Reforms are being carried out in Kazakhstan Medical Universities. The main reason making them necessary has objective and global character: recently qualitative changes in educational sphere have been occurred. The program structure is a decisive factor in a success of education. It must be efficient, balanced in theoretical and clinical directions of training. The program structure must characterize educational programs and arrangements of all courses, ensure efficacy and transparence of medical faculties' activities. Besides, a future doctor must be ready to process information systematically and integrate knowledge of new subjects. That is why not only programs and curricular but teaching methods and forms of education must correspond to these requirements. There is no doubt of using innovative technologies in educational process. But in teaching Anatomy it must be done gradually taking into consideration a level of students' preparation.
The use of rating system of knowledge estimation under conditions of module organization of teaching gives a possibility to control educational achievements of a student systematically by current and formative tests, evaluate the level of the acquired knowledge and practical skills objectively at every lesson.
In 2012-2013 academic year a credit-module system of education was introduced at the faculties of "General Medicine" and "Stomatology". The 2nd and 3rd year students in speciality "General Medicine" and 1st year students in speciality "Stomatology" were taught at the department of Anatomy during the 1st term. The quantity of academic hours in Anatomy constituted 108 hours including 36 hours of SIW (students' individual work) during the II course according to the linear system. The remaining 72 hours were divided into practical classes (36 hours) and students' individual work (36 hours). Academic plans of classes, students' individual work under the teacher's guidance (SIWTG) and curricular plans have been made up.
Methodical instructions have been done over again .Transition to the credit-module system has shown certain difficulties in teaching and mastering the subject. Academic hours intended for teaching anatomy have been reduced. There were 2 credits at the 1st course and .3 credits at the 2nd course.
These hours were evenly distributed into in - class lessons 1/3 (lecture + practical classes 3) and out-of- class lessons: 1/3 (SIWTG) +1/3(51W). We understand that students' individual work under the teacher's guidance must deepen and supplement topics of practical classes. Unfortunately, it didn't turn so. A great amount of the material in Anatomy did not permit to make up academic plans this way. Topics intended for independent studying which the students had to master under the guidance of a teacher were included into Individual students' work.
The negative features are: I. Reduction of time intended for inclass lessons.2. Topics for individual students' work under the guidance of a teacher are very extensive and differ in subjectmatter from topics of practical classes. 3. Students independent work is formalized and depends upon the level of a student's training. Students must be interested in the subject by a teacher. It is impossible to abolish the explanation of a material referring to the new approaches because our students are not ready to it, they demand an individual approach in obtaining knowledge.
Credit-module system of education at the faculty of "General Medicine" sets thinking deeply and evaluate all advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand we have no way backwards and on the other hand we are in a hurry.
To our mind, firstly, we had to transform a secondary education. Then, it was necessary to analyse a credit-module system at all faculties and consider its results. The estimation of knowledge is carried out according to five competences. Every student is evaluated according to two competences at each lesson: theoretical knowledge and practical skills. Marks for legal and communicative skills are put down during a formative control. Communicative skills are evaluated by means of checklists. During the first course the students fulfill only one individual work and two at the second course. There are methodical instructions as to the fulfilment of individual student's work (the form of the fulfillment is explained there).
Epoch of reforms occurring everywhere, restructuration of educational process demands veritable understanding and competent approach to the problem.
The main purpose of professional education is the training of a qualified specialist capable to effective professional work in specialty and competitive on labor market.
Traditional training of specialists, directed towards the formation of knowledge, practical skills in object-sphere lags behind more and more of up-to-day requirements.
The basis of training specialists must become rather educational subjects than ways of thinking and activities. It is necessary not only to train a specialist of a high level, but to include him (her) already on a stage of training to the development of new technologies, to adapt to the conditions of a definite industrial sphere, make him a provider of new decisions successfully fulfilling the functions of a manager.
Practice shows that students having developed their own social project, are ready to defend, argue their position, carry on discussion with opponents and give reason for this purpose to mastering the theory of the question and keep the material well in memory for a long period of time. The analysis of case-study, the method of activation of educational-cognitive activities, which are described by the following signs: the presence of specific situations; development of variants of situation decisions (by groups, subgroups of students or individually); public recognition of the developed variants of situation decision with the following opposition; summing up the results and estimation of classes promote this situation as well. As to the students opinion they must feel themselves as the participants of social actions.
This year at the department of anatomy case studies in such topics as "The Respiratory System", "The Nervous System", ''The Digestive System" have been developed. These case-studies are used at practical classes "Thorax", "Abdomen", " Head and neck", " Upper and lower extremities".
Being an interactive method of teaching, case studies conquer a positive attitude from the students' side, who consider it as a possibility to show initiation, to feel self-independence in mastering theoretical propositions and practical skills. The fact that analysis of situations influences much upon professionalization of students, promoting them to become adults, and forms an interest and positive motivation to learning is also very important. One of the conditions of higher medical education in order to be competitive is stimulation of clinical thinking of students, use of interdisciplinary approaches in giving them deep knowledge, practical skills and know-how.
1 Талынов Е.И. Кредитно-модульная система – что это? // Кредитно-модульная система организации учебного процесса в вузе. - СПб.: 2009. - №8. - С. 90-93.