Educational practice of Folklore: new aspects and methods

Higher education in Kazakhstan is experiencing a new stage of development associated with the modernization, based on the dominance of the personal educational vector of future specialist, of a competent in their field. Preparation of students takes into account the innovative processes in the system of higher education, having the status of the translator target orientations in preparation scientific and pedagogical personnel. The growth of the subjective factor by improving and intensification of student autonomy, increasing the role of self evaluation and creativity require fundamentally new approaches to the organization of educational process, especially at the time of the direct inclusion of the student in a situation which is a educational practice of Folklore – one of the most important components of the training specialist-philologist.

In the present publication describes the experience conducting practice in the educational program of preparation students of the Russian branch the Faculty of Philology and the world’s languages in Al-Farabi Kazakh National University with access to new vectors in methodological level.

One of the basic courses in the curriculum of training in philology – folklore or oral folk arts, in a development plan that includes the material of the general theory of the subject (lectures), practical exercises (analysis of texts and research) and study folklore practice, the third, the final step in the study of discipline «Russian oral folk poetry.»

Folk practice as an important part of the fundamental content of educational and independent scientific work of students of the first course, has its own specifics, implementing immediate task of deepening and expanding knowledge on oral folklore, received at lectures and practical classes. In the process of communication with native oral tradition, students get acquainted with the living of folklore, acquire skills collecting work, acquire practical skills in preparation for the publication of folk records, get an idea of the archival storage of records of folklore and their initial postprocessing.

Specifics of the practice depends on the region where the planned cycle of the basic work, the aim of which is to establish the identity and patterns of folklore, artistic essence works of oral poetry in their living existence, methods of collecting scientific and practical work of folklore. [1] Its specificity is the work in an urban environment, where I came from, as a rule, most of the students takes place and where the main front of the practice. This article describes a technique of practical research particularly in urban environments.

Analysis of the material recorded in different regions of Kazakhstan, it is important and timely, as it enables a comprehensive study contemporary processes and historical patterns in the oral tradition, the general typological and specific features of modern folklore. Participation in the implementation of the tasks of the future experts in the field of humanities undoubtedly enhances productivity research undertaken.

Educational practice of students of the Kazakh National University carried out on the territory of the republic, in the vicinity of the city of Almaty and its suburbs, and the place of residence of trainees. In addition, it provides bibliographic form of the plan in practice local history museums, archives, libraries.

On the territory of Kazakhstan identified ethno-cultural regions with a pronounced specificity existence of oral folklore, which is apparent in the character of the different stratifications of poetic traditions brought by settlers (Cossacks, peasants, Ukrainian, Belarusian influence with elements of a foreign environment of existence). [2, 6]

History the Semirechye region, in the area which are mainly carried out exploratory visits and direct work with native Eastern Slavic folklore, is the factor that determines the immediate tasks of the survey: to teach students to communicate with native folk traditions, methods of collection and analysis of oral works; definition of the specific characteristics of the folklore of the region in its modern existence, to fix theoretical knowledge on oral folklore. As a result of the practice students need to learn the general theoretical and methodological issues, to be able to organize independent work in the course of practice. [3, 5] The student should know the specifics of the field of folklore studies and work with native folklore; be able to write, attributing the works of oral poetry, to identify their genre originality, to determine the degree of preservation and destruction of folk tradition; gain knowledge of cultural and educational plan to complement the theoretical course of Russian oral folk art.

Practical work includes the following highlights. For orientation in the terrain mapping-scheme of the settlement, produced safety and ethics. It is imperative to introduce a story, saying, economy and culture of the settlement, the identification of the conditions of existence of folklore, with the best performers familiar fairy tales, songs, limericks, and others Genres. In the early days of practice established contact with local social authorities, teachers, librarians, and club museum workers, leaders of amateur, is a great help in the organization, identifying the best songwriters, performers, known activists and lovers of folklore. Carrying records folklore carried out according to the waste at seminars technique is recommended prior familiarity with the informants; record data on them in the form of a passport with the necessary particulars.

Audio and video recording of folklore is made as needed and also has a system of methodological principles. The recorded material at the end of the day stands: if there is audio version is transferred from the tape to the paper, rewritten Anew day meeting with the informant. If you are recording a number of trainees, the fragments are consolidated in one text. Mandatory requirement – the accuracy of the record: not allowed omissions, modifications, additions, text, reflecting the peculiarities of dialect or dialects.

Development of methods for collecting works in the city should begin with an introduction to the traditions of the city, with the history of its formation, thus there is a mastery of skills systematization and classification of diverse cultural material, familiarization with the infrastructure and the characteristics of different sectors of the population, with the genre of urban folk and urban traditions. The system of genres includes legends, traditions, urban romance, weddings, funerals, family gatherings, feasts traditions, birthday traditions, calendar holidays. Attention should be paid trainees examples of mythologizing and labeling of city space to allocate significant loci who purchase support poetic reflection in the traditions of the buildings, monuments, cemeteries, areas (central and suburban), in the same context it is interesting unofficial names of urban spaces «memory», toponymic legends.

Head Consultant should focus trainees to record and systematize the traditions of individual urban contact groups (pensioners, tourists, students, doctors, and others.)While paying attention to the active or passive forms of existence of initiation rituals, traditions, drawing novice, songs, toasts, jokes , true stories, omens, anecdotes, professional calendar, highlighting the traditional folklore genres: puzzle, omens, charms, limericks and most popular genre – the songs. One way of kits according to the plan is the practice of fixing and systematization of the genre found in manuscript collections, prevailing in the urban environment.

This handwritten songbooks, notebooks with records of favorite works for personal use, army or student albums and notebooks, Maiden albums. As a rule, they presented a varied repertoire: amateur poetry, divination, omens, anecdotes, true stories, greetings, wishes, toasts, songs, jokes, aphorisms, album games and dialogues, and much more.

Of particular interest is the future teachers should call the work with children and teenagers. Recording and systematization of children’s urban folklore can be organized in the school (in the summer – in the school camps), in the courts, in interest groups where there are active forms of games (mobile, role, intellectual). From the perspective of genre diversity of children’s urban folklore presented patters, teasers, true stories, traditions receiving newcomers to the group, jokes, anecdotes, renderings read, poems, songs, limericks, rhymes.

Thus, trainees will learn in more detail in the context of urban folk culture while to identify the main features of modern urban folklore: polycentric socio-cultural, functional marginality, focus on literary and cultural patterns and folk versions. One of the features is highlighting not ceremonial and entertainment forms. In this context, it should be stressed, and specifically noted the active trend for processing, refining, change, parody and other forms of creative transformation of the famous works of folk origin.

Handling and operation texts precursor occurs in the range from a simple play with small adjustments to the multi-level transformation. Of interest to compile a picture of the active dynamics of folklore such manifestations as aphoristics typical communicative situations, comic reworking of the traditional cliches and proverbs to create comic situations, the use of pseudo-citations in the pseudo-etymological games. Pay attention to the counter-cultural and subcultural nature of some manifestations of urban folklore. [4, 8] The main outcome of the folk practices are deposited in the archives of the department and decorated appropriately recording folklore texts, diary and a report on the work done, based on presented qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the collected materials, personal experience of the work, comments and suggestions. In the Kazakh National University, each student has a page on the website of the faculty, where there is a control and documentation of trainee intake. Making materials in electronic form, a student at the same time making a data network unit, where there is a monitoring and reduction through the practice of head, viewing the results and characteristics of the student’s head of the Department and the Commission for Reception Reports practices from among the committee members – teachers and trainers of the department or faculty, approval and production rating score recorded in a statement for the approval of the dean of the faculty, which subsequently taken into account for transfer students on the next course of the educational program. As a result of practices carried out the final conference, which announced the results of each trainee, marked the most productive participants summed up the results and ranking information is disclosed. Subsequently, the material collected by the students, can be used in teaching and in scientific terms. This experience was tested in various forms of scientific research and educational work until the publication of a collection of texts, scientific papers, theses and monographs, thus confirming the appropriateness and relevance of this type of learning activity. [5]

 

References

  1. Bagizbaeva M.Abdulina A. Seminars, independent work and folkloric practice on the course «Russian oral folk arts» // Guidelines for first-year students of the Faculty of Philology. – Almaty, 1997
  2. Abdulina A. Historical fate of folk poetry in the regional aspect (based on Russian folklore of Kazakhstan). – Almaty, 1996
  3. Actual problems of the field of folklore. – Moscow, Moscow State University, Vol. 1. 2002
  4. Actual problems of the field of folklore. – Moscow, Moscow State University, Vol. 2, 2003
  5. Bagizbaeva M. Russian folklore of East Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 1991; Abdulina A. Historical fate of folk poetry in the regional aspect (based on Russian folklore of Kazakhstan). – Almaty, 1996; Abisheva O. Not ritual songs of poetry in Russian folklore of East Kazakhstan. // Diss ... cand. filol. Sciences. – Alma-Ata, 1989, and others.
Magazine: KazNU BULLETIN
Year: 2017
City: Almaty
Category: Philology
loading...