Question quantify the effects of environmental factors on the health status of the population is a key issue in the "environmenthealth", because knowledge of the role and value of the contribution of various factors to the development of adverse effects determines the nature and scope of preventive and curative measures.
When considering the health of the population as a multivariate index, in which social and environmental factors do not act in isolation, but combined with biological factors, there is a need to find that part, which may affect human activities .
Microbial contamination of water bodies, surface and underground sources of drinking water supply is a violation of the natural biological cycle, the destruction of natural habitat for aquatic organisms, creating the threat of sporadic cases and outbreaks of infectious and parasitic diseases . In its role as a universal biological adsorbent and catalyst of pollutants, soil, contaminated with pathogens, helminth eggs can be a source of contamination of other contact with her environment, such as water, the atmosphere and the other, and thus affect the environmental safety, quality of life and health of the population [6-9].
According to experts, WHO (2007), parasitic diseases have now become in some measure "neglected diseases", and throughout the world observed underestimation of their medical and social significance. Even in endemic countries receive insufficient attention from both the health authorities and the population. While WHO expert assessment shows that diseases caused by helminths in the world occupy the third place among the most important infectious and parasitic diseases.
In recent years, the CIS, including Kazakhstan numerous studies that reveal the patterns of relationships and dependencies between the state of health of the population and individual environmental factors. However, in Kazakhstan the problems of identifying and evaluating the causal relationship between exposure to biological factors associated with microbial contamination of water, soil and the spread of infectious and parasitic diseases in urban areas have been neglected [10-13]. Not received as the development of research on ranking site depending on the degree of microbial contamination of the environment, by definition biological risk territory. To date, practical health care in Kazakhstan are not given specific evidence-based recommendations for the biological monitoring of microbial contamination of the environment (soil, water), not enough on the issue developed management, sanitation, health and preventive measures.
The aim: conducting microbiological, parasitological monitoring of pollution of the environment (soil, water) in urban areas in Kazakhstan.
As a result studies were obtained the following results. Objects of the environment in urban areas throughout Kazakhstan are contaminated with bacteria, soil-transmitted helminths eggs and hepatitis A. It should be noted immediately that the investigated samples of soil and water each locality differ in the degree of contamination. Samples with low and high pollution were generally 3 - 7% in the rest dominated by the average degree of dissemination. Microbial count in the soil samples ranged from 0-10 to million microbial bodies.
In samples detectability Hafnia ranged from 9% to 85%, Escherichia (from 33 to 83%), Protcus (11-25%), Staphilococcus (13-75%), non-fermentative Gram-negative organisms (32-95%), aspergillus (1 , 5-40%), pseudomonas aeruginosa (3,7-10,3%).
The average contamination of soil samples for coliform index in the study area ranged from 27.7% (Aktau) to 83,3-90% (in Glubokoe, Solnechny settlements), water samples - from 25.1% to 89 7%. Fluctuations in soil samples on the content of E.coli made 31-87,1% water - 22-82,3%.
When ranking contamination by microbes territories in terms of the index of CGB and proportion of samples with coli (as soil and water), ranking position coincided territories and the first ranking places belonged to rural settlements, then placed the small towns, larger cities (except in Ust-Kamenogorsk ) were relatively less polluted. HAVAg detection in water samples ranged from 5.6% (Zhanaozen) to 16.6% (Ust-Kamenogorsk, Glubokoe and Chkalovo settlements), which shows the virus from entering the water from patients with HA.
Determined by seeding areas studied eggs of ascarids and whipworms. In the samples of the number of eggs ranged from 0-35. and eggs acarids high content detected in the soil of the central southern and south-eastern regions. Giardia cysts were more prevalent in the soil of the eastern and north-eastern regions, ie there is a connection with survey areas of the country.
Analysis showed the prevalence of morbidity in the study area OCI, hepatitis A and parasitosis, at the same time revealed a general trend of reduction for Human Settlements (OCI from 1.2 to 2.2 times, hepatitis A from 1.5 to 6.5 times ).
Research revealed also that the ranking position on settlements contamination CGB, Ascaris and morbidity are very similar, indicating that the association between biofouling and morbidity of the population. Based on these studies as an integral indicator of contamination recommended the adoption of indicators index CGB, the proportion of samples with E.coli and eggs of ascarids. And as an indicator of disease incidence to take OCI and ascariasis. The incidence of HA can not serve as an indicator due annually held vaccination of children against HA.
Existence of a causal link between the insemination of the environment by microorganisms and morbidity of OCI based detection based on the study of values of the relative risk (RR), odds ratio (OR), the associated risk (AR), the ratio of the density of the disease (IDR), as well as the equity Biological factors in morbidity.
Conclusion. In view of the above, the study and evaluation of biological indicators - markers of microbial contamination of the environment, the establishment of causal relationships between the identified factors and the state of health of the population of Kazakhstan, as well as the development of management decisions on health is relevant and necessary.
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