O.A. Maltseva defines a verbal portrait art as a means to create an image of a character is to describe his appearance, and including psychological characteristics of the individual parts of appearance - facial features, facial expressions, shapes, postures, gestures, movements, clothing.
This factor introduces a term - "descriptive string", which is understood as a continuous narrative chain volume in one sentence or more. Continuity - the basic structural property of the descriptive string. The content side, the semantic core descriptive chain is anthropocentricity. However, this alone is not enough indication; otherwise the boundary terms "descriptive string" and "verbal portrait" will be different.
String of words is descriptive, according to O.A. Maltseva in the case when it has one or more characteristic feature of the image details of the character.
With the introduction of the concept of "descriptive string" word picture can be interpreted in a narrow and broad sense.
Verbal portrait in the narrow sense - is a descriptive string. The portrait of a broad sense - it is the totality of descriptive strings relating to the description of a character.
O.A. Maltseva identifies compact and dispersed composite drawing.
Compact portrait description - individual portrait description: once to describe the appearance of your character, the writer cannot access it for some time. The volume of the compact description of the portrait is often sufficient detailed and detailed description.
Dispersed portrait description is a reference to repeated periodic character's appearance in the course of the narrative.
She also notes that the word as a linguistic unit has the aesthetic possibilities. Functioning in a literary text, the word is implementing a set of its subject - the logical and emotional - expressive values.
Verbal art portrait is multifunctional. As part of the work of art, it can perform a variety of functions, in accordance with the functional content of a literary text at all. Social, philosophical, moral, religious, etc. directionality of the text is reflected in the verbal portrait as an important compositional element of the artwork.
Analysis of the main functions of the portrait - characterological, evaluation, idea - art shows, according to O.A. Maltseva that versatility is an indissoluble unity, mutual co-existence and moving its functions.
Characterological function is impossible without evaluation, the evaluation function also leads readers to an understanding of the nature of the character: both features together contribute to the disclosure of the ideological - the artistic content of the work. The interpenetration of the functions and the existence of one through the other say about their unity and complementarity. The movable coexistence functions means that the portrait of the importance of the functions can be changed: any of the major nuclear functions can move to the background, and any peripheral function normally becomes the leading.
Every phenomenon has the category "general and the particular." "Private" in the functional content of verbal artistic portrait is its variety of functions. "General" - is what unites them.
It should be noted the two main points. First, all the functions are the verbal portrait of one species - the descriptive function. Any descriptive string,and the portrait of a whole, first of all, describes. The descriptive function is basic function of verbal portrait. Second, all the functions of verbal portrait brings together and organizes the aesthetic function, as it is a verbal portrait of a work of art, and the main purpose of the portrait - serve as a means of creating an image.
It is in the aesthetic function explains the relationship of form and content, without which there can be created an artistic image. Systematizing the property of the aesthetic function is to pass through it that all other functions, in the form of a pure aesthetic function do not exist.
By analyzing the features of literary - artistic work, V.V. Vinogradov, is different that the specificity of literature as a literary art, which is achieved on the basis of the dialectical unity of the two main factors of a literary work - the material (language) and design (the idea) - part of the 'basically its deep, aesthetic quality. "
There is no doubt of great interest is the question of the relationship between the aesthetic and stylistic features. Under the stylistic feature, followed by I.V. Arnold, we understand the expressive potential of the elements of language, the definition of coming out in the style of decoding the received understanding of style as an expression of second-order information.
The stylistic function belongs to the text, and the same can be said about the aesthetic function. However, the stylistic feature inherent in the text of any kind, any style (as well as the text of the artistic style and non-fiction), at which time the aesthetic function attribute artistic speech. The problem of stylistic study of the text - the study of the interaction of the subject - the logical content of a message, that is the first kind of information, with the information of the second kind, which includes the display of aesthetic functions of language.
Consequently, the stylistic feature is a broader concept that includes the notion of the aesthetic function.
It is also necessary to note another difference between the aesthetic and stylistic features: while the stylistic feature can be traced to a relatively small passage of text, and can even occur in a single discourse, the aesthetic function of a language element is revealed only in the context of the whole, complete literary work. In true work of art every word is unique; it cannot be replaced or removed from the text without affecting the meaning of the whole. All words in a truly artistic text aesthetically significant, are usually one or another shaped function.
According to O.A. Maltseva, the study of the aesthetic function of art, in particular the art of verbal, is also important because the aesthetic function of art at the whole person affects not only rational, but also the emotional realm. Hence the close relationship of aesthetic and emotional is expressive functions of speech. V.V. Vinogradov said that "subject - a Boolean value of each word is surrounded by an expressive atmosphere fluctuating depending on the context."
Thus, all of the above leads to the conclusion that the functions of verbal portrait inherent hierarchy: Basic descriptive function, variety of its manifestations and unifying aesthetic function inherent in verbal art portrait.
The main construction material of verbal artistic portrait, according to O.A. Maltseva is vocabulary that describes the appearance of man. The vocabulary word portrait defines it is indicative in nature. From this, it can be divided into three groups:
- lexical - semantic group, meaning the elements of the so-called inalienable property: Man - the facial features, body parts, postures, gestures, facial expressions, movement, age.
- lexical - semantic group - clothing and its attributes.
- lexical - semantic group of color terms.
Indicative of the nature of the words in the different groups considered: the elements characterize a person while the rest of the vocabulary word portrait characterizes human rights in general and specific at the same time.
Thus, the entire set of lexical - semantic groups involved in the formation of verbal portrait is a lexical - semantic field of "a person's appearance." The choice of words that make up the portrait of the character of art is determined by their relative to the man, thus assumes the existence of a language in a more or less autonomous lexical microsystems.
Anthropocentricity - the leading quality, bringing together the different parts of speech of words in a single lexical - semantic field in verbally artistic portrait.
Word picture, so in a literary text is a semantic macrofield in which various semantic overlap the micro, referring to the description of a person's appearance. For example, the field of facial, body parts, movements, clothes color, and so on. That is the number of multi-dimensional and three- dimensionality description allows the writer to create a full portrait of his hero.
O.A. Maltseva, in his article "Vocabulary word portrait" argues that the most active parts of speech, forming the "human appearance" are nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs. The author distinguishes the special role of an adjective in building a verbal portrait of the feature because of its nature. Special attention, in her opinion, deserves the adjectives with the value of color.
Choice of vocabulary to a writer is always significant. First, because the appearance, clothing and demeanor can tell a lot about a person, his character. Secondly, the selected writer vocabulary will help the reader to interpret the true image, having understood the assessment or hint at it, given by the writer of the character.
Therefore, you should pay attention to the use of the author, and not the other lexical semantic units of the same series, as well as anything to do with the abstract schema of our understanding of a person's appearance. In building macrofield "a person's appearance" involves different parts of speech, as the unifying thread is their anthropocentricity.
Analyzing sketch of a work of art, is particularly important to pay attention to linguistic means which, because of its large depiction, not only contribute to the creation of powerful images, but also bear the author's evaluation of the character.
O.A. Maltseva fairly among the basic stylistic means verbal portrait epithets, metaphors, similes, which give a clear picture of any phenomenon, expressed in artistic form.
Thus, the epithet is different obligatory presence in it connotations (emotive, expressive), which is expressed through the author's attitude to the subject.
Shaped the essence of comparison is to compare two or more of these words, objects or phenomena that have a similar character. In this case, the concept maps to retain their independence in the creation, not merging into one experience. Each comparison shows the image, where the reader can catch a piece of the author's intention.
In contrast to the comparison metaphor conveys undivided representation that combines features of different objects or phenomena.
Stylistic means peculiar to gain expressiveness by interacting with each other.
Within the verbal portrait epithet simile and metaphor often act in unity, because the nature of these stylistic devices closes: epithet and a comparison can be metaphorical, while the metaphor can be interpreted as a hidden comparison. Another conclusion is that the portrait description has converged devices, which makes it especially notable as an "island" of the text, a subordinate of the communicative purpose.
Word picture arises and exists as a result of the unity and interaction of lexical and stylistic set of language features that are basic. The units of different levels are involved in the formation of verbal portrait, being in the interaction.
As part of the composition of art verbal art portrait, according to O.A. Maltseva, is a complex association of different composition - forms of speech. The term "composition - speech" refers to a form of speech segment fabric of the work, organized in a certain way, and performing some function in the structure of the whole.
The basis of the description of the portrait is composition - a form of speech, "description", which is often combined with "reasoning", "narrative."
O.A. Maltseva said that in prose, there are two main types of narrative: the epic and dramatic. With an epic type of narration explains everything going on generally, without any details, covered by long intervals of time fable. The dramatic narrative style is characterized by the fact that the time of plot and narrative are almost identical, the texts contain a description, and here is the center of people. And the fact that the dramatic style of the narrative is not so much about a man shows how it determines the importance, the functional significance of the portrait. Show the same person in reality, in turn, determines the main form of verbal art portrait - portrait of a dynamic, which is based on linguistic-stylistic composition - verbal form of "dynamic description."
Dominant components of the descriptions here are the remarkable words of the semantics of the action or state changes, thereby acquiring the features of a dynamic description. The verbs in these descriptions are used with certain adverbs, explaining the nature, manner of action.
Each person speaks their language, so, which reflects its age, profession, social status, and many other aspects of personality. The reception of the construction of "artistic language of Creation" image writing or speaking person in a literary work written V.V. Vinogradov noted though, that the problem of 'subjects',' linguistic creations "that are substrates of speech - it's not a problem of psychology and phenomenology of artistic speech.
In the XVIII - beginning of XIX century in the literature is widespread form of narration "of the character." The idea appears as an attempt to justify the credibility of the narrative, the subjective point of view of the person is perceived not only as having a right to exist, but as more valuable than the point of view of abstract reason. So there is the problem of "perspective", that is the starting position, elected by the author to observe the objective reality and its reflection in the form of a certain artistic composition.
The problem of "point of view" was developed by such scholars as V. Vinogradov, and G.A. Gurkovsky. Especially important for the analysis of verbal portrait is a provision stating that the views are manifested primarily in the assessment, that is, as an ideologically value.
Problems in terms of evaluation and are inextricably linked. The reason is the very nature of language, which reflects both the ontological and epistemological "view of the world," including the nature of a native speaker, a man with one of the essential properties of which is the ability and willingness to assess their environment.
According to O.A. Maltseva assessment - this process and the result is on the one hand the thought process of determining the value of an object, a phenomenon of the situation on the other side - the expression, the realization of this process.
It is believed that the word has estimated performance if it expresses a relation to what it calls, that is, the approval or disapproval. Because the evaluation expresses not only in word but in the proposal, the definition can be applied to this level: opinion expressed is not an offer where there is a sense of "good" or "bad." In the most general evaluation adjectives express good and bad, which represent the kernel estimates.
Portrait - evaluation - it is always a portrait - perception of which we learn more about the perceiver, since any value judgment reflects both the properties of the known volume as well as the knowing subject. The problem becomes particularly interesting when the role of the knowing subject stands by. Since portrait, performing evaluation function, contributes to our disclosure of the characters and can partially penetrate deep into the author's intentions.
All the above leads to the conclusion that verbal art portrait is a complex element of the composition, that is an integral part of the compositional organization of the text, its artistic whole and has many features, including the evaluation function plays an important role.
List of references
- Arnold I.V. The style of the modern English language. L., 1981.
- Maltseva O.A. Lingo- stylistic especially verbal artistic portrait in modern English novel. / / Dis. Candidate of philological sciences. L., 1986.
- Maltseva O.A. The semantic and stylistic interpretation of the word portrait and re-nomination in the artistic prose text. L., 1986.