Occurrence and the types of the substantivization

Occurrence of the Substantivization as one of manifestations of the language units transposition to noun category is long time topic of research of the scientists. However up to this moment there are disputable and debatable some questions of the Substantivization, as the identification of the nature and types of the substantivization. In this article reviews importance of the broadening definition of a Substantivization in Kazakh lainguage, not only confining with adjective and participle as in commonly accounting in a Kazakh philology. Article points that it relevant to differentiation different types of Substantiviziation to aims above. Reviews complete, occasional, elliptical, metasubstantivization and other types if substantivization in Kazakh language in instance of applying numerals and adverbs as the nouns.

Introduction

Substantivization as the manifestation of the language transposition (latin – transposition – «transposition») (Lingvistichiskiencyclopedicheskyislovar, 1990:519) represents spread in different languages as the application different parts of the speech in the function of the noun and sometimes as the complete transition to the noun class. Up to this moment still is relevant and debatable questions of the detection of a substanivization nature, its types and research other aspects of the substantivization. The complexity of this linguistic phenomenon is indicated by the fact that substantiation has long been considered only as a purely grammatical phenomenon in the section of the doctrine of parts of speech. From the second half of the twentieth century, substantivization began to be researched as an independent object of word formation by Western European and Russian scientists Paul H. (Paul, 2013), AI Smirnitsky (Smirnitskij, 1955:31), VV Lopatin (Lopatin,1967:205).

In Kazakh linguistics, as in Turkic studies in general, the grammatical approach to this phenomenon of language also prevailed. Traditionally, the phenomenon of substantivation was considered in connection with the identification and definition of parts of speech (K. Akhanov (Ahanov, 1993:496),

M. Tomanov (Tomanov, 2002: 616), etc.). The morphological approach to the definition of substantivation was replaced by the syntactic one: the works of M. Balakayev (Balakaev, 1957:123), R. Amirov (Amirov, 1972: 180), etc. Since the end of the 20th century, substantivization in Kazakh linguistics has been studied as a word forming phenomenon – (Kh. Netaliyeva (Netalieva,1963: 21), A. Salkynbai (Salkunbai,1996: 96), and others).

In the new Academic Grammar of the Ka zakh language – «Kazakh grammaticals» (Kazakh grammatikasu, 2002), a special section was devoted to the substantiation issue in the general section « Сөзжасам» («Word formation»): «Әдетте сын есімдер мен есімшелер субстантивтенеді, олардың мағынасы заттанады, заттық дербестік алады. Мұндай сөздер зат есім сияқты септеледі, тәуелденеді, көптеледі ... Сөйтіп субстантив зат есімдер деп, мағынаны түпкілікті заттық сипат алған, жалғау қабылдау қабілеті бар сын есімдер мен есімшелерді айтады. Демек, бұларды жай зат есімдер сияқты, түбір, туынды және күрделі сияқты үш түрде сипатталады» (Kazakh grammatikasu, 2002: 339).

As follows from the above quotation, adjectives and participles in the Kazakh language are usually substantivized, their values acquire objectivity, ob-

jective certainty. Similar words, like nouns, tend, acquire categories of possessiveness and plural. In the Kazakh grammar, it is further noted that substantive nouns are adjectives and participles that have acquired the meaning of an object and the ability to attach endings. In addition, they, like ordinary nouns, are divided into non-derivatives, derivatives and complex (Kazakh grammatikasu, 2002: 339).

According to the conventional point of view, substantivization only extends to the passage of adjectives and participles, while substantiation of other parts of speech is considered occasional. For the first time in our work (Amirova, 2009: 232) the question was raised about the necessity of differentiating different types of substantivization in the Kazakh language. In our opinion, it is necessary to separate other kinds of substantivization from occasional substantiation: metasubstantiation, elliptical substantivation, etc.

Experiment

Substantivization of numerals of different lexical and grammatical categories in the Kazakh language has become widespread, therefore we will show on its example different types of substantivization. The affix possessiveness serves as an indicator of the substantivization of quantitative numerals in the Kazakh language, as well as of other nominal parts of speech.

Бесімде оқу білсін деп, Ата-ана берді сабаққа.

...

Он бесіме келгенде, Қаршыға, бүркіт көргенде Құс салып жүрдім серуенде Еркіндеп шығып азатқа.

(Шәкәрім. Бесімде оқу білсін деп...)

Бесімде, он бесім – «in my five», «to my fifteen» – in the Kazakh language express the concept of age without any context, as in the above poem. Consequently, this is not occasional, but true substantivization. Without an affix of possessiveness, quantitative numerals usually denote a school mark for academic achievement:

Математикадан «бес» алдым, орыс тілінен «төрт» алдым (from informal speech)

O.M. Kim (Kim, 1992: 6) considered similar instances of substantivation in the Russian language as metasubstantiation, as a means of indicating the sign to itself. In this example, the substantivized numerals 5 and 4 are taken quoted, indicating a meta-label for their use, i.e. a mark «five» and a mark

«four». Thus, this is a case of metasubstantiation, rather than occasional substantiation.

Substantivized in the Kazakh language and collective numerals. The most commonly substantively used are collective numerals, formed from quantitative from two to seven:екеу, үшеу, төртеу, бесеу, алтау, жетеу. For instance:

Алтау ала болса, Ауыздағы кетеді. Төртеу түгел болса, Төбедегі келеді. (мақал)

The use of collective numbers in substantivized form without affixes of possessiveness as a whole is not characteristic of the Kazakh language. Generally, collective numerals result in substantivization from the affixes of possessiveness and / or plural. For instance, in this example, the substantiation index is the affix of the possessiveness-міз:

Поездан түсе салдық та үшеуіміз үш жаққа жүгіре жөнелдік.

(Ғ. Мүсрепов. Атақты әнші Майра)

The previous context, which is not given because of its voluminousness, makes it clear that we are talking about three fellow travelers on the train. In addition, the Kazakh language is characterized by the use of біз екеуміз, біз төртеумізand etc.

The previous context, which is not given because of its voluminousness, makes it clear that we are talking about three fellow travelers on the train. In addition, the Kazakh language is characterized by use, etc. As in the following example:

Батиха. ... Сөйтсем, әлгі біздің төртіншіміз

– Бәрібай көршінің баласын ұрып тастапты. (Ә.Тарази. Тыныш көшедегі көгілдір үй)

Similar facts testify to elliptic substantiation, i.e. about the omission of the noun(for e.g.: төртінші баламыз)or pronounбіз (for e.g.: біздің төртіншімі)

In the following example, the indicator of the elliptic substantiation of the collective numeral екеу is also the affix of the dative case -не:

Екеуіне назар бұрды ел ерек, Өйткені олар дарынды еді керемет. (М. Шаханов. Арман)

Often the ordinal numerals are substantiated: бірінші, екінші, үшінші and others with the omis-

sion of the word being determined. For instance, in the example below of the elliptic substantiation, the word «tree» from the previous context is omitted:

Екіншісін өлшедік, кішірек. (М. Мағауин. Қос Ағаш)

So, in the following example, from the poem the order number numerals «second» and «fifth» are used substantively, with the omission of the word

«yerkek», as follows from the title of the poem «The Fifth Man»:

ЕКІНШІНІ шыдамсыздық адастырды жолынан, Сосын қайтсін, ұстай салды басқа әйелдің қолынан.

...

Тек БЕСІНШІ ертең қуып жетеріне сенеді.

...

Сол бесінші – ең бақытты еркектің Армандаймын болсам-ау деп тойында. (М. Шаханов. Бесінші еркек)

(*The writing of numerals with the capital letter of the author – the poet M. Shakhanov – Zh.A.).

The author’s emphasis is intended to draw the attention of the reader to the general idea of a poetic work: not the FIRST, not the SECOND, but only the Fifth of all men is capable of such an act – to go to the end and believe. Therefore, in this example, complete substantivation is shown, due to the similarity of ordinal numbers in their syntactic function to adjectives. Like the adjective, ordinal numerals easily pass into a noun.

Similar cases of elliptical substantivation are frequency in colloquial speech when you designate vehicles by their numbers, for example: «жетінші»

– «the seventh» (bus, train, trolley bus, etc.).

Let us also consider examples of other kinds of substantivization of adverbs as immutable words.

The adverb of қазір «now» although used in the example below is substantial: in the quality and in the position of the noun (subject), but remained in an unchangeable form, because in this case we have another form of substantivation – metasubstantiation (according to O.M Kim [14]). When metasubstantivatsii the word, in this case – the adverb – appears as a meta-sign pointing to the concept of «word or word,» and is quoted:

Жерге түсіп жаяу жүремін», – деймін. «Казір, қазір ...»

– дейді атам. «Қазір»де бітті. (М. Мағауин. Қос ағаш)

The following example is interesting in that, with substantiation, the adverb acquires the case form of the instrumental case, expressed by the affix

-ммеенн, which, it would seem, speaks of the sssyyssstteeemm-ativeness of this manifestation of substantivization:

«Көкемнің қоңыр даусын мана естісем де қайталап айтқан сайын «қазір-қазірмен» әлі жатырмын.»

(М. Хасенұлы. Сонар)

The literally: «Although I hear the pleasant voice of my father, several times repeating the same thing, with» now-now «still lie». Let’s consider one more interesting case of occasional substantivation. The name of the Almaty cafe «Қазірәзір» is translated as

«Now it is ready». In this case, the typical phrase of the waiter: «Now (will) be ready», – used as a name,

i.e. as a nominative, noun. Originality, expressiveness characterize this substantivatist as occasionalism. Consequently, we have before us an example of occasional substantialation as a phenomenon of a non-systemic, but rather opposed to the linguistic system.

Results and discussion. This form of substantivization is, undoubtedly, conversational (see R. Amirov’s work [9]), and, as a phenomenon of colloquial speech, has its characteristic feature, namely: expressiveness. Expressiveness distinguishes occasional phenomena, so these cases can be attributed to occasional substantiation.

In the opinion of OM. Kim (Kim, 1992: 6-7), Оccasionalsubstantivation, like any occasional phenomenon in the language, should have a sign of unpredictability, originality, while ordinary substantivation is a systemic, predictable phenomenon. Proceeding from this position, the following interesting fact from language practice can serve as an example of occasional substantialation.

Conclusion

So, we analyzed a number of examples of the substantiation of numerals, adverbs in the Kazakh language with the purpose of revealing its vari ous types. An analysis based on material from different types of discourse showed that the nature of substantiation lies in the ability of a language to use not only the words of different parts of speech, but entire phrases in the function of the noun’s name.

Careful analysis leads to the need to differentiate in the Kazakh language different types of substantiation: true, or complete (according to H. Paul), elliptical, metasubstantiation, occasional substantivation, and make changes to the corresponding sections of grammar and word formation.

Comparative analysis of the substantiation types in Kazakh and Russian languages is also promising, which will help to reveal the distinctive features of the same kinds of substantivization in different-language languages.

 

References

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Magazine: KazNU BULLETIN
Year: 2015
City: Almaty
Category: Philology