Sociological diagnostics of public administration by the higher education system in the Republic of Kazakhstan

In the article the interaction of subjects in the management of higher education system is considered, the effectiveness of public administration and the implementation of state policy in the system of higher education is evaluated. A sociological diagnosis was carried out to study the opinions of managers and specialists in higher education about the level of public administration of the education system and ways to improve it. A comprehensive analysis of the current state of management was made, the significance of quantitative and qualitative methods of sociological diagnostics as a tool for assessing the effectiveness of public administration in the higher education system is substantiated. A number of reasons for dissatisfaction, or partly respondents' satisfaction with state administration of the higher education system, have been identified. The authors made suggestions for solving the problems of graduates' employment after graduation, housing problems and supporting in higher education.

In the context of active modernization of the education system in the Republic of Kazakhstan, higher education is crucial for the successful development of the state and society. For decades, the issues of the quality of educational services occupy one of the basic places in discussions about higher education. The most important factor determining the need to improve the quality of higher education is to increase the role of education in all areas of society and the individual: in industry, in the service sector and in other areas, including in the field of higher education. The growth of the higher education system in the Republic of Kazakhstan (the emergence of new educational programs, strategies, changes in regulatory legal acts, new reforms in the higher education system) is stimulated by the increasing public need for highly educated specialists. In connection with this, the expenses of the society and its desire to know how effective these costs are, the desire for globalization of higher education and the activation of academic mobility are rising.

The problem of sociological diagnosis of public administration of the higher education system in Kazakhstan is the subject of scientific analysis of many famous scientists. A theoretical study of the essence of public administration of the education system, the historical aspects of the development of higher education in Kazakhstan, the development of science-based proposals and recommendations for improving legislation at the initial stage of the formation of the Republic of Kazakhstan were proposed by R.A. Alshanov [1]. The work of V. Tkachenko was dedicated to the sociological diagnosis of the quality of higher education [2]. An analysis of the development of the education system of Kazakhstan is presented in the works of A.P. Lyferov [3]. The problem of Kazakhstan entering the world educational space, reforming higher education in Kazakhstan in the context of the Bologna process is reflected in the works of G.A. Lukichev [4], A.A. Nurmagambetov [5] and others.

The expansion of integration in all spheres of public life that is occurring in the world has predetermined the need for the integration of national education systems and the creation of a single world educational space. Thus, in the European Union, for several decades, a holistic policy in the field of higher education has been developed and implemented, and supranational institutions of coordination and management have been formed. Conventions have been adopted on the mutual recognition of higher education documents and degrees, which create the normative basis for the integration process in the field of higher education [6].

The level of the intellectual potential of a country directly depends on the quality of higher education, and this requires solving this problem from each institution of higher learning for them in advanced domestic and foreign experience, searching for and finding new ways to solve it. The need to identify and understand the problems of state management of higher education quality is due to the formation of a new educational policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan, where the priority is to ensure the modern quality of education based on preserving its fundamentality and relevance to the current and future needs of the individual, society and state. The process of improving the quality of education directly depends on the potential of public policy, public administration of the education system, and its social efficiency [7].

When organizing their activities, higher education institutions are oriented toward meeting the requirements of the state, reflected in the Law «On Education», the Program and Strategy, SES, indicators of state attestation and accreditation. However, the main consumers are employers, and it is in the real economy that the result of education expressed in knowledge and skills can be fully manifested (Table 1).

Table 1 The interaction of subjects in the management of higher education of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Functions / Subjects

Employers (Business structures)

Society

State

Planning

identification of labor market needs;

not involved

not involved

involved

formation of classifier specialties

not involved

not involved

involved

formation of state order

not involved

not involved

involved

development of state compulsory education standards

not involved

not involved

involved

development of model programs

not involved

not involved

involved

development of state educational development programs

not involved

not involved

involved

changes and additions to the regulatory framework

not involved

not involved

involved

Organization

the creation of a legislative and another regulatory legal framework for the functioning of education

not involved

not involved

involved

updating of educational, methodical and material support and technical base.

partially involved

not involved

involved

Monitoring and analysis

licensing

not involved

not involved

involved

state certification

partially involved

not involved

involved

accreditation

partially involved

partially involved

involved

Note. Compiled by the author on the basis of materials [8].

Based on the above, the main problems of public administration of the higher education system include:

  • lack of public and business structures of the components in the management of the higher education system;
  • insufficient amount of the regulatory framework for attracting business structures and society to the management of the higher education system;
  • weak interaction of state authorities with the institutions of public regulation in the definition of content, higher education [9].

Thus, the relevance of the research topic of sociological diagnostics of public administration of the higher education system is determined by the contradictions between the requirements of modern society, the state policies implemented in the field of education modernization and the need to form and implement education quality management systems. On the basis of this, it is necessary to improve the managerial competence of university managers, the available scientific research and the activities of universities to solve this problem and the presence in this activity of a number of the problems noted above that cause its lack of effectiveness.

The aim of the study is to justify the importance of quantitative and qualitative methods of sociological diagnostics as a tool for assessing the effectiveness of public administration in the higher education system.

Currently, the analysis of the social situation of the Statistics Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan is generally accepted in management practice both at the state and regional levels of management. Information developed by the Committee of Statistics and government agencies, there are many undoubted advantages (comparability, efficiency, a fairly high degree of reliability of the measured indicators). However, it does not give a complete picture of the development of various sectors of the economy. Such important aspects as the social group of people, their attitude to various spheres of personal and public life, to the activities of state structures remain without attention. Such information can only be obtained through regular public opinion polls. One of the most effective tools of a public opinion poll ia sociological diagnosis — a survey.

When compiling the questionnaire, the authors used several methods of sociadiagnosis. Questioning of respondents was conducted in person, the survey refers to the standardized type of surveys and consists of an introductory and main part, passport. The main task of this sociological diagnosis is to encourage the respondent to answer the questions posed. The form of the questionnaire contains closed questions, half-closed questions and open questions.

In the course of the study, a social diagnosis was carried out to study the opinions of managers and specialists in higher education about the level of public administration of the higher education system and ways to improve it. To ensure effective public administration of higher education in the conditions of the knowledge economy formation, it was important to know the opinion on a number of issues for a comprehensive assessment of the current state of management and the development of specific proposals for its improvement. 100 respondents, heads and specialists of higher educational institutions and excellent students, participated in the sociological survey.

As a result of the questionnaire survey, it was revealed that the most important life goals, values and ideals of the respondents' orientation determines their unequal approach to the construction of life plans and affect the future choice of their activities. So, 29 % it is important to receive a high salary taking into account labor and qualification; 16 % get a good education and temporarily go to work abroad; 14 % of respondents want to get a PhD degree; 10 % of respondents want to get a good education and gto a permanent place of residence abroad (currently in Kazakhstan there is a tendency to leak young people abroad, this is mainly related to the demographic situation, innovation activity, the «quality» of science and high-tech industries and a catalyst for negative trends in these areas); 9 % have good health; 8 % want to have the honor and respect of colleagues and others; 7 % get a good higher education and live in prosperity. The results are presented in the form of a diagram itable 2

Table 2 The most important life goals of the respondents

Purpose

Number of answers, units

Response rate %

ɪ

To get a high salary taking into account labor and qualifications

18

7

2

Get a good education and temporarily go to work abroad

33

14

3

Get a PhD degree

14

7

4

Get a good education and leave for permanent residence abroad

42

9

5

Have good health

65

29

6

Have the honor and respect ocolleagues and others

19

8

7

Get a good higher education

12

16

8

To live in prosperity

24

10

 

Total

227

100

To the question of the respondents' satisfaction with the state administration of the higher education system, 30 % responded that 34 % were not satisfied with the state administration of higher education, only 13 % were partially satisfied and 23 % were satisfied (Fig. 1).

Based on the above question, the dominant goal in public administration of the higher education system is the quality of education. In this regard, respondents were asked the question «Causes of dissatisfaction, or partly respondents' satisfaction with government administration of the higher education system», critically evaluating various aspects of public administration of the higher education system. Of the total number of 22 % of respondents, they said that the state administration of the higher education system contains an ill-conceived, non-systemic policy of the state, 20 % responded that, in the higher education system, frequent changes are introduced in regulatory acts, 13 % of respondents answered that there is no close connection and partnership of higher authorities with universities, 12 % instability and chaotic decision-making, 11 % adoption of new program, planning documents without careful analysis, identification and elimination understand the reasons for the failure to comply with previous documents, 10 % excessive regulation of financial and economic activities, restriction of the independence of universities in dealing with financial and other issues, 7 % outdated legal framework, 5 % manifestation of corruption in state administrative educational bodies and structures. Despite the measures taken in recent years in the Republic of Kazakhstan to improve the state administration of the higher education system, the administration of the higher education system looks quite pessimistic. This suggests that, in public administration of the higher education system, there are a number of problems that require improvement of policy and decision making, adoption of new programs, plans and legal acts for the development of the education system taking into account new global trends in the development of education. To enable higher educational institutions to independently regulate financial and economic activities, the freedom to resolve financial and other issues. The survey results are shown in table 3.

Table 3 Causes of dissatisfaction, or partly respondents' satisfaction with public administration of the higher education system

The reasons

Number of answers, units

Response rate %

1

Unreasonable to the end, non-system state policy

51

22

2

Instability and chaotic decision making

28

12

3

Frequent changes in regulations

49

20

4

Legacy legislation

16

7

5

Adoption of new program, planning documents without careful analysis, identification and elimination of causes of non-fulfillment previous documents

26

11

6

Lack of close ties, partnerships of higher authorities with universities

31

13

7

Excessive regulation of financial and economic activities, restriction of the independence of universities in dealing with financial and other issues

24

10

8

Manifestation of corruption in state administrative educational bodies and structures

12

5

 

Total

237

100

It turned out that more than half of the respondents (54 %) do not feel they will support the state in obtaining higher education, 28 % find it difficult to answer and only 18 % answered yes (Fig. 2).

The above data allows us to conclude that of the main points of integration intthe global space of Kazakhstan education is, first of all, attracting the attention of all students to this process, for which it is necessary to carry out explanatory work on innovations conducted at universities. In addition, it is necessary to constantly carry out work to supporstudents' youth — scholarships, allowances, benefits, since only a competent and far-sighted social policy will help to provide young people with their well-being, the opportunity to develop and adequately exist in the present and graduating. It is necessary for governments and non-state structures and funds working in thfield of education and youth policy to ensure regular sociological research, taking into account the opinions of students.

Along with this, the opinions of respondents about state support in employment look quite pessimistic, 49 % of respondents answered that they do not feel the state (Fig. 3).

According to this survey, we would like to make suggestions for solving the problems of employment of graduates after the university:

  1. Universities should establisclose cooperation with business structures, namely, to negotiate internships for their students in these organizations. The theoretical basis that the higher education institution provides, supported by an abundance of practice, is the key to the successful preparation of a competent young specialist.
  2. Universities need to develosuch a practice, in which the place of internship of a student in the future can become his place of work after graduation. For this, it is worthwhile, first of all, to encourage students with good academic performance and those who have shown themselves frothe positive side during their internship in one organization or another.
  3. In order to increase the activity of business structures in hiring young professionals, one should introduce a preferential tax assessment, state grants and support.
  4. It is necessary to adopt a laon job quotas, for those who are first looking for work in their field.

5. It will be expedient to encourage the scientific development of students in various universities of our country and their introduction into production. For example, if students of this or that university put forward a certain development that improves the work of a production, then organizations, enterprises or companies that will take up the implementatioof this idea and get results will also be provided with certain preferential conditions in the tax field. And students who have developed one or another idea that has already been implemented must be provided witwork, either in the enterprise where their innovation is in effect or in the company that provided financial support for this project. This proposal should also be enshrined at the legislative level, adopting the relevant legal act. Consequently, nothing can be realized in full without active participation on the one hand of universities, on the other — of state bodies and business structures. At the same time, 44 % of respondents support the requirements of working out in higher educational institutions or scientific organizations for at least three years after completion of training, 30 % find it difficult to answer, and 26 % did not support the requirements of working out. Respondents were asked to expand the mining site, add government agencies and national companies (Fig. 4).

Answers to the question asked to respondents about state support in solving the housing problem of young specialists after graduation are shown in figure 5.

Analysis of respondents' answers on support for reforms conducted by the state in the field of higher education showed that 44 % of respondents partially support reforms in the higher education system, 27 % find it difficult to answer, 19 % do not support ongoing reforms, and only 10 % support reforms carried out in higher education. Based on this survey, the author assumes that the reforms carried out by the state in the field of higher education are negative (Fig. 6).

In addition, the questionnairincluded a number of questions on the implementation of academic mobility, the place of universities of the Republic of Kazakhstan in international and national rankings. On the question of the degree of implementation of academic mobility in your university, the majority of respondents rated it as satisfactory (31 %), 56 % assessed positively, and 17 % assessed as not satisfactory (Fig. 7).

93 % of respondents answered yes to the question whether you are tracking the places of universities of Kazakhstan in national and international ratings. Of these, 22 % — constantly, 33 % — sometimes, and 38 % — not regularly (Fig. 8).

Based on the above, the question is asked main indicators of which interest the respondents. As a result of the survey, 36 % of respondents are interested in the scientific reputation of the university, which plays an important role in the development of the knowledge economy. For the rest of the indicators, the leading position was taken by the reputation othe university among employers (27 %), 16 % the ratio of teachers and students, 13 % the proportion of foreign teachers, 6 % scientific citation, 2 % the proportion of foreign students. The survey results are shown in table 4.

Table 4 The main indicators of international ratings of interest respondents

Indicators

Number of answers, units

Response rate, %

1

Scientific reputation of the university

44

36

2

The reputation of the university among employers

32

27

3

The ratio of teachers and students

20

16

4

The share of foreign teachers

15

13

5

Share of foreign students

3

2

6

Scientific citation

7

6

7

Total

121

100

The survey involved 100 respondents, of which 43 are men and 57 are women. Age up to 30 years — 28 people, 31–40 — 34 people, 41–55 years — 22 and more than 55 years — 15.

Analyzing the results of the sociological diagnosis of public administration of the higher education system it is necessary:

  • to improve the organizational foundations of state administration of the higher education system. To increase requirements for the quality of higher education, which makes it necessary to improve the strategy of public administration of educational processes.
  • to optimize of the administrative, regulatory and legal mechanism and the expansion of public participation in the management of the higher education system, the further development of academic freedoms and autonomy of universities, while maintaining state interaction and state support in various forms. Nowadays, the main functions of the state are becoming effective participation in the management of the economic and social spheres, ensuring conditions for the free activity of individuals. Such important conditions include the opportunity to get an education, a profession, a workplace.
  • to rethink also the functions of a modern educational institution, which is not limited to the traditional mission of transmitting knowledge from generation to generation, but becomes a means of confronting challenges. Only education that is adequate to the tasks of developing network intelligence can contribute to the effective integration of Kazakhstan into the world community and support its competitiveness in the global competition of innovative economies.
  • to establish close cooperation between the state, business structures and higher educational institutions. It is necessary to directly attract the competencies and investments of business structures in order to create qualitatively new conditions in order to get a professional higher education meeting modern requirements;
  • to increase the competitiveness of universities in the country and the world. This is especially relevant in the conditions of the formation of the knowledge economy. Thus, the state will receive a developed competitive market of educational services, business will be able to influence the quality of training, and educational institutions will attract additional funding and implement innovative educational programs of higher education.

 

References

  1. Alshanov, R. (2003). Puti intehratsii Kazakhstana v mirovoe obrazovatelnoe prostranstvo [Ways of integration of Kazakhstan into the world educational space]. Stolichnoe obrazovanie, Vol. 3–5 [in Russian].
  2. Tkachenko, V.V. (2013). Sotsiolohicheskaia diahnostika kachestva vyssheho obrazovaniia severnykh filialov vuzov [Sociological diagnosis of the quality of higher education of the northern branches of universities]. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Tiumen [in Russian].
  3. Liferov, A.P. (2002). Heopoliticheskie aspekty rossiisko-kazakhstanskoho sotrudnichestva v sfere obrazovaniia [Geopolitical aspects of Russian-Kazakhstan cooperation in the field of education]. Vestnik Riazanskoho hosudarstvennoho pedahohicheskoho universiteta. Seria Obrazovanie, pedahohika i metodika, Vo1. 1, 3–17 [in Russian].
  4. Lukichev, G.A. (2003). Razvitie obrazovaniia v hosudarstvakh-uchastnikakh Bolonskoho protsessa [The development of education in the States parties to the Bologna process]. Vysshee obrazovanie sehodnia, Vol. 8, 34–37 [in Russian].
  5. Nurmagambetov, A.A. (2002). Obrazovatelnaia politika Respubliki Kazakhstan v kontekste transformatsii sistemy vyssheho obrazovaniia [The educational policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the context of the transformation of the higher education system]. Kazakhskii universitet. Almaty [in Russian].
  6. Galaktionov, V. (2004). Mezhdunarodnaia praktika vzaimnoho priznaniia dokumentov ob obrazovanii i professionalnykh kvalifikatsii [International practice of mutual recognition of certificates of education and professional qualifications]. Vysshee obrazovanie v Rossii, Vol 2, 35–41 [in Russian].
  7. Maier, V.A. (2007). Sotsiolohicheskaia kontseptsiia formirovaniia sistemy upravleniia kachestvom vyssheho obrazovaniia [Sociological concept of the formation of the quality management system of higher education]. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Tiumen [in Russian].
  8. Obzor natsionalnoi politiki v oblasti obrazovaniia: vysshee obrazovanie v Kazakhstane (2017) [Overview of National Education Policy: Higher Education in Kazakhstan]. iac.kz. Retrieved from http://iac.kz/sites/default/files/otchet_oesr_po_rk_ 2017_rus_s_pravkami [in Russian].
  9. Ignatova, E.V. (2011). Upravlenie sistemoi vyssheho obrazovaniia Кazakhstana v usloviiakh reformirovaniia [Management of the system of higher education in Kazakhstan in terms of reforming]. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Tiumen [in Russian].
Year: 2019
City: Karaganda
Category: Economy