Semantic-stylistic originality slavonic words in language of modern newspapers

The article discusses the features of the use of modern language Slavonic words in newspapers. On the material, collected from the newspaper subcorpus of Russian National Corpus, active language describes the processes that are most clearly reflected in the media. On the basis of the analyzed context, the author draws conclusions about the main trends of the modern use of somatic Slavonic words and stylistically marked verbs describing the same type of situation. There are given the examples of figurative rethinking of biblical terms as a result of various associations, reflecting the value ideas of a modern democratic society. For the purpose of systematization and classification of the examples revealed from newspaper texts the content analysis method has been used.


Anthropocentric paradigms of scientific knowledge has led to the need for greater attention to communication, which is especially important for linguistics that studies the language of human positions, producing in for mаtion and perceivе in git. Arсhitectonics of contemporary Russian discourse is characterized by ne forms of communication and new genres in every day, public, professional and business communication, as well as a shift to the periphery of the artistic discourse.

In modern life, the means of mass media (hereinafter – the media) play a dominant role, as they reflect the interests and tastes of the most diverse languages of social groups and have strong and allencompassing influence on the society and its institutions. Language of the media is dynamic, agile, and closely linked to the extra-linguistic situation in the country, and therefore is always in the field of research. It is known that at all times, the leading the media function of the media is informational, but democratization of the newspaper discourse in a dynamically changing reality, leads to the use of its other functions, such as: creative function and function of cultural memory.In language of media the system of national cultural values is reflected (values and beliefs). Newspaper as the most dynamic form of print media reflects the socio-political and socio-cultural situation in the country in its entirety; journalistic style before other functional styles captures the language / speech changes, i.e. reflects active processes in the modern language at all levels.

High, book or traditional poetic vocabulary, that reflects the moral and spiritual values and traditions of the people: agnets (lamb), vnima (hear), veschat (tell), vopiyat (understand), gryaduschii (future), vrata (gates), strazh (guardian), tainstvo (mystery), stezya (way), glava (((hheeeaaddd)),, gryasti (((aappppprrrooaaacchhh)), dddeeyy-anie (deed), shestvova (parade) and etc.has been widely involved in the newspaper usage. «Modern reality creates a wide variety of situations in which the use of stylistic Slavonic words seems communicatively caused not only in the spiritual language, but in different functional styles of language» (Nefedeva, 20011: 276).

The trend of the use of passive vocabulary fund is observed since the end of the XX century and is related to these extra-linguistic factors such as the democratization of society, the spiritual «rebirth» of the society, which meant a return to religious sources and as a result, updating of moral principles. Analyzing the originality of language newspaper in the post-Soviet period E.V. Kahorina writes that «... in accordance with the tradition of an old stable journalistic vocabulary is widely used not in a denotative, but in an expressive function. Compare expressive compliance with the new category of «president»: tsar Boris, tasr Boriska, Bloody Boris, martyr. State high-level officials today are called dignitaries, rallies and strikes – turmoil and nationwide council, official correspondence – petitions. Particularly, press, newspapers are characterized by the use of words with national, patriotic orientation» (Kahorina, 2000: 70).


For the purpose of systematization and classification of the examples revealed from newspaper texts the content analysis method has been used.

Slavonic words as book words, having sublime and solemn color, brighter realize their emotional and expressive potential in the language of contemporary newspapers, mainly in the headlines – the main structural elements of newspaper texts, realizing their basic function – affecting. In our view, the use of Slavonic words in headlines of newspaper articles due to its actual content: «Flagman vyissheyshkolyi – naputi v gryaduschee»– «The flagship of high school – on the way to the future» («Kazahstanskaya Pravda», 15.01.2009)Here the reader’s attention is drawn to the book word gryadushee (future) with a solemn color, which in modern everyday life speech is an alternative designation of the future. Apparently, the content of the article itself, which sets out the prospects for the development of the main university of the country, motivated the use of stylistically marked Slavonic word gryadushee (future), semantic evolution is determined by its close connection with biblical themes. Thus, analyzing the cases of the use of the canonical use of the word gryadushii (future) into the biblical texts, it can be assumed that it originally called the action taking place now, right in front of your eyes, but the modern consciousness interprets this action as the approaching future. This dual interpretation is associated with a particular subject area description: the modern consciousness, the word gryadetis clearly contrasted is as «future», «present». In our view, the header title reflects the content of the article itself, as the word gryadushii (future), above all, means coming, having at the same time some important event-and hence the space-time semantics. On the contrary future in the modern language may be used with respect to subject names: my future husband, our future flat.

A particular interest comprise the headlines with the word grad (town) (lacking full vocalism, such as grad (town), zlato (gold), drevo (tree), breg (shore), vrata (gates) and etc.which finally came out of active use rather late – in the second half of the XIX century. However, the roots of these words remained as a part of the derivatives and compound words: Волгоград (Volgograd), безбрежный (boundless), обезглавить (decapitate), древесина (wood)They, unlike their Russianisms-synonyms, are characterized by a developed system of mobile metaphoric and symbolic meanings, so have large expressive possibilities. As such headlines of newspaper articles as:«Krasuysya, grad Petra» – Shine, city of Peter»; «Vzyiskuyuschie grada» –«Seeking the town»Grad vozdvignet zodchiy–»A town will be build by an architect». They are coloured by special solemnity and sublimity. Firstly, the stylistic markedness of the words with lack of full vocalism in the pair град-город, the city makes it commonly used in the «high» contexts imbued with an aura of greatness and limitations. For example, in the name of the central and most important from a political point of view, cities that, one way or another, have been associated with the names of prominent historical figures: Petrograd, Leningrad, Stalingrad, Teslinograd. Second, even in the ancient language of the values of the sewords are clearly differentiated: grad (town) had the meaning of «castle, citadel, fortification», and the word gorod (city) – had the meaning «the settlement of people». Third, attention was paid to its compatibility with the verb vozdvignut (to build) (which also has Slavic origin, where the prefix – воз has inceptiveness meaning). This is quite natural, because stylistically marked the word град cannot be used with a neutral verb stroit heuse of which is justified in the context type to build a house, build a shed, and etc. In modern Russian the verb vozdvigat, vozdvignut has the meaning – «to build».

The verb zryet (to see) in its primordial, archaic meaning of ‘see, look’ in the language of today’s newspaper obtains emotional-evaluative and ironic tone: «Aleksey Leonidovich my is lit strategicheski, on davno uzhe zritnadesyatiletiyav pered» – Alexei Leonidovich thinks strategically, he is already looking to the decades ahead» (Pavlov. Kudrin rasplaniroval dohod y budjeta na 30 let // «Komsomolskaya Pravda», 22.03.2007).

Slavonic word glas (voice) was one of the most common and prevalent in the use of quantitative Russism голос. This is due to the fact that the word glas (voice) has several «meanings portable

«suggestion, call, call of any of the internal sense, instinct, motivation,» for example, «call of duty, truth, friendship, soul, passion» etc.«sounding musical instrument», for examplethe voice of the flute. Set expression voice of the people becomes relevant in the period of perestroika, publicity and democracy, so actively used in the meaning «opinion, judgment, appeal» not only in the headlines, «Glasnaroda» («Zavtra», 15.08.2008), but also in contexts describing the political events:

«Okazalos, prokuratura uslyishala glas naroda, a chinovniki – net» –»It turned out the prosecutor’s office heard the voice of the people, while officials did not.»(Kseniya Patrusheva. Nizhegorodskie chinovniki proignorirovali glas naroda o genplane//

«Komsomolskaya Pravda», 22.06.2010);«No glas narodnyi ybyiluslyishanlish v nastupivshem godu» –»But people’s voice was heard only in the coming year»(V. Kochugov. Veruyushie Vladivostoka poluchat dva hrama// «Izvestiya», 14.01.2011).

The semantic and stylistic originality of the expression glasnaroda is manifested in its pathos, expression, enhancing the stylistic tone, expression of civil position, which makes this combination commonly used in the context of social-political content mainly in the opposition press and national newspapers of patriotic orientation: «Vyissyilaetes na mnenie naroda, kotoromu yakobyi oprotivel Soyuzkinematografistov. No otkuda vam izvesten glas naroda? Chislennoe preimuschestvo poka u starogosoyuza»–»You refer to the opinion of the people who supposedly loathed the Union of Cinematographers. But how do you know the opinion of the people? The numerical advantage has the old Union». (Zaozerskaya, German-mladshyi. Vsya strana prevratilas v Malyi Kozihinsky pereulok // «Trud-7», 12.12.2010.)

The modern newspaper and journalistic speech is characterized by a peculiar combination of the spoken words with high or bookish words, due to a combination of the informative standard and expression, as well as openness of media for the penetration of foreign style elements, particularly conversational ones. Slavonic words getting into the newspaper text, not only lost their high stylistic status, but also are mixed with stylistically contrasted, spoken words.

This combination of different by style elements in the language of today’s newspapers should also be attributed to semantic processes taking place in the lexicon of modern times.

Results and discussion

As the material, retrieved from of the Russian National Corpus (hereinafter – RNC), shows trends in contemporary usage, as well as evolutionary and dynamic processes taking place in the modern Russian language are most clearly reflected in the case of newspaper texts. Our observations on the material of the newspaper texts of RNC show that Slavonic words used in modern language newspapers are characterized by two trends: first, the frequency in the context of a typical, wellestablished combinability of words; secondly, the use of non-traditional combinations of words in order of ironic, contrasting and metaphorical description of objects and phenomena. We illustrate the use of Slavonic word dlan (hand) as apart of an established combination of hand of vengeance: «Voti v «Vyikupe» chuvstvuetsya dlan, kara yuschaya greshnikov, v chastnosti predateley, kotoryim tak i nado, pust muchayutsya v poslednem kruge ada» – Here in the «Redemption» is felt the hand of punishing sinnersin particular, traitors, which deserve it, let them suffer in the last circle of hell» (Pohishenie Persefonyi «Gomerovskie gimny» // «Nauka i zhizn»). These contexts are related to the spiritual sphere of human life, that is, we are talking about «high» moral matters and public foundations.

According to I.S. Ulukhanov, «traditional use restricts the lexical combinability of words; so the most typical combination for the Slavonic word kratkyi (short) were not the names of specific objects, but the names of abstract concepts, actions, time intervals, etc. These combinations have gradually become the only possible, but combinations like krat’ka odezha (short clothes) were not typical for the church-book monuments, which use the word kratkyi (short) – instead of korot’kyii (short), used in secular monuments, thus completely preserving the ability to combine with the names of specific objects» (Ulukhanov, 2012: 14-15). Indeed, examples of the traditional use of Slavonic words are scarce in

the language of modern newspapers, on the other hand, there is observed the use of non-traditional combinations, formed on the basis of structural and semantic transformation of an established combination karayuschaya ruka (punishing hand):

«Pust eta spasayuschaya dlan rastaet v vozduhe, kak ulyibka cheshirskogo kota, no glavnoe sdelano – prozhit esche odin den» «Let this saving hand melt in the air like the Cheshire cat’s smile, but the main thing is done – another day is gone» (Kak rodilas astrologiya?// «Komsomolskaya pravda», 19.03.2002); «Horosho by ivseeto perenesti v nash den, a v proshlom ostavit dlinnyie ocheredi, rukovodyaschuyu dlan obkoma, vyiboryi odnogo deputata izodnogo kandidata» «It would be good to move it all in our day, and to leave in the past the long queues,guiding hand of the regional committeethe election of one deputy from one of the candidate» (Е. Zhuravlev. Toskuyu po besplatnoi putevke ot profkoma// «Trud-7», 05.10.2000). Figurative and metaphorical reinterpretation of Slavonic word dlan (hand) creates its new, not typical compatibility with a variety of words that actualizes its use for irony, sarcasm and allegory: «Posmotrite oprosyi obschestvennogo mneniya v zapadnyih stranah, kuda ne prosterlas dlan KPSS, – i tam politicheskie partii zamyikayut spisok obschestvennyih institutov, kotoryim doveryayut naselenie» – «Look to opinion polls in Western countries, where the hand of the Communist Party did not reach, there political parties close the list of public institutions that are trusted by the population» (Ignatov. Kakaya partiya luchshe? // «Trud-7», 02.03.2005).

Sustainable use of the traditions of Old Slavonic origin verbs associated with the development of mobile value in their semantics. Thus, the verb vospryanut (rise up) was initially used only in the literal meaning of vspryigivayu, vskakivayu (jump up, jump out). Figurative meaning to ozhivitsya, probuditsya k deyatelnosti, obodritsya (to revive, to awaken to the activities, to cheer up) this word gains due to abstract metaphorical thinking and in this meaning of the verb vospryanut (rise up) was used in the poetic language of XVIII-XIX centuries. In modern Russian language the verb vospryanut (rise up) has a special lexical-semantic variant and describes the same type of situation, so combined with the same word, for example: vospryanut duhom (to cheer up, to respire). This well-established use of the word became its systemic meaning, as evidenced by the following examples: «Mozhet li narod vospryanut duhom posle ispyitaniy, chto vyipali na ego dolyu» «Can people cheer up after the hardships that have fallen to its share?» (Roslyakov. Chelovek, u kotorogo tri rodiny// «Trud-7», 23.05.2000)

The democratization of modern media generates a variety of imaginative rethinking of Bibli cal expressions as a result of various associations, reflecting the value ideas of modern society: «No chempionat – etohlebnasuschnyiy, a Liga – prazdnik» – «But the championship is our daily bread, while the League – a holiday» (Cherkesov: Mozhet, yaprinoshu «Spartaku» udachu? // «Komsomolskaya pravda», 30.08.2016). Occasional expression statement fills special semantic information, which is manifested in a subjective vision of reality by the author, is refracted in the creative minds in their own system of values. For example, the Biblical phraseologism manna nebesnaya (manna from heaven) means ‘something desirable, it is necessary, rare’, and has nothing to do with semolina. According to the biblical myth – it’s the food that God sent the Jewish people from the sky every morning, when the «sons of Israel» went into the desert to the promised. In fact, according to botanists, manna nebesnaya (manna from heaven) – this is just edible lichen that grows in the deserts of Africa and Asia Minor, light gray lumps which are raised up by the wind, and it seems that they fall from the sky. This refers to the combination of the most modern frequency phraseology in speech communication, not only in its original meaning» ‘ччттоо---ллллииииббббоооожжжжееееллллааааннннннннооооееее,,, кккрраааййнннее--необходимое, редкое’, but in occasional use as a consequence of his metaphorical rethinking on the basis of subjective associations that are more typical for the media language: «Dlyateh, kto provodit bessonnyie nochi v borbe s prestupnikami, poyavlenie podobnogo svidetelya – kak manna nebesnaya» – «For those who spend sleepless nights in the fight against criminals, the appearance of this witness is like manna from heaven» (Gorshkov. «Sdelka s pravosudiem» kak borba s mafiei // «Komsomolskaya Pravda», 20.09.2016).

There idiom is used in a non-traditional sense: vyigodnyiy povorot del (favorable turn of affairs). Despite the fact that occasional use violate phraseological norms enshrined in the dictionary, «they indicate the semantic potential of biblical phraseology, which provides its inclusion in the modern conditions of communication, however, if we consider biblicisms in the aspect of mastering by the native speakers, the deviations from the language standard are seen as evidence of the development and exploitation of this fragment of Russian vocabulary and phraseology» (Didkovskaya, 2007: 154).


According to our observations, in newspaper texts Slavonic words describe either a positive or a negative situation that are associated with the formation of the moral concepts that represent a semantic and stylistic originality in the composition of emotional and expressive, evaluative vocabulary. For example, the Church Slavonic vocabulary with positive emotional expressive colouringpodvig, muzhestvo, doblest, blago, dobrodetel, blagopoluchie, pomosch, blagorodnyiy, posvyatit, voskresit, blagoslovit, vospryanut, iskupit, prozret (feat, courage, valor, good, virtue, prosperity, help, noble, to devote, to revive, to bless, to rise, to redeem, to see the light) etc. has formed the conceptual sphere of high moral qualities in the minds of the people. Vocabulary with such negative coloring as the vred, sram, bezobrazie, bezumie, tscheslavie, bran, izmena, vrag, kovarnyiy, prazdnyiy, presmyikatsya, predat, vlachit (harm, shame, disgrace, madness, ambition, abuse, betrayal, enemy, treacherous, idle, grovel, to betray, to drag) negatively assessing those or other phenomena, has contributed, in turn, to the formation of the negative qualities of the Russian people.

Functioning of Slavonic words in the language of modern newspapers is characterized, on the one hand, by the actualization of the spiritual aspects of life, on the other by the intensification of the processes of ironic reduction of stylistically marked «high» vocabulary. The frequency of use of Slavonic words in various textsis related to, first of all, the target setting of the writing and the style-forming factors: if in the literary text Slavonic words act as a means of stylization, in the newspaper text – as a means of speech influence. In our view, the trend of use of language means in newspaper texts related to both intra-linguistic factors (mastering of the literary and journalistic traditions, their expressive possibilities of affecting the function), and extralinguistic factors (psychological, social, political, cultural, social and economic).

Thus, the material extracted from the newspaper of subcorpus of RNC, reveals the peculiarities of Slavonic words in modern language newspapers it describes them with diachronic position in synchrony of the language. It is quite logical that the fact that the language of newspapers is most vivid and adequately traced all the dynamic processes taking place in the language, and is reflected in the newspaper «life» of modern society, dictating priorities in the use of language means.



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Magazine: KazNU BULLETIN
Year: 2018
City: Almaty
Category: Philology