Influence of preventive work on the state of the oral cavity of the adolescents

This study was devoted to the definition and improvement of the index of oral hygiene in adolescents. We examined in total 850 children of 12 and 15 years of age. According to the results, the hygiene index was unsatisfactory. After the comprehensive oral care program, the indexes of the OHI-S index were significantly reduced.

Introduction. More than 75% of the world's population suffer from periodontal disease[1]. A particularly severe picture is observed in developing countries. For example, in India- 94% [2],Nicaragua - 96.8 % [3], South America- 93.9 % [4].

Among the periodontal diseases the most common form is gingivitis 84,4-100% [5,6]. In addition, most often this disease occurs in adolescents 12-16 years, this is due to hormonal imbalance[7–9]. Forms of gingivitis also vary. The most commonly found catarrhal form of gingivitis [10,11]. In children, chronic catarrhal gingivitis occurs 94% of cases, it is in adolescence ranges from 30% to 87% [12–15].

In the adolescent period, periodontal disease occurs in 50-99% of cases, mainly male teenagers are more susceptible to the disease and differ as much as possible at the age of 15 [8; 11–14; 16]. According to different authors, the distribution of periodontal diseases in children of the Republic of Kazakhstan at the age of 15 is 11-13% [17]. Destructive forms of periodontal disease in adolescence is 2-6% [11].

Based on the above, the purpose of our study was to determine and improve the index of oral hygiene in adolescents.

Materials and methods of research.The study involved adolescents 12 and 15 years who were treated for prevention. A total of 850 children were examined: of these, adolescents 12 years old - 430, boys - 222 and girls - 228; children of 15 years of age - 420, of them boys 208 and girls 212.

The examination was carried out in the dental office, with adequate artificial lighting, using a standard set of dental instruments. The condition of the oral cavity was determined by the hygienic index OHI-S (Green, Vermillion, 1964) and its components - plaque (DI-S) and dental calculus (CI-S). Adolescents 12 and 15 years were divided in their age category into 2 subgroups - the studied and control.

After the definition of this index, all children were professionally cleaned teeth, and they were trained in the standard method of cleaning their teeth. The control group was examined after 6 months, and the study group was invited every 2 months for additional cleaning and explanatory work. The statistical processing of the results was carried out using the SPSS v 20 package using the parametric criterion - the Student coefficient. Results and discussion.The average index of OHI-S hygiene index of the children surveyed is presented in the tables1-2.

Tablel -Indicators of the OHI-S of the control group

Number of children and their age

Oralhygiene OHI-S

Baseline

After 6 months

12 years old, n=215 (total 430)

Boys – 111 (total

222)

1.7±0.073

1.6±0.077

Girls – 114 (total

228)

1.5±0.065

1.4±0.064

15 years old, n=210 (total 420)

Boys– 104

(total208)

1.5±0.064

1.3±0.068

Girls– 106

(total212)

1.4±0.050

1.2±0.054

Table 2 -Indicators of the OHI-S of the study group

Number of children and their age

Oralhygiene OHI-S

Baseline

After 2 months

After

4 months

After 6 months

12 years old, n=215 (total 430)

Boys – 111 (total

222)

1.7±0.084

1.4±0.086

1.2±0.088

0.9±0.083

Girls – 114 (total

228)

1.6±0.075

1.3±0.077

1.1±0.073

0.8±0.073

15 years old, n=210 (total 420)

Boys - 104 (total

208)

1.5±0.059

1.3±0.055

1.1±0.057

0.9±0.055

Girls – 106 (total

212)

1.3±0.049

1.1±0.044

0.9±0.050

0.7±0.047

The results of the study made it possible to reveal the unsatisfactory level of oral hygiene in adolescents.

One of the main causes of periodontal diseases is microbial dental plaque, excessive accumulation of which is observed with unsatisfactory oral hygiene[18].

Conclusions.

  1. The dental status of both 12-year-olds and 15-year-olds was unsatisfactory.
  2. Cleaning teeth of adolescents under the supervision of doctors is an important element in the hygienic education of children, because in a short time it was possible to significantly improve the hygiene index.
  3. The data obtained indicate that hygienists are needed to maintain the health of the oral cavity.

 

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Year: 2018
City: Almaty
Category: Medicine