The article presents the study results of some indicators of mineral metabolism in experimental animals intoxicated with cadmium sulfate and its combination with other poisons, as well as the protectiverole of sulfate-ion. Thefindings indicate that there are no significant changes in the content of indicators in the serum.
Although cadmium is known relatively since recent time, its pollution takes place over several thousand years, ever since man began to produce metals from ores containing cadmium accident. Cadmium is one of the trace elements that are widely used in engineering and especially in metallurgy. The highest cadmium pollutionof the atmosphere in Europe is associated to the work of steel plants (34 tons annually) and burning of various wastes (31 tons per year) .
In this respect, the ore roasting process is particularly disadvantageous, when 90 % of cadmium presented in the ore flows into the air.
Cadmium has significant effect on themetabolism of a number of metals, especially zinc, copper, iron and heavy metals. This impact is expressed at the level of enzymatic processes, absorption, accumulation and elements allocation, as well as in functions of the whole organism. Cadmium poisoning depends on its relationship with the zinc. Due to the proximity of the structure of these two elements' atoms and the similarity of its tetrahedron complexes, cadmium is able to replace the zinc in the metal chelates, and in this respect it is superior to all the other metals including copper and gallium which aresimilar to it by chemical properties. Accordingly, cadmium can be regarded as thezinc'sspecific antimetabolite. In experiments,a number of pathological phenomena caused by the action of cadmium, such as hypertension, lesions of the skin, testis, ovary, nerve ganglia, can be preventedby timely giving zinc. Cadmium's antagonism towards several other elements is well known.
With the cadmium excess,the copper depletion of the bodycan lead to the death [3, 4].
Our study is aimed at the comparative assessment of influence of various concentrations of cadmium sulfate (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg of body weight) and its mineral combinations on mineral metabolism of experimental animals and evaluation of the protective role of the sulfate ion in the chronic experiment.
The 4-months experimentswere carried out on rabbits of both sexes with an initial weight of 2100-2900 g.
The three experiment series were taken. In their turn, each seriesconsistedof the 3 animal groups. The first series: the first group received cadmium sulfate 0.1 mg/kg orallydaily, except for weekends and holidays; the second group received the same amount of cadmium and sulfate ion orally as sodium sulfate solution SO42- 25mg/kg of body weight a day, after2-3 hours; the third group served as the control.
The second series: the first animalgroup received a mixture of toxic soluble salts(in terms of the metal ion (mg/kg of body weight): cadmium Cd+2 – 0.1; Zinc Zn+2 – 0.5; lead Pb+2 – 0.4; iron Fe+3 – 0.5; copper Сıɪ■2–0.3; antimony Sb+3 – 0.05; arsenic As- - 25; fluorine F- - 0.1) orally,daily, except for weekends and holidays; the second group received the same mixture and optionally sulfate ion as sodium sulfate solution of 25 mg SO42 per kg of body weight a day; the third group is the control.
The third series: the first animal group received a mixture of toxic soluble salts (in terms of the metal ion (mg/kg of body weight): cadmium Cd+2 – 0.5; Zinc Zn+2 – 0.5; lead Pb+2 – 0.4; iron
Fe+3 – 0.5; copper Cu+2 – 0.3; antimony Sb+3 – 0.05; arsenic As- - 25; fluorine F- - 0.1) orally, daily, except for weekends and holidays; the second group received the same mixture and optionally sulfate ion as sodium sulfate solution for 25 SO42 mg per kg body weight per day. The third group is the control .
The data analysis showed that there are no significant changes in concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in the blood serum throughout the experiment in any group of animals. Thus, in 1 month of the experiment,the serum calcium levelsis decreasedin group treated by Cadmium 0.1 mg/kg body weight, and the substance mixtureinsignificantly. Under the influence of sulfate the same figure increased slightly, resulting in the presence of significant differences between the indices of the group receiving sulfate, and control. The effect of sulfate was positive. At the end of 3 months of the experiment, the level of calcium in the experimental groups is decreased resulting in the presence of significant differences between the performance of the experimental and control groups. Influence of sulfate was observed.
In the group receiving the mixture and sulfate,the level of phosphorus at this time of observation remained in the normal value range, whereas in the group receiving no sulfate, phosphorus in the blood was significantly lower. Influence of sulfate should be considered positive.
After 4 months of the experiment, sulfate did not affect the phosphorus level altered under the influence of toxic substances.
In animals received 0.5 mg/kgof cadmium,the sulfate had a positive impact on the level of calcium modified under the effect of toxic substances at 1 and 3 months after the start of the experiment.
Calcium levels did not change at 1, 2 and 4 months of the experiment, and the sulfatehad noeffect on changed index in 3 months.
Thus, in general, experiments with the administration of the cadmium in an amount of 0.1 mg/kg of body weight , and cadmium in an amount of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg of body weight with a mixture of toxicants and without sulphate had positive impact on the changes 3 timesand its effect was not evident 2 times.
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