The article considers the problems of development of human capital. Analyzed the working conditions, benefits, bonus system and advanced training existing on the industrial enterprises of Karaganda region.
Socio-economic changes taking place in the Kazakh society, for the scientists put a number of topical issues. Among them, the problem of transforming the socioeconomic relations, which in modern conditions are considered through the prism of "human capital" category. Formation of innovative economy, where the main role is played by specific resources - information and knowledge are related to the need to review and analyze the human capital. Development of human capital and the problem of realization of its potential becomes, along with the introduction of modern technology, a key factor in the development of the national economy .
In modernization of the existing human capital and consequently in financial injections in its training and retraining, to the maintenance of human health should be interested not only the state and enterprises, but also workers themselves.
Due to the fact that such kind of practice is poorly studied, a detailed consideration of the issue related to the interest of employees of industrial enterprises to invest in the development of its human capital, as well as the real facts of this kind of investment represents research interest. This question formed the basis of a study conducted at the industrial enterprises of Karaganda region, during which it was collected a large amount of materials, some of which are listed in this article.
Obtained results point that the majority of workers experiencing some degree of job satisfaction - 85.2%. While completely unsatisfied of it was only 8.3% of the total number of respondents.
General indicator of fully satisfied with the place of work is 45.2%. Within this indicator there is a correlation between held position and the level of satisfaction: than higher position, than higher the satisfaction rate. Among the employees of administrative structures are fully satisfied the fact that work at the enterprise/organization 61.5%. Among engineering and technical workers this indicator is 48.5%, and among workers - 38.7%.
As for the age categories employees, there is observed increase of the level of satisfaction according to the age group: the older the employee, the higher level of job satisfaction in the enterprise/organization. This may be due to the higher positions of age employees and the situation of pre-retirement age, which is characterized by aspiration to preservation of workplace and, consequently, decrease the level of exactingness.
Among experiencing difficulties in answer to this question (6.5%), highest index gives engineers and technical workers - 9.2%. This may be due to the fact that this category of employees more than others tend to consider career perspectives are not necessarily associated with the enterprise/organization. Also, such a motivation is manifested in the answers of younger age groups of employees who are at the beginning of his professional career and more oriented towards other career growth, and here already from the enterprise/ organization depends whether they will create the necessary for this condition.
Apart from his status as an employee of the enterprise/organization participating in the survey were asked to estimate the working conditions, which are one of the main indicators of job satisfaction. These include physiological, hygiene and sanitary and socio- psychological factors of labor activity and have a direct impact on the health and performance of employees, their quality of life and on the whole production efficiency. The main components of the labor conditions are: duration of working time, payment terms, security and discipline of work, working time and rest time, the order of combining trades (positions), the duties of a temporarily absent employee, safety and labor protection, technical and production and living conditions.
The number of fully satisfying the conditions of labor at the enterprises/organizations of Karaganda region accounts for only a third of the total number of respondents - 33.1%. Observed in the respondents' answers correlation between the position and the degree of satisfaction is maintained. So, the option "yes, completely" indicated 53.1% of management employees, 40% of engineering and technical workers and only 24.1% of workers.
The percentage of partially satisfied of labor conditions amounted 48.8%, and has become a major in the plan for the selection of workers (57.4%).
More categorical in the estimations were 13.7% of the employees of the enterprises/organizations indicating that they are absolutely not satisfied with the working conditions.
Could not give an unambiguous estimation of working conditions 4.4% employees. Within this variant of the answer can draw attention to the presence of a certain correlation in the answers of respondents of different age groups. Thus, the older the interviewed workers, the less frequently they indicated the option "difficult to answer". For comparison, workers under 23 years give 8% of difficult to answer, from 24 to 29 years - 7.7%, from 30 to 45 years - 3.3%, from 46 to 55 years - 2.1%, from 56 to 63 years - 1.1%. This trend may be related to the duration of working experience, and consequently, with the possibility of comparison, moreover, the younger age group of employees less exacting to conditions of work.
The relatively high indicator of satisfaction with conditions of labor created by industrial enterprises of the region demonstrate about insufficiency of subsidies and attention to this issue. Meanwhile, working conditions directly effect on its performance, as well as the deterioration of human resources of the enterprise.
When evaluating of working conditions employees of enterprises/organizations take into account not only their jobs, but there are additional conditions necessary for the normal exercise of their professional activities. The first are: recreational facilities, canteens, medical centers.
According to received data the canteens are in 63.1% of industrial enterprises/organizations of Karaganda region by participated in the study. The presence of medical centers indicate 60.2% of workers, and recreational facilities - 30.8%.
The absence of any additional of working conditions was observed by employees 13.2% of the enterprises/ organizations. It should be noted that at the enterprises/ organizations of Karaganda region the least additional of working conditions created for the workers, 14.6% of which indicate the option "none", and of employees under the age of 23 years (20%).
In spite of the relatively high numerical values for the presence of canteens, medical centers and recreational facilities, it should be noted that these working conditions have to be on every enterprise/organization, as they contribute to the realization of a normal professional activity and the maintenance of one of the main components of human capital - health.
An important aspect of ensuring the high competitiveness of enterprises/organizations is not only a selection of the highly skilled workers, but also the preservation of existing staff, including due to the constant maintenance of their health.
The main type of support for their employees' health at the industrial enterprises/organizations of Karaganda region is the provision and (or) payment for health services - 42.3%.
As for other forms of investment in the health of its employees, the 24.2% of employees indicate that their enterprise/organization gives permits to sanatoriums, dispensaries, and 21.1% - in the recreation areas.
Have the opportunity to visit the sports centers, halls, section on the basis of the expense of their enterprises/organizations, 18.2% of employees.
Receive free or reduced price meals 16.5%.
In analyzing the distribution of answers in the context of held position there is a clear interconnection between employee status and awareness of the programs on the maintenance of health. From this suggests the conclusion that these investments are aimed primarily at managers and engineers and technical workers, while workers use them much less. Such situation is hardly evidence of the presence at the enterprises/organizations deliberate policy of investment in the health sphere.
Also, during the study revealed that 17.1% of enterprises/organizations, according to the employees, nothing is being done to maintain their health. Such inert enterprises policy may entail an increase in the number of severe forms of disease, growth of disability and it is a direct evidence of deterioration of human capital.
Speaking about maintaining health problem, it should be noted that in its decision should take part not only enterprises/organizations, but also the workers themselves. After all, their personal investment and interest are also a prerequisite.
So the most common form of maintaining their health is "healthy lifestyle" - 36.8%. This definition is quite abstract and mostly implies the absence of abuse of alcohol and tobacco smoking.
It is believed that they are correctly feed and thereby maintain the health 26.8% of employees.
As for active forms of maintaining health, involved in sport 19.4% of employees and do exercises 17.4%.
Attracts attention that the various categories of workers spend approximately equal efforts to maintain their health, and none of these groups can not be singled out as more branched than the other. Within the age groups of employees allocated youngest group (under 23 years), 38% of which are engaged in sport that in general popular now among the youth. Representatives of other age groups prefer more passive forms of maintaining of their health.
Honestly confessed in the absence of any action on its part, aimed at preserving their health 24.6% of employees of industrial enterprises/organizations of Karaganda region.
Provision of employees of enterprises/organizations benefits increases the efficiency of their work and loyalty, increases motivation and reduces staff turnover. Enterprise itself should be interested in the functioning of effective system of benefits that promote the stimulation of human resources.
According to received data the system of benefits for workers is there less than a half of the enterprises/ organizations of Karaganda region - 44.9%. At the same time the most knowledgeable group in this issue are employees of management (67.7%), the most uninformed workers (35.9%). By the age there is a correlation to increase of level of awareness of the younger to the older age group. So, under the age of 23 years, the percentage knowledgeable about the benefits of in the enterprise/ organization is 33, and at the age of 56 to 63 years - 51.8%.
Among the main benefits employees were listed as follows: costs for health care services payment (this form of benefits granted only to those enterprises which have their own medical centers); payment of permits for treatment and rest to employees and their families; payment of sports tickets and providing opportunities for training in gyms, belonging to the enterprises/ organizations; partial compensation payments to employees for their children's education (pre-school and higher education); meal benefits; providing transportation to the place of work by departmental transport; financial assistance provided by family circumstances (a funeral, a wedding, birth of a child).
Almost one-third of employees believe that their enterprise/organization does not have the benefit system 31.5%.
A significant number of respondents could not answer whether there is in their enterprises/organizations the benefit system - 23.6%. Such a high percentage of uninformed on this issue can testify as a weak functioning of most of the benefit system at the enterprises, as well as a lack work of union organizations.
At any enterprise there is at least a minimum package of benefits, some of which are elementary envisaged by the legislation, but in order that it pay dividends in the form of human resources stimulation, workers should be informed about it. However, the fact that more than a half of employees of industrial enterprises/organizations of the region are not aware of benefit system shows its formal character and ill- conceived policy of many enterprises in this issue.
Naturally, the low level of awareness about the benefits presupposes a low level use of them.
So an affirmative answer to the question of using of benefits given only 38% of employees of enterprises/ organizations of our region. The proximity of by value of this indicator to the indicator of awareness about the benefits suggests that information about the presence of benefits possess only those who directly use them. This, in turn, suggests actual lack of the practice of informing employees of enterprises/organizations of the region about their system of benefits. Thus, 62% of employees of the enterprises/organizations of the region, in their own opinion, do not enjoy the benefits.
The main category of workers, enjoy the benefits - it's managers (55%). For comparison, this percentage in engineering and technical workers is 43.1, and the workers 30.5%. Such skew in the provision of benefits not only contributes to the interest of workers in the results of their labor, but also leads to the growth of a sense of social injustice and aggressive attitudes in relation to the management personnel. The absence of the employees a sense of justice of material rewards leads to a decrease in efficiency, total passivity and loss of stimulus to the development.
As regards the age groups of employees, it is more active as compared with other use benefits the age employees: age from 46 to 55 years (45.1%) and from 56 to 63 years (47.1%). Overall the percentage of workers under 23 years, enjoying benefits of only 27.
Great importance in the quest for self-development of employee is working awarding bonuses system of labor, which is intended to, in addition to improving the welfare of employees, they form a sense of confidence and security, pride of the results of their work, the importance of its implementation across the enterprise/ organization, as well as self-esteem.
In accordance with received data an awarding bonus system for employees is available on the large number of enterprises/organizations of Karaganda region, than the system of benefits, and it includes the following: awards for the industrial achievements; awards for the results of work for a certain period (month, quarter, half year, year); awards in association with state and professional holidays (to the Day of energy, the Miner's Day, Day of the enricher, March 8, etc.); awards for anniversaries.
So indicate that on their enterprise/organization has an awarding bonus system of employees, 62.8% of respondents. According to this variant, the largest number of elections give managers (78.5%). Indicators engineering and technical personnel and workers constitute 65.4% and 56.1% respectively. The least knowledgeable within the age groups of employees found themselves the workers of group under 23 years, 55% of them answered yes to the question about the presence their enterprises awarding bonus system. For comparison indicator from the age group of 56 to 63 years was 67.1%.
Awarding bonuses system is absent on 25.2% of the surveyed enterprises/organizations. It also observed the difference of the results by employee category. It is said that it does not exist 12.3% of managers, 23.8% of technical officers and 30% of workers that can be both an indicator of the level of awareness of these groups on this issue, as well as non-uniformity of awarding bonuses by employee category.
Could not give a definite answer to this question 12% of employees of enterprises/organizations of our region. The greatest difficulties it has caused among workers (13.9%) and employees of the younger age group (18%).
On the whole, a pretty high indicator of noted the absence at their enterprise/organization the bonus system (a quarter of the respondents), it may be associated with both the fact of the formal existence of this system, which in practice does not work, and that existing enterprises additional payments are not perceived by employees as bonuses for labour, and therefore do not stimulate to professional growth.
Professional self-esteem is an indicator of the level of employee motivation to improve their professional training. The higher this self-esteem, the higher the level of self-satisfaction, and the less motivated to improve their practical skills and abilities, as well as increase the level of theoretical knowledge within a particular profession.
More than a half of the surveyed workers of enterprises/organizations of Karaganda region believes that the level of their professional training is fully consistent with the requirements of the organization - 60.3%. In this case the most confident in their professionalism are the managers (77.7%). Slightly inferior to them engineers and technical workers (60%). At the last place - the workers (54.6%).
It is remarkable that the workers of older age groups are more confident according to the level their professional training, which may be associated with substitution of the definition by the notion "work experience".
Partial conformity of professional training with the requirements of their organizations point of 28.6% of workers.
Acknowledges in their professional mismatch of 4% of employees.
Not able to estimate their level of professional training uniquely 7.1% of workers of enterprises/ organizations.
Obtained in the framework of the issue high indicators of self-assessment of professional conformity should not be taken as the uniquely positive result, because they indirectly indicate the absence of the enterprises of our region stable innovation trends requiring from the employees training and retraining, the assimilation of new knowledge and skills, and as a consequence criticality the perception of the employees themselves and their constant desire for self-education.
Modern industrial organizations in the conditions of introduction and development of innovative technologies are tightening requirements for working staff, the system of training and retraining, as well as improve their skills in accordance with the goals and strategy of the development of enterprises. However, if their innovation activity is reduced, the process of obsolescence of professional knowledge of employees within these enterprises is very slow, and the existing level of professional training is satisfied the employer.
The fact of low innovative activity of the enterprises of Karaganda region is confirmed by the fact that only 39.4% of employees consider that in the future they will need to increase their professional level, as their knowledge and skills become obsolete. Admit that in time they will need to increase their professional level, but only if the enterprises/organizations will acquire new machinery and equipment 40.8% of workers. Thus, raising the professional level in this context will be episodic, temporary, due to the necessity of development of new technologies for the work at more modern equipment. In case, if the machinery and equipment will not be purchased, the professional level these employees will remain the same and relevant to their enterprises/ organizations.
Completely denying the need to improve the professional level, now or in the future 19.5% of employees. The most overconfident of them are managers (20%) and workers (20.8%).
Not could respond uniquely whether they need to improve their professional level 0.3% of employees.
High deterioration of fixed capital of industrial enterprises of Karaganda region, coupled with a low level of innovative activity indirectly indicate the absence of the need for raising the professional level of employees. The existing on these enterprises systems of improvement of qualification often have a formal character, and the workers themselves refer to it formally, because no external stimulus (which is a feature of our work culture) the employees themselves are unlikely to engage in professional self-education.
Work to improve the professional level of employees of enterprises/organizations of Karaganda region mainly confined to the standard forms of training, formed back in the Soviet period.
The most common form of increase the professional level of employees at the enterprises/organizations of Karaganda region is to conduct training courses and (or) re-training of staff within enterprises. According to the data these courses is 56.3% of the surveyed enterprises/ organizations of the region. Another 13.7% is training and (or) re-training of staff on the basis of other organizations of the city, 6.8% in other cities of Kazakhstan, and 3.4% abroad. However, attending these courses, according to its employees recognition, only 7.4%.
For workers the most appropriate form of professional growth the exchange of experience with colleagues at work. It is used by 56% of respondents.
The participation of enterprises themselves in the organization of this process is extremely limited. Thus, only 14.3% of enterprises/organizations of our region are meeting for exchange of experience.
Use the Internet to further improve their professional level of 28.9% of the employees of the enterprises/ organizations in our region. Most of them consists of representatives of younger age groups.
Enterprises/organizations of our region practice payment of tuition in higher or secondary specialized educational institutions. However, this practice can hardly be called a broad, because it takes place only by 5.7% of the industrial enterprises of Karaganda region.
It is also a very limited number of enterprises/ organizations of the region can boast of the presence of a good technical library - 6.9%. While reading a special professional literature is an important form of increase the professional level for the 28% of workers. It follows from this that the majority of surveyed enterprises/ organizations ignore this need of the employees and does not contribute to facilitate their access to the technical literature novelties.
This form of improvement of their professional level as distance learning (7.8%) can not be estimated uniquely throughout the enterprise due to the lack of data about the motivation of learning.
Despite the variety of forms of increase the professional level of employees, 20.3% of enterprises/ organizations of our region is nothing being done for it. And 13.2% of employees admit that they do nothing to improve their professional level.
Analysis of the data confirms the earlier assumption made about the advantageously formal approach to solving the issue of increasing the level of professional qualifications on the part of management of the enterprises/ organizations, as well as on the part of workers.
According to a survey of employees of industrial enterprises/organization of Karaganda region can make the following general conclusions:
- Social policy of the industrial enterprises of Karaganda region uses the standards formed in the Soviet period, and provides minimums stipulated in the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. However, the fact that, as in the Labour Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and in the Code of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan employer responsibilities, aimed at maintaining and developing the human capital of the worker, find a weak reflection, enables enterprises to be limited to formal payments, and in the maintenance of health emphasis primarily at ensuring the protection and safety at work.
- The study found that the system of training and (retraining) personnel is provided not at all the industrial enterprises of Karaganda region. However, where it is, its basic forms are mentoring and training in the workplace, that is, the traditional ways of transmission of practical experience of older workers to younger. In such a situation to talk about the development of professional innovations is not necessary. In favor of this assumption is the fact that the most comfortable feel age workers of the enterprises, which are determined by the leaders as the "backbone" of production.
- Despite the fact that in today's competitive environment, enterprises have the ability to select employees, employees of industrial enterprises/ organizations of Karaganda region a little concerned about the investment in their own human capital. This is confirmed by a situation where at the enterprises more appreciated experience accumulated over the years and not the novelty of a knowledge that does nothing to stimulation of workers to interest in global innovation trends.
- Karaganda region takes the first place in Kazakhstan by the indicator of innovation activity of enterprises, that is, in fact, assumes a high level of attention to human capital as one of the main conditions of the efficiency of the implementation and development of innovations. Policy of industrial enterprises/organizations in the region in the maintenance and development of human resources does not differ a great variety of approaches and methods, and managers, as well as the workers themselves, show a formal attitude towards issues related to its components, such as health, professional level and other.
Human capital - a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that is not limited to investment of means. Investing in it give results only after a certain time, and then, only if they are backed by monitoring system of investment efficiency, the economic indicators of which make it possible to adjust the current policy in line with the best value. Targeted investments in the accumulation and development of human capital is the key to qualitative transformations of the Kazakh economy, constitute the basis of the growth of its competitiveness and status in the international economic space.
List of references:
- Strategy of Industrial and Innovation Development of Kazakhstan for 2003-2015 on 17 May 2003. - Access mode: www.upp.akmol.kz.