In the article, the techniques of the educational training for the preparation of the trainers (doctors, nurses, social workers) for the organization of medico-social care for senior people were shown. This educational process is based on peculiarities of physical and psychical health of the elderly, principals of the prevention of age-dependent diseases, rehabilitation, and palliative care. A very important role plays the provision with the illustrative materials on the actual aspects of gerontology and geriatrics for medical personnel, elderly people and members of their families, instructions for the organization of health schools and rehabilitation programs for elderly people.
Intensive aging of the population, accumulation of elderly people, single persons, chronically ill ones, persons with a decreased and lost capability to self-care who need a constant support from the state, society and family are observed in Kazakhstan and Ukraine. Material losses of the majority of the pensioners, connected with a retirement on a pension, impossibility of employment, losses of the significant social contacts, role functions in the family and society, are accompanied with the destruction of the stereotypes formed during the life.
Objective of the educational training is a preparation of the trainers (lecturers) (doctors, nurses, social workers) in the issues of the organization of medico-social care to elderly people, peculiarities of physical and psychical health of the elderly, basics of the prevention of age-dependent diseases, rehabilitation and care, palliative care; provision with the illustrative materials on the actual aspects of gerontology and geriatrics for the holding of the training of medical personnel, elderly people and members of their families, instruction for the organization of the schools of health and rehabilitation programs for elderly people.
As a result of the training its participants have to know: tendencies of the demographic changes in the country and world, strip charts for the realization of the Madrid international plan on aging and ways of its realization , rights of elderly people; features of the psychology of the people of elder age groups, principles of the communication with them and psychological support in crises;
age-dependent changes in the human organism at aging and agedependent diseases of the organs and systems, principles of prophylaxis;
ways for the decrease of the effect of negative social, physical, and psychological factors on the capability of the human for independent life;
rules of the communication with elderly people with the disorders in the functions of different organs and systems;
significance of the healthy life style as a basis of active longevity, including physical load and rational nutrition;
principles of the prevention of the beginning of the syndrome of “professional burnout”;
main elements of the care at the beginning of age-dependent disorders, including the end of the life;
symptoms of urgent states among elderly people and principles of first aid.
As a result of the training its participants must:
be skilled in the educational habits and illustrative material and also disseminate their knowledge and habits among other students (cascade approach);
use the approaches for the improvement of the practical consulting and the habits in the work with the elderly;
use the relative management habits in their everyday life;
be skilled in obtained habits of the communication and exchange of the experience with elderly people and temporary displaced persons;
form the groups of self-care and mutual aid among elderly residents;
perform an explanatory work on the healthy life style at elderly age, features of nutrition, physical load, and prevention of the development of cognitive disorders;
interpret the results of general, functional, and basic instrumental methods of the research applied in geriatric practice;
formulate and substantiate a tactics for the care at acute urgent states in geriatrics;
apply rationally knowledge on the prevention of the professional burnout of the personnel who help the elderly people temporary displaced persons and palliative patients.
Recommendations for Trainers.
The training program consists of 3 modules: each of them includes lecture blocks, pedagogical games and work in groups.
Module themes 1:
Demographic aging: the elderly people in Kazakhstan, Ukraine and in the world. Gerontology: development of gerontology in Ukraine and in the world. Theory and practice of longevity. Life quality at elderly age. Organization of geriatric care in Kazakhstan , Ukraine and other countries. Health of the elderly and their needs in specific kinds of care. Individual medical actions. Features of the communications with elderly people .
Module themes 2:
Age-dependent changes in the organism during aging. Decrease of cognitive functions in elderly people. Rehabilitation at elderly age. Conception of rehabilitation. Personal hygiene. First aid.
Module themes 3:
Palliative care: features of palliative care to elderly people; prevention of the “professional burnout” syndrome, ageism. Right for pension and capacity for work.
Each modulus is held during three days and consists of introductory, main, and concluding parts. Every day the students have brakes for lunch 60 minutes and two short breaks 10 minutes. Total number of the academic hours for lecture blocks 52.0, total number of the academic hours for pedagogical games 2.4, total number of the academic hours for work in groups 9.6. Final test is a result control of the students' knowledge after each modulus. After performance of training the students fill in the cards for the assessment of training quality.
Contingent of the students: medical workers, social workers, instructors that work with the elderly, temporary displaced individuals, persons in a zone of military conflict and palliative patients.
minutes are devoted to the general introductory part at the beginning of the training and acquaintance with the participants of the training, 10 minutes to the introductory parts for each modulus, 50 minutes to the final parts for each modulus. For the provision of the optimality of the education each group consists of 15 students. Visual instruction is provided owing to the demonstration of prepared before materials (slides, video films) with the help multimedia projector.
For the provision of the efficiency of the education the leader of training should take into account professional, physical, and psychological peculiarities of the students. It is necessary: At the selection of the students to the groups to provide the homogeneity of their professional objectives;
At the performance of the lectures to provide the regular brakes in 10 minutes;
To perform the lectures in the language intelligible for the participants of the training;
At the demonstration of the materials to use the examples from the practice , including the examples from the experience of the students;
To encourage widely the students to active discussion of the materials in a course of its teaching;
To ensure a friendly relationships among the participants of the training.
At the beginning of the training it should be emphasized a necessity for each students participation in all three modules, test control of the obtained knowledge after every modulus, active participation in the discussion of the training themes, participation in the working groups and pedagogical games, assessment of lecture and illustrative materials at the end of training, presentation of the proposals for further improvement of the performance of the training. To meet with all the participants of the training.
Knowledge and skill, obtained at the training, help the students to master modern knowledge and habits in medical, social, and psychological care to elderly people and internally displaced people.
Work in groups:
^Components of the Healthy Longevity oblast programs for elderly people. (All the participants are divided into 3 groups representatives of different oblasts. A plan of the most effective and urgent measures (in the opinion of the participants) on the formation of the regional projects for the provision of healthy longevity of the population according to the MIAP and the UNO basic principles for the elderly people are developed in every group.)
- Measures for the improvement of the organization of medico-social care to elderly people and internally displaced people at the regional level_ (Work with the people in crises state effective and urgent measures (from point of view of the members of the group) on the formation of the ways for its overcoming the region in medical , social, and psychological care.)
- Rehabilitation at the primary level. All participants are divided into 3 groups. The most important and efficient measures for medical, social, and psychological rehabilitation in practical activity of the participants are determined in every group.
- Rights of elderly people. All participants are divided into 3 groups. The most important and efficient measures (from the point of view of the members of the group) for opposition of the violations of the rights of elderly and internally displayed people.). Presentations of the results of the work in groups (10 minutes for every groups). Discussion.
Assessment of the training by its participants. Quality of training (availability of teaching of theoretical material and presentations) is determined by means of assessment questionnaire filling in by every participants.
Evaluation criteria of the results of training for every modulus.
At the final lecture of every modulus the control tests are proposed to the students and knowledge are evaluated by the results of the correct answers. The final attestation is performed by means of testing or in the form of oral test, knowledge of the students is evaluated according the ball system.
Thus, the presented teaching method allows you to cover broad aspects of systematic and comprehensive training of specialists, family members of the elderly, and the elderly themselves in providing assistance to the elderly, including self-help and mutual assistance, taking into account their physical, mental and social status. This allows you to use this technique to prepare a wide range of specialists in the field of gerontology and geriatrics.