Currently in the process of teaching foreign languages, including Russian as a foreign language, an important consideration is the issue of intercultural communication. Processes and problems of intercultural communication in the literature has been reviewed in the context of international relations. Account of cultural differences, students of different nationalities, their religious affiliation, age-appropriate, characteristics of temperament, cultural traditions, native language, peculiarities of the country of residenceall this will no doubt contribute to effective learning for foreign students. Without taking into account all these features may cause problems in intercultural communication. It is important in the international audience to use communicative-significant material from the point of view of the recipient, because the content of the training will be different, depending on what kind of culture is a student.
Language is not only a system of signs, but also historically established form of culture of a nation. The cultural speech always helped people to find a mutual understanding in industrial activities and spiritual communion.
To master a foreign language, you should be aware that a native speaker of a foreign language is the carrier of a foreign culture; you must learn to communicate with him/her in the format of his/ her culture, namely, to master intercultural communication. Intercultural communication is the process of a verbal and non-verbal communication between speakers of different languages and cultures. The main in the communication between people is their desire to understand each other. Each culture is formed in accordance with its basic features, one of which is language.
First of all, before classes the teacher should consider who his/her student is: how old he/she is, what motivation he/she has, what aim he/she follows and the terms of study. And there, when the student is known, the teacher should choose the methods of his/her study, and the teacher also needs to select the training methodical complex, by formulating a strategy: «what can I teach students today, tomorrow, in a month, in 6 months and in a year?» Naturally, the selection of lexis and grammar subordinates this strategy. Students of the faculty of foundation program education are foreigners of different ages from 37 countries of the world. Although they have different educational backgrounds, their task is to learn Russian. But the study of the phonetic, lexical, grammatical phenomena without recourse to the phenomena of culture does not give the desired result. Teacher, forming a speech competence at students has to form both and socio-cultural competences, lying not always coincide with the native a new picture of world.
Getting to classes, teacher needs to determine what information about the country foreign students will need to a proper understanding of written and heard; what information it should be reported to meet their educational interest; in what order it is best to offer the students the knowledge throughout the educational process and at each lesson.
During the nine months, foreign students study Russian language at our faculty. Dividing students on language groups takes place based on their chosen specialty, because many of them are expected to continue studies at HEIs of Kazakhstan, as well as on the results of the entrance test. Students unite in international groups, excluding the native language of foreign students.
This certainly has its advantages, as students don’t only learn Russian, but also get acquainted with representatives of other cultures. In such conditions, the teacher of Russian as a foreign language has a great responsibility: to create all the necessary conditions for successful language acquisition in the process of learning. The student group comprises people who have come from different countries, of different ages, education, and what kind of relationship develops between them will depend on their successes, achievements or mistakes.
The successful mastery of the language promotes not only a good memory, the ability to learn languages, and so on, but also a friendship between people, quite different from each other.
The richness of any language is its lexical and phraseological fund, established for centuries and reflecting the peculiarities of everyday life, traditions and worldview of the people. Folk wisdom is an international phenomenon and often in the native language of the student we can find a proverb, that has almost the same meaning as that saying proposed by a teacher, and comparison of two identical phrases in content gives a good reason to talk about the customs of two countries. Proverbs, sayings, phraseological units are easy to remember and influence on the behavior and inner world of a man.
But it requires a strict selection of proverbs and sayings for foreign students, taking into account their relevance, frequency of use, educational and methodological feasibility. On this basis, at the lessons of the Russian language it is necessary to introduce foreign students with proverbs, sayings, phraseological units, which can tell us about the traditions and customs, everyday life, character and emotions of a man. The understanding between people can only be achieved when students not only master the language knowledge, skills and abilities, but also learn culture of other nations.
Teachers of Russian as a foreign language, working in an international audience, know what to teach Russian language to an Japanese or an Arab is not the same that to teach an American or a Korean, as representatives of different countries have their own understanding of the world. For example, conducting classes with students from Korea and Vietnam, it must be remembered that, explaining, in particular, the idiom ‘to be a past master» it is necessary to make a linguistic-country comment and explain the figurative meaning of this language unit and highlight the complete lack of its relation due to the process of eating this «friend of a man». With students from Europe, America and most other countries it isn’t necessary to make a comment.
Integration of culture in the process of learning Russian as a foreign language requires its study on the comparative level, when one comes in contact with another culture, and as a result its specifics appears. It is clear that culture can act as both a means of communication and as a means of separation. Separation occurs when the communication partners do not understand the specific features of a verbal and a nonverbal behavior, and a cultural distance between them is too great.
In order to provide communication opportunity it is necessary to select such material for classes, which helps to learn the features of the national life style. At the same time we should not forget that foreign students can take the rare facts for the ordinary, incidental as the common. The learning process should be organized taking into account the native language and culture of students. Knowledge of native culture of students allows the teacher to foresee possible cases of inappropriate behavior of students in terms of communication in Russian, caused by lack of understanding of certain realities of life, and to take measures to prevent a crosscultural interference. In addition, knowledge of the native culture of students has an impact on the behavior of the teacher, which should be such as not to hurt the feelings of national dignity of students.
Thus, an Arab student is better not to say that he doesn’t understand a rule. The man won’t never accept the fact that he is accused of something, and furthermore – an Arabian man, who is inherent
in the increased self-esteem. Students from Latin America need to control frequently. With regard to African students, there are differences between them too. Students from Mali are very organized and disciplined than students from Nigeria, but they are all very touchy. Chinese students are very hardworking, but they do not understand our jokes, so it is very difficult to evoke a smile at them.
They usually do not talk about themselves, the story about their family is a cliche, a retelling of a text is learning certain phrases by heart, like to read texts aloud and in unison, but with great pleasure talk about their centuries-old culture. They really like when students from other countries show interest in their country, traditions and customs. They can carry out written assignments with pleasure, their favourite reading book is a dictionary, they prefer to find every word in the dictionary and know the exact translation.
In recent years Chinese students have studied at our faculty for two years, as they are difficult to study Russian language than students from other countries. Chinese students make friends usually with their countrymen, but find a common language with others, because they are very considerate. It is known that the distance between a teacher and a student from Latin America is less than that between a teacher and a Korean student. Sometimes you have to stop a student without complexes from Turkey at classes, but and «to pull» a phrase and even a replica from others.
Thus, the problem of an intercultural communication in teaching Russian as a foreign language isn’t solved easily, because the representatives of each region have their own characteristics, without which it is impossible to organize an educational process. The role of a teacher in this case is leading. To receive the necessary knowledge by students, a teacher must not only be knowledgeable specialist, but a good actor and a subtle diplomat.
For foreign students in a cross-cultural communication, beginning from its first steps, there is a tendency of «a dialogue of two cultures» – native and studied. Foreign students receive an information about various aspects of life of the country of the studied language. Without knowledge of the values of the country, literature, traditions and customs it would be difficult a foreigner to perceive the target language. Discrepancies in the native and target reality lead to errors such as «enter the University», «to buy pencils at the drugstore», «a kilogram of eggs» and others, as students carry facts of native culture on another one.
Results and discussion
Teachers of Russian as a foreign language should be aware that foreign students have already developed ideas of their own nation and other nations. Therefore, it is important to teach them to see differences between cultures, especially to capture features of a different culture, to overcome stereotypes. When teaching Russian as a foreign language it is necessary to remember that the learning process will be more successful if foreign students know the culture of the country which language they are studying. Arriving in a foreign country, foreign students do not only learn the language spoken by its inhabitants, but also attach to national values, learn to understand the main features of the national character, especially the perception of the world by representatives of the target language.
Assimilation of information about the ethnoculture of native speakers of an object language happens at university, with the help of applying various databases (such as educational process, extra curriculum activities, self-education, direct communication with other foreign students, mass media etc), students learn to differentiate this information in terms of significance and authenticity, apply obtained knowledge for solving the problems in the sphere of intercultural understanding and interaction.
In terms of modern training, when in one study group are studied representatives from different countries, having specific features of the national character and thinking, the question of an intercultural communication is of a particular importance. Therefore teachers need to teach respect for the uniqueness of each culture, tolerance for the unusual behavior of students from other countries, flexibility in their response behavior. It is necessary to develop common rules of cooperation, taking into account traditions and cultural features of the country which language they are studying. Formation of the lexical competence of foreign students assumes the integration of knowledge that they received from various sources in the process of learning Russian, and an ability to solve tasks of the intercultural interaction. Herewith, a new departure for entering the ethnoculture of native speakers of an object language, for development of a facility to the intercultural understanding and dialogue is the maintenance of values of a foreign student’s culture and his/her cultural values self-reference with the cultural values of the Russian people.
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