Morphologic features of the intrapulmonary form of the experimental rat's ovarian tumor in case of different technique of transplantion

Transplanted organotropic strain of the ovarian tumor of rats is able to develop in different forms depending on technique of transplantation. In case of subcutaneous introduction of the tumor cells it develops in the form of solid tumor node. In case of intraperitoneal introduction of the tumor cells it develops in the form of ascites. In case of intravenous introduction of the tumor cells it develops in the form of numerous pulmonary metastases. We studied morphologic changes in tissue of the lungs affected by metastases of the experimental rat's ovarian tumor in case of different technique of transplantation.

Actuality. Transplanted organotropic strain of the ovarian tumor of rats is able to develop in different forms depending on technique of transplantation. In case of subcutaneous introduction of the tumor cells it develops in the form of solid tumor node. In case of intraperitoneal introduction of the tumor cells it develops in the form of ascites. In case of intravenous introduction of the tumor cells it develops in the form of numerous pulmonary metastases. We studied morphologic changes in tissue of the lungs affected by metastases of the experimental rat's ovarian tumor in case of different technique of transplantation.

Methods. For our investigation we used three-month-old males of laboratory rats that made up four groups (each group consisted of five animals). The group number one included intact animals. The groups number two included rats subjected to intravenous injection of ten thousand of tumor cells. The group number three included rats subjected to subcutaneous injection of the homogenate of the tumor cells. The group number four included rats subjected to intraperitoneal introduction of five million tumor cells. Concentration of the introduced tumor cells was determined with the help of Gorjaev's count chamber.

Rats of the groups number one and number two were killed on the twentieth day of the experiment. Rats of the groups number three and number four were kept till the time of full development of the tumor.

After the dissection of the thoracic cavity the caudal parts of the lungs were extracted and fixed in solution of formalin. Paraffin sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Histologic specimens were observed under light microscope.

Discussion. On the outside the lungs of the control rats (rats of the group number one) are covered by serous tunic that consists of flattened mesothelium (its thickness is 4,13±0,19 micrometers, its cells contains hyperchromatic elongated nuclei) and subepithelial connective tissue layer which is penetrated by numerous capillaries. The connective tissue layer consists of a large number of cells having oval densely stained nuclei, and of fibres directed along the surface of the organ. Thickness of the serous tunic is 19,2±1,1 micrometers.

The bulk of the pulmonary parenchyma is made up of alveoles, between which the bronchi of different size are located. The alveoles are lined by flattened epithelial cells containing elongated nuclei. There isn't any prominent difference between the diameter of alveoles situated within the peripheral parts of the lungs (21,1±1,6 micrometers) and the diameter of alveoles situates within the internal parts of the organ (23,63±1,26 micrometers). Besides, there isn't any prominent difference between the density of arrangement of alveoles situated within the peripheral parts of the lungs and of alveoles situated within the internal parts of the organ. Within the peripheral parts of the lungs the number of alveoles in one visual field of microscope (ocular 15, objective 40) is 6,73±0,26, and within the internal parts of the organ the number of alveoles in one visual field of microscope is 7,66±0,33.

Alveoles are separated from one another by thin interalveolar septa penetrated by capillaries. The interalveolar septa consist of densely arranged cells (that contain rounded and oval nuclei having well visible nucleoli and masses of chromatin) and thin connective tissue fibres. Within the peripheral parts of the lungs the thickness of the interalveolar septa is 9,75±0,49 micrometers, and within the internal parts of the organ the thickness of the interalveolar septa is 8,73±0,43 micrometers.

Bronchi of any size are followed by blood vessels. Arteries are characterized by well developed smooth muscle of media. Large veins contain valves.

Wall of those bronchi, the lumen of which is eigh hundred to one thousand micrometers in diameter, contain plates of cartilage 54,05±3,06 micrometers in thickness. The cartilaginous plates contain oval and irregular-shaped cells that are densely arranged. Those cells have prominent boundaries, diameter of the cells is 15,44±0,8 micrometers. Rounded and oval nuclei of the cells (5,38±0,21 micrometers in diameter) contain well visible nucleoli and masses of chromatin.

Mucous tunic of bronchi of any size forms folds that are made up of epithelium and lamina propria. In the bronchi that are eight hundred to one thousand micrometers in diameter, the height of the folds is 62,01±3,01 micrometers. In the bronchi, that are six hundred and fifty to seven hundred and fifty micrometers in diameter, height of the folds is 103,89±5,09 micrometers. In the bronchi, that are three hundred to four hundred micrometers in diameter, the height of the folds is 60,38±3,01 micrometers. In the bronchi, that are two hundred to two hundred and fifty micrometers in diameter, the height of the folds is 64,35±3,3 micrometers. In the bronchi, that are eighty to one hundred micrometers in diameter, the height of folds is 39,25±1,9 micrometers.

Inner surfaces of the bronchi are lined by pseudostratified epithelium the cells of which contain hyperchromic nuclei that are located within middle and basal parts of the cells. Boundaries between the epithelial cells and the basal membrain are not prominent. In the bronchi, that are eight hundred to one thousand micrometers in diameter, the height of the epithelium is 27,69±1,26 micrometers. In the bronchi, that are six hundred and fifty to seven hundred and fifty micrometers in diameter, the height of the epithelium is 20,36±0,86 micrometers. In the bronchi, that are three hundred and fifty to four hundred and fifty micrometers in diameter, the height of the epithelium is 15,56±0,53 micrometers. In the bronchi, that are two hundred to two hundred and fifty micrometers in diameter, the height of the epithelium is 13,33±0,64 micrometers. In the bronchi, eighty to one hundred micrometers in diameter, the height of the epithelium is 10,8±0,5 micrometers.

Lamina propria of the bronchial mucous tunic consists of numerous cells that contain densely stained nuclei of different size, and of thin connective tissue fibres.

Smooth muscle in the bronchial wall represents bundles of densely arranged smooth muscle cells. The bundles are separated by connective tissue layers. The smooth muscle cells contain poorly stained nuclei that are elongated in shape. The specific gravity of the muscle in the bronchial wall increases as the bronchi become smaller but the thickness of the smooth muscle decreases. In the bronchi, that are eight hundred to one thousand micrometers in diameter, the thickness of the smooth muscle is 73,0±3,6 micrometers. In the bronchi, that are six hundred and fifty to seven hundred and fifty micrometers in diameter, the thickness of the smooth muscle is 41,65±2,0 micrometers. In the bronchi, that are three hundred and fifty to four hundred and fifty micrometers in diameter, the thickness of the smooth muscle is 21,72,±1,08 micrometers. In the bronchi, that are two hundred to two hundred and fifty micrometers in diameter, the thickness of the smooth muscle is 17,94±0,8 micrometers. In the bronchi, that are eighty to one hundred micrometers in diameter, the thickness of the smooth muscle is 7,89±0,3 micrometers.

Bronchial adventitia cosists of numerous cells containing rounded and oval nuclei that are densely stained, and of thin fibres. Connective tissue of the bronchial adventitia is gradually continuous with the adjacent interalveolar septa, and with adventitia of the adjacent vessels, that's why boundaries of the bronchial adventitia are not prominent. The walls of the bronchi contain lymphatic nodules occupying all the thickness of the wall and even reach the subepithelial layer.

Lungs of the rats of the group number two and number three contain numerous tumor nodes that are grey in colour. Some of these nodes are situated within the organs, and some of them project out on the surfaces of the lungs.Those nodes were evenly distributed throughout the organ.

In the rats of the group number two the tumor nodes are one to two millimetres in diameter. Each of those nodes is surrounded by connective tissue capsule the structural elements of which are arranged rather densely. Within the capsule there are not numerous tumor cells some of which are present in groups.

Central parts of tumor nodes may be necrotic. In the tumor nodes of the smallest size the necrotic centres frequently are absent. As the size of the nodes increases the specific gravity of the necrotic centres becomes greater.

The smallest tumor nodes are made up of densely arranged cells the boundaries of which are indistinct. Rounded and oval nuclei of the cells are characterized by well visible karyolemma and masses of chromatin. The nuclei are 6,47±0,17 micrometers in diameter. The tumor cells are present in groups separated by thin layers of homogeneous substance.

Next to the necrotic centres almost all the tumor cells have signs if destruction. Necrotic tissue is unstructured and contains fragments of nuclei.

In the tumor nodes of the greatest size the necrotic tissue occupies the most part of the metastasis. Besides, within the peripheral parts of the nodes there are also some small necrotic zones. Intact tumor tissue consists of densely arranged cells the boundaries of which are indistinct. Rounded and oval nuclei of the cells have well visible karyolemma and masses of chromatin. Diameter of the nuclei is 6,2±0,22 micrometers. Tumor cells are arranged in groups separated by wide layers of homogeneous substance.

Among the tumor cells there are those having signs of destruction. The bulk of the destroyed tumor cells are situated next to the necrotic centres.

In the rats of the group number three there are numerous intrapulmonary metastases between which intact tissue of lungs is infiltrated by the tumor cells. Diameter of the metastases varied from thirty-five till two hundred micrometers. Connective tissue capsule around the tumor nodes is not conspicuous.

The most of the tumor nodes are made up of densely packed cells the boundaries of which are not visible. Those tumor cells are arranged in groups separated by thin layer of homogeneous substance. Nuclei of the cells are rounded and oval in shape, they are characterized by distinct karyolemma, nucleoli, and masses of chromatin. Diameter of the nuclei is 7,25±0,3 micrometers. Destroyed cells within those nodes are found very seldom.

There are also some tumor nodes that are characterized by more compact arrangement of cells. Hyperchromatic nuclei of the cells are oval, elongated, or irregular in shape. Diameter of the nuclei is 4,56±0,16 micrometers. Such metastases contain considerable number of destroyed cells. There are also small cavities that remain in places of entirely destroyed tumor cells.

Tumor nodes of the rats of this group may contain blood vessels. Within some of them there are necrotic zones which may be centrally or peripherally located.

Numerous tumor cells migrate from the nodes into the surrounding pulmonary tissue where they destroy blood vessels. The destruction of the vessels causes hemorrhage.

In the rats of the group number four the singly arranged intrapulmonary metastases are rounded in shape, they are about five hundred micrometers in diameter. Those tumor nodes consist of densely packed oval and polygonal tumor cells arranged in groups separated by thin layers of homogeneous substance. Diameter of the tumor cells is 11,5 ±0,29 micrometers, and diameter of their nuclei is 5,58±0,26 micrometers. Central zones of such tumor nodes are necrotic. Pulmonary tissue situated outside the tumor nodes remains intact.

Conclusions. Intrapulmonic form of the experimental rat's ovarian tumor is characterized by structural differences depending on technique of transplantation of malignant cells. Intrapulmonic metastases develop in case of intravenous, subcutaneous, and intraperitoneal injections. Intravenous and intraperitoneal introductions are followed by development of more numerous intrapulmonic tumour nodes.

 

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Year: 2016
City: Almaty
Category: Medicine
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