This article is devoted to "green" marketing: its history of development and a current state in Kazakhstan. Questions are considered: that people understand marketing who influences distribution of "green" marketing as the term "green", what factors promote its development that the system of "green" marketing, etc. includes. Also in article examples of introduction of "green" marketing in the activity of the enterprises of various spheres of business and the state measures aimed at the development of this question are given.
"Green" marketing originates in social marketing. It is the point of view according to which it isn't enough to think only of satisfaction of clients, marketing has to consider interests of society in general. According to the theory of interested parties, when determining the purposes and strategy it is necessary to take into account of all whom activity of the company will concern. This point of view led to strengthening of a tendency of "greening" of the companies. "Green" marketing is interpreted as "the management of the company directed on definition, a prediction and satisfaction of requirements of clients and society when ensuring profitability and stability of growth" [1, p. 53].
"Green" marketing arose in the USA, and roots can be looked for it in 1970, in the movement of an Invayronmentalizm which at that time very few people took seriously. According to the research Information Resources, today already 48% of Americans upon purchase pay attention at least to one of indicators of environmental friendliness of goods, whether it be environmental friendliness of the product, its packing or shop in which it is on sale.
Today popularity of green marketing really grows around the world. It is connected with:
- people became more informed, they learned about ecology more;
- consumers have impact on corporations and governments in the sphere of production;
- quality of what products increased, the branch became more attractive and competitive (today there is no need to make a choice between a qualitative and eco-friendly product - it is possible to receive that and another);
- eco-friendly products became more competitive in respect of the price and reached an availability level.
Ecological and social influence of the company is defined by such three of its measurements:
- impact on economy;
- style of the management.
The used technology can be not resource-saving and is capable to cause impurity of environment, but these minuses can usually be reduced in the way modernization. Impact of firm on economy is connected with such questions as employment, acquisition of raw materials and creation of expectations among clients, to satisfy which it can difficult appear. Economic factors can influence ability of the company to become more eco-friendly also. Management style is probably that factor with which it is best of all to begin the "greening" companies; often happens that the firm is able to improve easily the nature protection image, without incurring additional expenses and even (by decrease in waste) saving resources. It is important that the firm avoided decisions "on the end of a pipe" at which, for example, the polluting emissions are filtered at final stages of production instead of not to create them at all. It is connected with what almost always cheaper to operate process so that to avoid pollution, than then to spend money for impurity reduction.
There are some sources of pressure aiming at reforming in these questions:
- Clients - according to some researches, 75% of the population of the developed countries are guided by these or those ecological criteria, making decisions on purchases. From the point of view of the marketing specialist it is an accurate signal of need to consider environmental issues;
- Groups of influence of defenders of environment - activity of such groups as "Greenpeace", consists of three directions: information activities which consist in drawing public attention to nature protection problems; direct action, somehow protests or (as a last resort) a clogging of steel probes in trees with the purpose to bring them building chain saws; creation of associations and advisory companies in which lobbyists are recruited in discussions together with representatives of the companies for the purpose of minimizing of damage to environment;
- Employees - everything more the staff of major companies put pressure upon the management that it adhered more ecologically to friendly policy. Of course, managers are employees;
- The legislation - ecologically adjusted voters force to adopt the relevant acts; in some countries, in particular in Germany and the Netherlands, Green Parties and are powerful parliamentary groups;
- Mass media - crashes of oil tankers and other environmental disasters now are news number one, but even foggier questions, like extinction of types, are now covered in news programs of the leading channels;
- Ethical investments - some banks now say to the clients that won't invest money in ecologically harmful projects. Banks can use this obligation in the advertising, thereby attracting more "green clients".
At this conjuncture in Kazakhstan tendencies which define rather "anti-ecological" nature of managing prove. The attempts made in Kazakhstan throughout a long time to solve environmental problems by means of administrative and legal and economic methods of state regulation still didn't lead to noticeable improvement of a state of environment. And in order that protection of environment became one of the purposes of modem marketing, it is necessary that it involved increase in profit. Only in this case the producer and the businessman will be interested in the solution of these or those environmental issues and to develop ecological philosophy of business.
In general, the complex system of ecological marketing in relation to the enterprise has to include the following elements:
- State and legal regulation;
- Environmental monitoring - continuous tracking of a state of environment, compliance determined by parameters and to indexes (maximum permissible level and maximum permissible concentration), collection of information about quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the polluting substances which are allocated at all stages of life cycle of goods. Results of environmental monitoring have to be available not only to bodies of the state control, but also the consumer;
- Ecological accounts department - the accounting of costs of ecology, control of target use of the funds allocated for ecology. Here too it is necessary to include concept of "the nature value" in all economic calculations. "The nature value" has well developed criteria, easily is formalized and gives in to an assessment.
- Quality control - quality management of the let- out products according to the international standards.
- Marketing communications - a complex of the communications used for carrying out the actions directed on sales promotion and bringing to the consumer of necessary information supporting and the forming "green" image of the organization and its production.
- Ecological education - a package of measures on integration of ecological knowledge into collective and individual consciousness of personnel resources of the enterprise, formation of ecological culture.
Can seem that "green marketing" consists in the conflict to traditional marketing as the marketing thinking is directed on expansion of business of firm and growth of consumption of its products, and "green marketing" is directed on restriction of growth and decrease in consumption. However the conflict not always is real.
Marketing is actually directed on satisfaction of clients and in itself isn't ecologically unfriendly though it is inherent in some products. If needs of the client become more "green", marketing specialists will consider it and, in turn, "will become green". Broader needs of clients (in the pure and cozy world), apparently, best of all can be satisfied by means of rather social marketing approach. Thus, it is possible to claim that marketing specialists (who already got used to regard clients as of paramount importance of activity of firm) - it is the people capable it is best of all to realize "green policy".
Implementation of "green marketing policy" begins with marketing audit. But in this case the firm shouldn’t limit a circle of the interests only to itself, clients and competitors, and to apply broader approach like the analysis of various factors:
- Social factors - whether influence demographic questions "green thinking"?
- Cultural factors - whether there is an embedding process of "green values" in system of cultural values?
- Economic factors - whether will manage "greening" firms too expensive? Or perhaps it will allow us to save money?
- Physical factors of the environment - whether grow scanty stocks of natural resources and raw materials?
- Technology factors - whether exist ecologically safe technologies?
- The international factors - whether it is possible, what the companies from other countries using ecologically safer sources will become our competitors? Whether we create environmental problems in other parts of the world, applying these or those raw materials?
- Communication and infrastructure factors - whether it is possible to use communication and transport networks more ecologically in the safe way?
- Administrative and institutional factors - whether there is a probability of what governmental bodies of environmental control and other departments will put upon us pressure?
- Legal and political factors - whether "the green legislation" will have impact on our company?
"Green clients" it is possible to segment by criterion of "a greens shade". "Green activists" - it is members of the ecological organizations or supporting them. Thinking "in a green way" look for "green products" and try to adhere to "green style" of life. "Green clients" - is those who changed the behavior definitely, having become "more green". At last, "conscious people" - is those who claims that worries about a state of environment (it is considered that 90% of the population of Great Britain belong to this group).
Though social marketing isn't a synonym of "green marketing", in the atmosphere of public opinion existing now they are closely connected with each other. Eventually really "green marketing" approach conducts to that the concept of social marketing gets into all fields of activity of firm - from a choice of sources of raw materials and production decisions to questions of pricing and sale.
The famous Harvard marketing specialist Ted Levitt somehow told: "People don't want to buy a quarterinch drill. They want a quarter-inch hole in a wall". The similar idea was introduced by one of pioneers of energy efficiency, Emory Louins: "People don't want to buy a cooler or fuel for heating; people want cold beer and a hot shower". In other words, interests them not so much a product, how many those advantages which it provides [2, p. 12].
Advancing what products, many professionals of marketing consider "rescue of the planet" as sufficient argument for the buyer. And buyers are interested in the same meanwhile: comfort, safety, esthetics, availability, status, pleasure. But many marketing specialists continue to sell a product, but not that advantage which it can bring. They in detail explain:
- why the world needs these goods;
- advantages of these goods;
- technical features of goods);
- that their goods don't contain;
- than their goods are better than goods of competitors;
- that will be if everyone buys their goods instead of goods of competitors.
But what marketing specialists hold back how the product solves problems of the buyer, whether it be purity in the house, transportation of the passenger from point "A" in point "B" or a satisfying of hunger. That is why ecological strategy and green marketing so often seem tom off from real life.
It is absolutely easy to sell a qualitative what product to those who already uses energy saving lamps, water counters and besfosfatny laundry detergents. The eco status of a product already has for them special value so many listed arguments really will be important and useful. But the most important task of the eco marketing specialist consists in inclining on the party of the most ordinary person - and the same marketing tools are for this purpose necessary, as at advance of any other products.
EcoAmerica and SRI Consulting non-profit organization conducted a number of the researches urged to define the relation of citizens to environment and proceeding from the conducted researches the following conclusions actual for advance of any "green" goods and services were drawn:
- Different people understand absolutely different things as "care of environment". Nearly 90% of people assure that they "are anxious with a state of environment". Thus only units mean global challenges like climate change or decrease in a biodiversity. The majority speaks about more local things influencing quality of theừ own life: quality of air and water, garbage, reduction of green massifs [3, p. 47].
- Private values - stronger trump, than public.
Dzharen Bemstein from Economic Policy Institute described two opposite models of thinking influencing what activity of people: "We together" and "You in itself. Distinction between these 2 models consists in positioning of people as self-assured and responsible for itself and people, inclined to empathy, cooperation and joint growth. What marketing specialists most often appeal 1 model. To affect people who adhere to 2 models, it is necessary for more "macho" - the marketing creating the eco status and representing the person the defender of an own family, the society or the planet.
- Complexity of environmental problems makes paralyzing impact on people. There are complex and complex problems as exhaustion of soils or destruction of an ozone layer. They are global and unevident at first sight, and, above all - even not each expert is capable to imagine their consecutive decision. Similar problems will simply paralyze the simple person. Therefore marketing specialists should focus attention on simpler things which the certain person or a family can make really today, having a little changed the habits.
- Product cost still plays for most of consumers more important role, than its value for preservation of the planet. Here it is worth making a reservation that many researches, such as GfK. Roper Consulting or Accenture, reveal quite high percent of the consumers ready to pay more for what products. Thus other researches, such as Landor Associates and Shelton Group Energy Pulse study, say that most of consumers aren't capable to call to a descent any green brand, and two thirds from them don't know how the most part of electricity is made.
Kazakhstan so far only follows a "green" way of development which result by 2050 has to be a steady and effective model of economy. In the next seven years (2013-2020) it is planned to create "green" infrastructure, to optimize use of resources and to increase efficiency of nature protection activity. The volume of investment necessary for transition to "green" economy will make about 1% of GDP annually that $3-4 billion a year are equivalent. For comparison: South Korea already puts annually 2% of GDP in "green" sector, and investments of China are at the level of 1,5% of GDP with the expected growth to 2% by 2015.
"Green" construction is the practice of construction and operation of buildings aimed at decrease in consumption level material and energy resources at simultaneous preservation and improvement of quality of constructions and comfort of their internal environment. The tendency of "green" construction is in Kazakhstan at an origin stage today: the way is paved for development of bills, scientific and information bases are replenished, the foundation for profile state and non-governmental organizations is laid.
In October, 2013 the Kazakhstan council for "green" construction of KazGBC, one of the main bodies heading process of introduction and distribution of this concept was officially started. One of the first the business center of Park View Office Tower located in Almaty which already practically finished the corresponding process applies for receiving "green" certification on the international standards of LEED and BREEAM in our country. At the same time the first Kazakhstan "green" projects, among which cottage town of Greenville, the KBTU new educational case and the same straw houses of Ergo Group to Almaty, and also the multipurpose Talan Towers and "Green Quarter of EXPO Village" complex in Astana [4, p. 5].
The government actively supports today this direction within the program of development of the country "Energy saving-2020" and the president's initiatives - programs of partnership "Green Bridge". The program of partnership "Green Bridge" was initiated by the Republic of Kazakhstan at the 66th session of the United Nations General Assembly and approved by all states at Conference of the United Nations on a sustainable development as an interregional initiative of a sustainable development which is voluntary and open for participation of all partners. The program assumes close interaction of the countries of Central Asia in providing a sustainable development with assistance of key international institutes and the private sector. In the Program of partnership "Green Bridge" the movement goes in two directions: aside "green technologies", and aside - the "green goods" made on these technologies and ecosystem services.
Alina Paint is a socially oriented brand. On July 1, 2014 the Kazakhstan brand of paint and varnish production of Alina Paint started a large-scale action on restoration of green fund of the country by forces of not indifferent Kazakhstan citizens which captured 18 cities of Kazakhstan. Since July 1, 2014 1 tenge from each kilogram of any production of the Alina Paint brand is deducted in special Fund of Gardening of Kazakhstan .
At the heart of philosophy of the Alina Paint brand the idea of magic and harmonious change of world around is put. "Communication of a subject of ecology and paint and varnish production of Alina Paint is simple - environmental friendliness of Alina Paint paints, absolute harmlessness for health are confirmed with the conclusion of SES of the Republic of Kazakhstan and conforms "To uniform sanitary and epidemiologic and hygienic requirements to the goods which are subject to sanitary and epidemiological surveillance (control)" the Customs Union. All actions of the enterprise: the compounding of production of brands, design of packing, action in which she took part is only a small contribution to ecological health of Kazakhstan.
The ECONPO of "Grinspeys" (Temirtau) is an example of quite successful implementation of marketing at the enterprise, working in the conditions of the small industrial city with the extremely limited resources. "Grinspeys" actively is engaged in carrying out public examinations, monitoring of a state of environment, ecological education of school students, and also creation of technologies on processing of waste of industrial production. Now "Grinspeys" is ready to offer a number of development on the market, including: production technologies of abrasive powders from dump converter slags; mineral wool from fiery liquid domain slags; an agloperita from coal preparation waste. Work on creation of technology of processing of waste of metallurgical production comes to an end.
Also search of new sales markets of the production in the country and beyond its limits is conducted. It is promoted by support of "Grinspeys" from other ecological organizations of Kazakhstan, first of all, of the Karaganda Ecological center having stronger resource base, access to the Internet, communications with foreign experts including in the sphere of development and application of clearing technologies, and also broad contacts within the country. Information on production of "Grinspeys" was placed on the server of the Ekolayn organizations (Moscow) and the international Social-and-ecological union.
Apparently, in Kazakhstan though with delay of rather developed countries of the Old and New World, development and expansion of "green" technologies and application of "green" marketing in activity of various organizations is conducted. It gives to hope that in the future Kazakhstan will widely use all ecological components in the business, thereby caring of environment and the population and contributing the share in care of our planet.
The list of the used literature:
- Peattie K. Green Marketing.- London: M&E Handbooks, 2007.
- Levynite T. Marketing miopiya: The lane from English T. Vinogradov, D. Rayevskaya, L. Tsaruk, A. Cech; Under the editorship of Yu. N. Kapturevsky∕∕SPb.: St. Petersburg. - 2001.
- Smmova E. Ekologic marketing and its bases. - St. Petersburg, 2011.
- Lyubinayte M., Salapayev U. Young and "green"/ /Forbes. - January, 2014. - No. 29.