The purpose of this article is consideration the methods of designing of the information systems used in various spheres. It is noticed, that at the automated systems market for large corporations and financial and industrial groups it is possible today to single two main subjects: it is the market of automated banking systems (ABS) and the market of industrial enterprises corporate information systems (ECIS). At present there are several methods of automated information systems designing among which it is possible to single out the following: "bottom-up" and "top-down", structural and process.
Information system designing has become widely-spread task in recent years; it is solved by control boards and commercial structures: banks, trading houses, different enterprises, etc. Such projects can be small, average, big and super-large-scale (unique). Normally big and unique projects are characterized by a layered design of automation objects, their position in the space, complicated functioning technology, a large volume and/or high complexity database, the lifetime exceeding the equipment's period of life , use in an information system of a part of already available equipment etc.
Development of architecture of difficult application-oriented information systems (IS) on the basis of the concept of open systems is the most adequate. The main objective for systems' creation an as open one consists in the possibility of economically and technically effective combining into a single heterogeneous system of different equipment types and software on the basis of use of the standardized interfaces between system components. Such an approach potentially allows reusing of the most science intensive software on different computing platforms without reprogramming and in this way to save considerable financial resources. On the other hand, such an approach allows step by step increasing computational capability of the application program in compliance both with needs of the user, and with his financial possibilities.
The problem description
The industry of development of automated management information systems started in 50 —60-s of the XX century and by the end of the century acquired quite finished forms.
Materials which are considered to be the generalized material on automated banking systems (ABS) and automated control systems of designtechnology developing (ACS DTD) are provided below. Despite the differences in the implementation of the functional modules of the systems, general approaches to their development are very similar, which enabled to bring the issues of their designing together, as IV generation AIS design [1, 2, 3, 4].
At the automated systems market for large corporations and financial and industrial groups it is possible today to single two main subjects: it is the market of automated banking systems (ABS) and the market of industrial enterprises corporate information systems (ECIS). Despite strong interconnection of these two automation system markets the proposed solutions have not yet been fully integrated with each other and it is expected in the nearest future/
- By Automated Banking System (ABS) we will understand the complex of the hardware and software that implement the multicurrency information system which provides the modern financial and administrative technologies in real-time mode in when transaction data processing.
- By the Automated Information System of the industrial enterprise (AIS) we will understand a complex of the hardware and software implementing a multi-component information system, which provides modern control of decision-making processes, designing, production and sale in real-time mode in when transaction data processing.
It is apparent, that both determinations are similar. At present there are several methods of automated information systems designing (AIS) among which it is possible to single out the following: "bottom-up" and "top-down", structural and process.
The mentality of modern programmers was formed at large computer centers (CCs) the main objective of which not creation of replicated products but specific institution staff servicing. This approach remained in automation in many respects even today. Under conditions of permanently changing legislations, production rules, financial and economic management and accounting rules, it is convenient for the officer to have a moderator between the newly issued instruction and the computer. On the other hand, as it turned out, there are many programmers infected with "an amateur performance virus" when especially quite a decent reward was offered for such a job.
Founding their own departments and automation controls, the enterprises and banks tried to be equipped with the necessary facilities by their own efforts. However periodic "shake up" of instructions, the difficulties connected with different ideas of users about the same data, the continuous operation of programmers on satisfaction all of new and new wishes of certain workers and as a result the dissatisfaction of officers with the programmers cooled down both.
So, the first approach was reduced to design "bottom-up". In this case, in the presence of qualified programmers, some work stations (WS), which were important from the point of view governing body, were quite tolerably automated. The general pattern of "the automated enterprise" was not visible quite well, especially in perspective.
"Top-down" method Rapid growth of the number of joint-stock and private enterprises and banks allowed some companies to see the future market and to invest the creation of the program device for this growing market. Developers singled out the most noticeable of the whole range of problems: automation of analytical accounting and technological processes (for banks it is mainly calculation and cash service; for the industrial enterprises it is design processes and production automation; not specific machines and etc., are meant but information flows). Considering that fact that AIS centre is certainly a device which provides the automated keeping of the analytical account, the majority of firms began with the detailed study of this problem. Systems were designed "on top", proceeding on the assumption that one program shall satisfy needs of all users.
The idea of use "one program for all" dramatically restricted possibilities of developers in structure of information sets of a database, in the use of versions of screen forms, algorithms of calculation and, therefore, deprived of possibility to expand essentially the circle of solvable tasks - to automate daily activities of each worker. The rigid frames issued "on top" ("the general for all") restricted possibilities of such systems concerning the keeping of the in-depth, often specific analytical and production and technological accounting. Workers carried out this operation manually, and results were fed into the computer. By this, the interface of each workplace couldn't be defined by functions entrusted to the user and by the accepted technology of operation. It became obvious that for successful implementation of the task of full automation of the bank it is necessary to change the ideology of AIS creation.
The structural approach is based on the use of the organizational structure of the company when the system designing is carried out according to structural sub-divisions/departments. Technologies of activities in this case are described through technologies of operation of structural sub- divisions/departments, and interaction of structural sub-divisions/departments via the model of the top level.
If the company represents a complicated structure of a holding or an enterprise type, it is necessary to have the model of interaction of all its elements; the model will contain not only technological, but also financial and legal moments.
The principal defect of the structural approach is the binding to an organization structure which very changes quickly, therefore it is necessary to make changes to the system project of an information system frequently.
Process approach The process approach is oriented not to the organization structure, but to business processes.
From the point of view of the current state, it is most perspective. Business processes, unlike the organization structure, change less frequently. As a rule, there are not many business processes at the enterprise, normally no more than ten.
The process approach brings to the necessity of transition onto the so- called «lean production» or to a "lean" resource-saving organization structure (Lean production). The main lines of such reorganization are:
- wide delegating of powers and responsibility to performers;
- quantity reduction of decision-making levels;
- the combination of management by objectives principle and the group organization of the work;
- special attention to questions of production or services quality assurance, and of the enterprise operation as a whole too;
- automation of technologies of execution of business processes.
Main differences of the new AIS designing approach
Basic differences of the 4th generation new AIS design approach are the use of principles of distributed DB, "dualism", multicomponent and transactional data processing .
Principles of “dualism” and multi-components
The bank structure and industrial enterprise developing, the increase of numbers of branches, the growth client numbers and the necessity of service quality improving put forth new demands to computerized systems. First of all, it refers to the ideology of operating system kernel construction: —computerized accounting - analytic account”.
It enabled bank structures: on the one hand, to preserve the capacity of working —from personal account” in the system kernel, with automatic formation of accounting transaction/entries, on the other hand, rigid standards of personal account were annulled. There appeared the possibility to keep accounting according to balance account of any order without in-depth analysis to the level of client's personal account. In this case the analytic account keeping according to the client's personal account went down to the level of the specialized software (SS) installed on the workplaces of bank workers (controllers, credit accountants, inspectors).
So, the basic difference of the new approach to the ABS creation consists in the idea of distribution of card of accounts in accordance with hierarchy levels. In this case, the card of accounts directory with their corresponding descriptions, the information set of clients was projected by the principle of distributed database.
he result was:
- buildup of all necessary accounting transaction which have already been aggregated through balance account, and their automatic delivery to the —computerized accounting” database;
- every bank worker specific requirements realization, including creation of arbitrary reports and references, memorial orders, operating journals;
- execution of any subordinate/ subsidiary and technological calculations.
With the use of flexible full-service network (FSN) setting system (component of the computer-aided banking system - CABS) there appeared the real possibility to adapt the program apparatus to any conditions and different guidance material requirements and work rules which were accepted either by the higher body or in this bank institution. Besides, in a multi-component scheme of CABS organizations when upgrading/modernizing one of the components the CABS kernel and other components were not affected. That improved the reliability, computerized system's lifetime and also provided a full execution of required functions.
Ambivalent/dual approach to the daily balance formation is the basis of the so called —principle of dualism”, of one of the important principles of modern banking system construction. Realization of this principle inevitablydemanded the construction the new generation CABS in the form of program modules, which are connected with each other, but at the same time are able to work off-line/independently.
The problem of industrial enterprises AIS designing is more complicated, because the sort of processed information is more diverse and hard to formalize. However here it's also possible to single out the basic model of work – this is the work “from project code”. The project code represents the analogue of personal account/bankbook, it has definite capacity, order (i.e., the concrete group of numeric and letter designation characterizes the detail, assembly unit, product and the level of interaction). The concrete group part of the code characterizes technologic, constructive, financial and other documents. All these are regulated by State Standards, that's why it can be formalized. In this case the modular approach to the realization of AIS is more important. So, dual approach to daily production plan formation provided the basis of “principle of dualism” for AIS of industrial enterprises.
Such multicomponent system provided the abidance of the basic principle of computerized informative systems - the absence of duplication of data input. The information about operations which were made with the help of using of one of the system components could be used by its any other component. Modularity of building new generation AIS and one-time input principle give the opportunity to vary these systems' sets. So, in banks, which have multibranch affiliated chain and do not transmit facts online, all full-service network installing in branches is not always economically justified. In these cases general software service in branches, oriented for primary input of information and the following computerized data processing in full-service network installed in main office is possible. Such a structure gives the opportunity to include into ABS the new generation component for creating data warehouse, separating operational activities system and the decision support system.
In addition, one of the advantages of the multicomponent system, which is basic while creating a new generation AIS is the possibility of step by step implementation. On the first implementation stage the system components are installed (or old ones are replaced) in those workplaces, which need software renovation. At the second stage the improvement of system takes place along with connecting of new components and interconnection fine-tuning. The opportunity of practicing such a method of implementation provides its simple replication and adaptation to the local conditions. So, the automated information system of new generation is a multicomponent system with the database distributed according to the stages of management hierarchy.
It is necessary to notice, there are the following design approaches: individual, typical and automated. Now the greatest application finds the typical approach assuming typification of design decisions.
The necessity of typification of project decisions is stipulated by the following: when introducing the standard system planning expenses go down substantially; by individual planning it is difficult to provide the proper scientific and technical level of development.
For the development and introduction of IMS standardized designing, there are a number of objective prerequisites:
• business management is based on the common provisions; • the structure of the control system for all enterprises is about the same and depends only on the size of the company;
• IMS technical equipments are standardized.
The basis of typical designing is the primary classification or typifying objects according to their most important parameters. Then goes creation of benchmark circuits and solutions, the implementation of which in the future at a particular enterprise is reduced to their binding under conditions of the enterprise.
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