].

If adoring women can seen from Aeschylus’s

«Oresteia», Sophocles’s «Antigone» in Greek literature, in Kazakh literature it can be seen by women-character, who was the faithful partner to her husbands, for example, Kurtka, Gulbarshyn, and Akzhunys. In the beginning 20th century Zh. Aimautov, M. Zhumabayev, M. Dulatov, S. Toraygyrov etc continued writing about women’s fate. M. Auezov contributed too. Writer didn’t like false praise and inaccuracies. His characters were very clever and intelligent girls, which were exclusive from others by simplicity and mysterious. By describing malaise of Kazakh girls which make compassion, as well as he seem made criticism about uneducated girls. About this R. Berdybaev said «In 20th century one of the main themes of Mukhtar

Auezov was woman equality». So, for this subject poems «Sonyp zhanu»,»Kym kinaly?», «Uylenu», «Eskylyk kolenkesinde», « Karaly sulu» etc can be example.

In the story, «Orphan» said about a boy who had tragic childhood, unable to survive in the family because of abuse Isa, who fled from the village in the dark and dead in the grove. One of the basic features of the trues realism is to describe the mount victims who saw the difficulty in this life and a great social life was the description. Learning the traditional classical Russian literature, received a lot of knowledge, M. Auezov begins to work with this spirit as a natural.

One more story «Barymta» said destiny of poor people who are obtuse, easily deceived by the rich people and who do not found right way in their life. In this situation it was mentioned pity story of poor people Kalbagai and Konkai who dead because they tear honored and enraged rich person Dosbol. Writer regretfully show destiny of innocent people who were victim of the ancient.

«In the shadow of the custody» parrates girl named Zhamesh who had lost her sister, and according to the old tradition was to be a wife of her brother in-law. Writer develops the life and characters of heroes as time development. Kabysh who was the man of Zhamesh was in such despour because of the marriage, and author was able with such capability describe his feelings and pains. Showing the deep sufferings of the main heroes was the first and foremost methods of the writer. M. Auezov with extraordinary eloquence represented the contradictions and inequality of the different lifes, and it created new psychological type.

Any of these stories tell about the situation which could possibly happen in the lifes of anybody. Social disparity was the main problem of social development, and writer, with unusual scrutiny describes it all.

In the story «Thickness» (1926) writer clearly showed the new pages of his creations. There the shy pure Zhaksylyk find his way, and trying to make his life quite, while the persons who defeated pure people, like Abish and Kurman, were interference for Zhaksylyk. The policy of soviet state is to help for pure people,where Zhaksylyk engaged doing agriculture and animal husbandry, which helped to himto be in one way with his nation. In that case, the author tried to show us the pleasant face of the labour person.

The main topics of the creative works of 20th years was womens equality. In his works, due to truth of life writer show the true pictures of Kazakh womens without any secrets. At the first time, in the story «Sonip zhanu» author tell about girl who concur to her own fate, by marring because of the agreement of her parents, while in the second story «Kim kinaly» he tell about a girl who can not be with her boyfriend and death of Gaziza. In one story which name is «Uilenu», author tell about girl who run away with her boyfriend, despite on opposition of her parents.

In the early thirties, the main theme of essays and short stories of Auezov was devoted to the ideological orientation of Soviet reality. The success of socialist construction, large-scale news in the field of economy and culture, a change of consciousness and behavior of mankind had a deep need to describe the patterns of life.

The writer wanted to create an impressive image of the hard-working workers. He chose the theme to their works of those people who by their honest labor and efforts intensified operation of the Kolkhoz. He chose the theme to their works of those people who by their honest labor and efforts intensified operation of the Kolkhoz. This is the first turning point in the theme song «Kasena Phenomena» (1933), which begins with a conversation, «Karash Karash» and

«Qïlızaman». The author describes well the ability of the heroic struggle of the great representatives of the people and clearly expressed his next goal in the description of the Soviet people’s personalities. which is an important step in developing this structure. In the song «Events Kasena» new character is that of a student – Salim. Despite the fact that he is working in the Soviet structure it to be of prosperity. In the history of Salem little episode, including his image is not fully disclosed. But this did not affect the importance of the ideological direction of the artist.When the Soviet government can not agree with some of the people who can not find a new modern style and harmony and spiritual crisis that the author has shown great artistic collections convincing in his creative workIn the stories which were for Kolkhoz state, like «Gorge animals»,

«Izder», «Golden Eagle» were written about the protection of privatization and nation property by soviet people. Even these events have similarities, in the ideological conflicts and composite solutions are different.

«Izder» (1935) – the first story of writer about kolkhoz life, about the successful rules and works of the main pesons of village. This story has some specific sides. Fist of all, in this work present faces of best persons of soviet society. This faces are sherherd of «Shakpak» kolkhoz Nesipbay and the boss of kolkhoz Kulzhatai. Both of they are took

part in civil war, then had builded soviet union with this they gave a hope for a new period of life. That is why, they was vary glad for improving of Kolkhoz’s work, when hardless and difficult upset them. They considered the opinion of society as the best place, uneasy response to cherish the richness of the collective farms, public transmission characteristic of these cases. The ears of cattle to eat wlanbasın Nesipbek in a kind manner under the supervision of the membrane will lay down. The strong sense of responsibility to his duties is particular characteristic of Kulzhatai. Pest persons as Zhumatai and Zhetpisbay, who reject in Kolkhoz can cause a huge trouble. Zhumatai and others libel as «tails of rich»the persons like Sharip and Ashim, who barely survived from starvation. In the first stage of construction of Kolkhoz, stories like that was fight.

In the poem written about the damage of activists which become the problem in agriculture in the beginning of 30th years. The fact that rebels of Kolkhoz received awards from the struggles like this written too. Creating lovely characters like Nesipbay, Kulzhatay is author’s achievement.

In the poem «Shatkalan» (1935) there are people from abroad who wanted injure the farming work and written escaping famous rich Sugir to China, connecting with reliable friend Katpa from «Taldy Ozek» aul, stealing cattle, slandering honest people. Plans of enemy of kolkhoz were destroyed. Boss of farm Samat was smart and exclusive with insight in this case. The personality of Samats – is the main character in this poem. He can show his skills in difficult situations, differ people by their work, not by their words. Samat considered as the person in front ranks of aul’s population.

Event motives In the stories «Izder» and «Shatkalan» given in new side in story «Burkitshi». Hunter with eagle whose name is Bekbol, who help to get horses which lose state, have simple qualities. Despite on things, which he should do, he help to catch thieves at the same time. In this time, writer notice the developing of team working. In some case, despite on scarity of evidence of characters, the story «burkitshi» we can add to that type of topics which can develop of beginnings.

Writer made a research about life population to know insurrection of auls, reason of interference which they didn’t expected. The story «Bilekke bilek» (1933) from South Kazakhstan – is result of research like this. Character dairy herd Makpal, who respected due to hard working, is real. M. Auezov saw the new view of auls and wrote the stories and poems. Genreofpoemsissketch(очерк). Increations there are descriptions of stories and sketches. There are advantages, intrigue which is like the writer’s poems in the drama too. It is intention of author to describe life more really. When author look for the secrets of genres and tried to find a new types, writing by using prose and drama is usual.

Rabiga («Kyr surettery»), who cursed the old tradition, who ran away from old, Gaziza («Kim kinaly?»), who couldn’t married to loving Islam, who hard clobbered because of abandoned to marry to volost as second wife, Zhamila («Sonip zhanu»),who married to unfamiliar and at the end suffered from this, all had similar fate and they completed description of each other.

In 20s M. Auezov’s literature had composition of themes about love and women’s fate of western poets. If B. Show shows the life of lively Elisa, T. Draizer tells about unjustly divided Roberta and

  1. Mitchell wrote about Scarlett that seeked the happiness. This is not accident, the literature of M. Auezov is truly magnificient example of justified classical literature(poetry) [6, 12].
    1. Konyratbayev divides into 4 types the first stories of M. Auezov. 1) The Intellegence; 2) The stories about kazakh girl and problem of ignorance;
  2. The problems of women; 4) Hackneyed life. While Y. Duisenbayev says «the published literature of that time should be divided into three types». So

«Karaly sulu», «Eskilik kolenkesi», «Sonip janu»,

«Kim kinali» were in first group while second group had «Jetim», «Barymta», «Juandyk» etc.

The topics of stories as «Okygan azamat» (1923), «Kinamshil boizhetken» (1925), «Sonip zhanu» (1923) are expected to endeavors of future of Kazakhs. Actually the story of «okygan azamat» is taking place in city. Maksut that died from dicease had a friend Zhumagul who took not only his wife Hadisha but also tried to take his legacy. Hadisha – Maksut’s wife is too wants to take his legacy. Shameless Zhumagul and Hadisha aimed for belongings Maksut’s mother that was left alone. This shameless action of those two leads to death of old woman. So, the seminarian Zhumagul is ready to kill a person in order to get cattle. In that way, author shows the difference between studying and being humane. Moreover, he despises the greediness of intellectuals as Zhumagul. Even if he can read, Zhumagul is still the fake intellegent that is shown as the person wearing cloth of Iudushka.

From the beginning of his creative work he showed us the diversity of his talent. In that case, especially, he became an unrivalled master of the fiction. He shifted his brave character with life experiences, made an inimitative personage character deeply, improved types of prose, like story and novel, and did the historical title or century verity at their own carving.



  1. Duysenbayev I. Mukhtar Auezov. Articles and memories. – Almaty: Science, 1974.
  2. The history of Kazakh literature. – 8-volume. – Almaty, 2004.
  3. The agitation of M. Auezov. Literatical articles and research. – Almaty: Writer, 1987.
  4. Nurkhatov A. M. Auezov’s creation. – Almaty, 1965.
  5. Syzdykov K. Mukhars recognition unknown pages. – Almaty: KAzkahstan, 1997.
  6. Tayzhanov A. The ideology of M. Auezov. – Almaty: Science, 1997.
Magazine: KazNU BULLETIN
Year: 2015
City: Almaty
Category: Philology