The main fundamental principle of the state cultural policy in Kazakhstan is recognition of equality of cultures of all people and also strengthening of integrity of culture, by means of creation of different conditions for their preservation and development. It gave the chance to transfer a part of functions on ethnic and cultural self-determination of the people in hands of nationalities and ethnoses. In optimization of the national relations an important role is played by the national cultural centers and associations. The problem of activity of the national cultural centers acquires special relevance today. Article is devoted to the main activities of the national cultural centers of the Central Kazakhstan at a boundary of the XX-XXI centuries. Authors made an attempt of the analysis and systematization of material about activity of the national cultural centers of the Central Kazakhstan from the moment of their creation till today. In the course of work features of formation of the national cultural centers were studied and their role in formation of cultural processes and interethnic consent in modern Kazakhstan societies is shown. Priorities of development of the national cultural centers of the Central Kazakhstan are defined. Authors come to a conclusion that the main activities of the national cultural centers are - cultural and leisure, language, information and education, club, local history, communicative work.
Since the Republic of Kazakhstan has gained the independence, the head of state and the government have faced the tasks of independently determining ways and building internal and foreign policies of the state. One of the basic principles of building an independent Kazakhstan was the principle of the formation of ethnocultural policies based on the preservation of inter-ethnic harmony, the prevention of potential and regulation of real ethno-conflicts, the conduct of ethnocultural policies within the concept of ethnic diversity, the promotion of civic identity and the formation of Kazakhstan's patriotism. This position of the head of state and government was of great importance for the population of the republic also due to the fact that in the first years of the sovereignty of Kazakhstan the overwhelming majority of the Slav population had fears that the republic would follow the path of building an ethnocratic monocultural state .
In the early 1990s state programs, the Program of development of the Kazakh language and other national languages in KazSSR for the period of 1990-2000 was ready . On April 14, 1993 the Law «On the Rehabilitation of Victims of Mass Political Repressions in the Republic of Kazakhstan» was adopted in the republic .
On the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan, there is the Law «On the Assembly of the People of Ka- zakhstan» dated October 20, 2008 No. 70-IV. This Law determines the status, the procedure for the formation and organization of the work of the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, for implementing the state national policy, ensuring social and political stability in the Republic of Kazakhstan, and enhancing the effectiveness of interaction between state and civil society institutions in the sphere of inter-ethnic relations . Article 3 of the law states that the Assembly's goal is to make sure interethnic harmony in the Republic of Kazakhstan in the process of forming a Kazakhstan's civil identity and a competitive nation on the basis of Kazakhstani patriotism, civil and spiritual and cultural community of the people of Kazakhstan, with the consolidating role of the Kazakh people . According to Article 4, the main tasks of the Assembly are to ensure effective interaction of state bodies and civil society institutions in the field of inter-ethnic relations, create favorable conditions for further strengthening inter-ethnic harmony and tolerance in society, strengthening the unity of the people, forming a politico-legal culture of citizens based on democratic norms, Ensuring the integration of the efforts of ethnocultural and other public associations to make the goals and aims of the Assembly, and that revival, preservation and development of national cultures, languages and traditions of the people of Kazakhstan. According to this law (Article 15), the composition of the Assembly and the Assemblies of the Regions (the city of the republican significance, the capital) is formed from thenumber of citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan - representatives of ethnocultural and other public associations, representatives of state bodies and other persons, taking into account their authority in the society. Candidatures for membership of the Assembly are nominated by:
- the decision of the sessions of the regions' assemblies (cities of republican significance, the capital) on the basis of proposals of ethnocultural and other public associations of the regions;
- the decision of the highest bodies of republican, regional ethnocultural and other public associations.
Activities for ensuring inter-ethnic harmony in Kazakhstan, organized by the Assembly, by the assemblies of the regions (cities of national importance, the capital), by ethnocultural public associations that are members of the Assembly, are financed by the procedure established by the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan . Thus, the law «On the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan» is a kind of indirect legal basis for the activities of national cultural centers.
Interaction of the Assembly with ethnocultural public associations, other institutions of civil society, similar structures of foreign countries, as well as international organizations to strengthen national unity and keep the cultural and linguistic diversity of Kazakhstan, inter-ethnic and interfaith harmony and protect the rights of ethnic groups is provided by the Secretariat within the framework of the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan .
Thus, created in the mid-1990s. The Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, by its activities, was given to the development of practical recommendations that would make sure the consolidation of society, and to aid the President of Kazakhstan in his activities as a guarantor of observance of the rights and freedoms of citizens regardless of their racial, national, social affiliation, religion or belief .
In 1995, the Assembly consisted of 7 to 24 delegates from the region, 16 representatives of national cultural centers and 12 representatives of the government. About 290 people. The Assembly included the Advisory Council (24 representatives of national cultural centers and 20 heads of administrations) and the Executive Secretariat (the head, his deputy and 5 members of the secretariat). From the Karaganda and Dzhezkazgan regions, 27 members were elected to the Assembly, of which 2 are German nationals . On the local level, in the regions, the bodies of the Minor Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan were established. The Assembly was allocated a special 10% quota, which enabled representatives of different nationalities to enter and study in higher educational institutions of the republic. In 1997, 215 people, representatives of small people and nationalities of the Karaganda region, were given the opportunity to study in the higher educational institutions of the region (mainly Karaganda State Technical University and academician ҮеА. Buketov Karaganda State University).
Methods of research
The theoretical and methodological basis of the research in this field the degree of knowledge of the problem. Great importance for writing the article work is the work of foreign and domestic scientists, dedicated to the problems of relations between ethnic groups and the state. For this period, a huge amount of scientific material has been accumulated, reflecting the study of various nationalities and ethnic groups. But the appeal to this literature shows that the issues related to the history of the formation of national cultural centers in Kazakhstan are reflected in the general context of the literature on interethnic relations, national policy, state and social programs on issues of interethnic harmony and materials of the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan. The regional aspect, in this case, the region of Central Kazakhstan, is also represented in the general literature on interethnic relations. Therefore, it represents advisable to systematize the historiography of the problem under consideration and to present the degree of its study in two main areas: editions of the Soviet period of time and publications of the modern era. In this study, we mainly relied on Soviet and modern literature, despite the fact that foreign authors have a lot of work on our topic.
Here, the work can be systematized in two stages. The first stage — the beginning of independence, that is, from 1991 to 1999. Among such works are «Koreans of Kazakhstan», author G.V. Kan ; «Cultural construction in villages and villages of Kazakhstan (1946-1960)», author of A.B. Muritova ; «Socio- demographic processes in Kazakhstan (1917-1980)», the authors M.Kh. Asylbekov and A.B. Galiev ; «Ethnopolitics of Kazakhstan: state and prospects», author K.E. Kusherbayev ; «Interethnic harmony in Kazakhstan: problems, contradictions, perspectives», author G.V. Malinin .
The second stage, from 2000 to the present. For this period, numerous works have been written, among them: «Interethnic relations in Kazakhstan», authors B.K. Sultanov, N.I. Larin ; «Eurasian Idea in theContext of Interethnic Harmony and Tolerance», by E.L. Tugzhanov ; «Social interaction of ethnoses in the modern world. Kazakhstan's experience of inter-ethnic and inter-religious harmony: proposals for the OSCE», author Z.K. Shaukenova .
National cultural centers in Kazakhstan works on the basis of the law «On public associations». Article 5 of this law reads: «Public associations are set up and operate to realize and protect political, economic, social and cultural rights and freedoms, develop the activity and initiative of citizens; satisfaction of professional and amateur interests; development of scientific, technical and artistic creativity, protection of life and health of people, protection of the natural environment; participation in charitable activities; conducting cultural and educational, sports and recreational work; protection of historical and cultural monuments; patriotic, legal and humanistic education; expansion and strengthening of international cooperation; carrying out other activities not prohibited by the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is prohibited to show and operate public associations that pursue extremist goals, as well as the creation of paramilitary groups not provided for by the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
In 18th article of laws show that public associations may have their own symbols (flag, anthem, emblem, pendants, badges) that do not contradict the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The full and abbreviated name of the public association and its symbols should not duplicate in full or in real part the name and symbols of the Republic of Kazakhstan and other states, state bodies, public associations registered in the Republic of Kazakhstan, as well as public associations liquidated in connection with the violation of the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Description and sketches of the symbols of the public association are fixed in the charter. The charter of a public association, according to Article 12 of the Law «On Public Associations», should give the name, subject and purpose of the activities of the public association, the conditions and procedure for acquiring and losing membership, the rights and duties of members. The Charter should specify the territory within which the center operates. Public association should have its own structure and legal status of its structural units.
Furthermore, the order of formation, competence, and terms of office of the governing bodies, the place of the permanent governing body of the public association must be determined. The sources of the formation of money and other assets of the public association, the rights of the public association and its structural divisions (branches and representative offices) for property management, the procedure for introducing changes and amendments to the charter of the public association, the procedure for reorganization and liquidation of the public association, in case of liquidation.
The charter may give for other provisions on the activities of the public association, which do not contradict the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The adoption of the charter, the introduction of changes and additions to it are the exclusive competence of the supreme body of the public association - the congress (conference, assembly).
On the territory of our state, there is a Culture Act that regulates social relations in the sphere of creation, revival, preservation, development, dissemination and use of culture in the Republic of Kazakhstan and determines the legal, economic, social and organizational bases of state policy in the field of culture.
National cultural centers have a systematized list of names of cases with a sign of the timing of their implementation and storage of information. Initially, an approximate nomenclature of cases is preparing. When preparing an approximate nomenclature of cases, the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan» dated October 20, 2008 No. 70-IV, the activities of national cultural centers that are sources of the Archive of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, analyzes a set of documents formed in the course of their activities. This nomenclature of cases is designed to create the basis for the rational organization of office work, the examination of value, accounting and make sure the preservation of documents in the national cultural center. An exemplary nomenclature of cases is a methodical tool and has a recommendatory character.
The approximate nomenclature of cases is constructed according to a functional principle, i.e. the names of sections correspond to the main activities of the national cultural center of this profile:
- organizational and legal support of activities;
- organizational and mass work;
- accounting and reporting.
Within the sections of the nomenclature, cases are systematized according to the degree of importance and interconnection.
The sample nomenclature of cases does not include personal documents (orders of the head of staff, employment contracts with staff, work books, personal files, payroll sheets for salaries, each cards, etc.), because work in public associations is conducted on a voluntary basis, documents on personal are not formed. However, some national cultural centers make contracts with people to do temporary jobs and give out bonuses to members of the organization; therefore, cases of temporary (75 years) storage are included in the nomenclature of cases (02-09, 02-14, 03-09, 03-13).
The Concept of Ethno-Cultural Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan states that «the specificity of Kazakhstan is determined by the multiethnic and multi-confessional composition of the population. Representatives of many nations and nationalities live in the republic. Some of them are compact, which strengthens the ethnocultural diversity and features of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In terms of cultural and linguistic differences, the country's population as a whole is divided according to the main orientation into one of two languages - state and Russian, whose communicative significance and prevalence are not equal. In addition, representatives of several national groups do not have their own ethnic statehood, which increases the responsibility of the country for preserving the inherent distinctive culture. In these conditions, it is important to create opportunities for the restoration and development of ethnic cultures, an interaction between them in the interests of national unity .
Modern national cultural centers can have different legal forms: association, movement, committee, club, national cultural center, society, association, organization, etc., although often the organizational form of the national cultural center is not important, since it is much more important for the representatives of that or another ethnos simply to unite with like-minded people and start work on preserving the national culture.
Thus, the activities of national cultural centers in the Republic of Kazakhstan are regulated by the following legislative acts: the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Law on the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, the Law on Public Associations, the Law on Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Law on Elections in the Republic of Kazakhstan Republic of Kazakhstan», the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On the Strategy of the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan».
About 55 national and cultural centers work in the Karaganda region. There are Sunday schools in 20 centers. The number of students in each school is 25 people on average. The most active national cultural centers of the Karaganda are Zhezkazgan, Satpaev, Temirtau, Bukhar-Zhyrau district. In the two decades of independence, the success of the Kazakhstan project of building a nation-state has received a well-deserved recognition in the international community. Our President Nursultan Nazarbayev has sensitively caught the movement of the national lower classes, and the present Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan has appeared. She solved many inter-ethnic issues and problems, extinguished people's distrust of each other, instilled in representatives of non-nationality the belief that they also have all the rights. Throughout the world, the uniqueness of the Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan and the effectiveness of its activities in interethnic issues have long been recognized. The Assembly demonstrates the equality of all the people of our republic, and the common Motherland of Kazakhstan brings people of all nationalities closer together on the basis of common interests.
Since 1989, the first national cultural centers began to be formed. Moreover, the initiative of their formation came from the people themselves, who felt the need to revive their national culture, the need to know their language, customs, and traditions. Then the ethnocultural centers were small groups of enterprising people who acted in isolation, huddling where they would have to. And only since 1998 all the national and cultural centers were provided with cabinets, the necessary tools, beautiful concert suits were made and that, most importantly, budgetary support was provided [15; 154]. So began a kind, the second stage in the life of national cultural centers. From the beginning of its activity, the national cultural centers worked in two directions: educational and cultural. Everyone who wants to study the native language, traditions, customs, rich culture of his people could learn. In each center, there were formed original, bright collectives of amateur performances that did not stop their activities because they are known and loved not only in the city of Karaganda, but also far beyond its borders.
Now, without a national cultural center, there is not a single cultural and mass event. Constant participants of traditional regional festivals of culture and art of the people of Kazakhstan, in which these collectives become undoubted winners and diplomats.
At the annual regional festivals of ethnic cultures of the people of Kazakhstan, ethnocultural associations takes top places.
Age of participants of amateur collectives of national cultural centers from 12 to 75 years! Native speakers of language and culture, of course, are representatives of the older generation. Their indefatigableenergy, love of the folk song and folk art can be envied. In cultural and recreational work, much attention is paid to the search for new forms of organization of leisure. Ethnocultural centers try to cover all segments of the population - children, adolescents, youth, people of retirement age. And this is an important phenomenon for the inter-ethnic consent of the ethnic groups living in the territory of Central Kazakhstan.
A centuries-old history united representatives of various ethnic groups on the territory of Kazakhstan. Surely, that is why, in the early 1990s, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan expressed the idea of uniting all national cultural centers in a single organization — the Assembly of Peoples of Kazakhstan. It is this organization that has become the mechanism for harmonizing inter-ethnic relations. The idea of creating the Assembly came from the depths of Kazakhstan society. The creation of such a new, unique structure began with small assemblies in the regions. On February 16, 1995, President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev met with representatives of national cultural centers. At this meeting, he noted that the need to create a new public institution - the Assembly of the Peoples of Kazakhstan — as an advisory and advisory body under the President was needed to keep and further strengthen inter-ethnic harmony in the country. After this meeting, small assemblies were established in all region, 260 delegates were elected to the session. On 24 March 1995, a session was held in Almaty, where representatives of 40 national cultural centers took part. Thus, the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan became the coordinator of the activities of the national cultural centers. And the initiative, coming from the Assembly and national cultural centers, gets support at the state level, which is important for the successful operation of the centers.
The Assembly unites ethnocultural organizations, their leaders are members of the Assembly of Peoples of Kazakhstan, as well as small assemblies. In 2008, the Law «On the Assembly of Peoples of Kazakhstan» was adopted, which has no analogs in the world. Chronicle of modern history, indicates that the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan in his daily work pays great attention to the Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan. And in the Assembly, in turn, lies a huge responsibility for the future of each ethnic group and the entire Kazakh people.
Today there are ethnicities in the Republic: the Germans — 49, the Kazakhs — 40, the Koreans — 36, the Tatars — 29, the Slavs — 27, Chechens and Ingushes — 27, Azerbaijanis — 23, Uighurs — 21, Russians — 20, Ukrainians — 19, Jews — 18, Poles — 16, Turks — 14, Greeks — 12, Armenians — 11, Belorussians — 10, etc. Four national and 15 regional national newspapers are published in Kazakhstan, there are 6 national theaters, 100 national schools, 170 Sunday schools, where 23 native languages are studied. In three schools of national revival, there are 29 departments for the study of 12 native languages .
The creation of the Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan, as well as of the Small Assemblies in the regions, contributed to the activation of the activities of ethno-cultural associations (ECO) and the spiritual and cultural development of ethnic groups. During the XVII session of the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan on 18.04.2011 the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev stated that «ethno-cultural associations should actively participate in» nationwide projects». The whole complex of events held by the Assembly is for studying ethnic languages, developing cultures, native languages, traditions, integrating the efforts of ethno-cultural associations in ensuring harmonious inter-ethnic relations, preventing politicization of the ethnic factor, expanding relations with civil society institutions. The consultative and advisory body of the region akim includes 95 people: representatives of ethnocultural associations, scientific and creative intelligentsia, a council of veterans, state structures. As part of the Republican Assembly of the Peoples of Kazakhstan - 20 Karaganda residents - chairmen of regional ethno-cultural associations, representatives of the national elite, the clergy.
Today, new ethnocultural associations appear in the region. Their appearance serves as an essential proof of the growing civil interest in the history and culture of their people. In recent years, the number of urban and regional branches of ethnocultural associations has doubled. This was facilitated by the material support provided by local executive bodies, their help in the daily activities of public associations. Ethnocultural associations of the region enjoy the constant support of local executive bodies.
A resource center has been opened in Karaganda to support the activities of ethnocultural associations, where representatives of ethnocultural associations study the state language and native languages. The ideas and programs for preserving and developing the native culture and language conducted by ethnocultural associations are fully supported. So, with wide support of the public, the Karaganda branch of the Association of Koreans of Kazakhstan and the regional society «German Center «Wiedergeburt» celebrated their 20th anniversary. One of the priorities of the regional Assembly is the study of the state language. For the fourth consecutive year, representatives of 20 regional, 36 regional ethnocultural associations study the state language during the academic year. The project is funded by a grant from the region akim, the amount of which has been increased almost 10 times since last year. One of the important activities of ethnocultural associations was work with young people. The youth wing of the Assembly functions, youth sections are created in all associations. This shows that there is someone to transfer the accumulated experience of the work of the Assembly.
Thus, the formation and development of national cultural centers took place in several stages. The transformation of national cultural centers into ethnocultural associations testifies to the implementation of many scientific and educational, political-economic and historical-cultural projects in which ethnic groups living in the region actively participate.
National cultural centers are creating with the aim of preserving and developing culture, language, customs, rituals, help in meeting the national and cultural and other spiritual needs, carrying out charity and other useful activities for the prosperity of the Republic of Kazakhstan and strengthening international relations.
National cultural centers were initially created with the aim:
- to promote the development of cultural activities of representatives of small people, national diaspora living in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
- ensuring dialogue, the organization of inter-ethnic cultural interaction;
- preservation of cultural heritage, language, a way of life, traditions and their propaganda;
- Ensuring equal rights and freedoms in the field of culture guaranteed by the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The tasks that faced the national cultural centers:
- the unification of small nations in the protection of their economic and national-cultural rights, the development of national identity;
- help in the establishment of public consent, mutual trust and friendship among all people living on the territory of the republic;
- preservation and development of cultural and national identity, protection, restoration and preservation of the original cultural-historical and natural environment of ethnoses by international legal acts.
The main areas of activity of the national cultural centers are cultural-leisure, language, information- educational, circle, historical-local lore, communicative work.
To fulfill the set goals and tasks to national cultural centers, to some extent help a certain tendency, which associated with the growth of the value of leisure as a social value. This phenomenon scientists call a «leisure shock». One of the leading trends of modern civilization was the strengthening of the role of leisure in the spiritual life of society and the preservation of the health of its members, and leisure along with educational and labor activity also became an important sphere of personality formation [17; 77].
According to the authors A.F. Volovik and V.A. Volovik, the inclusion of families in the leisure structure of the center has a great socio-cultural significance. As an interesting and informative leisure is not only a means of comprehensive development of family members, but personal and group cultural development in the leisure structure (visiting museums, exhibitions, theaters, entertainment events) is of great importance. All this, accordingto the authors, expands the educational level members of diaspora families. It is worth agreeing with the authors that the formation of family traditions in the center of the national culture, the free time, the satisfaction of ethnocultural needs, the inclusion in the system of interaction and communication with other family groups - all this is the key to the emergence of a happy and friendly family [18; 155].
National cultural centers, as a place of leisure, have a huge personal developmental and educational potential, which consists in the use and development of national cultural traditions and universal values. Developing the spiritual and moral side of the person's personality, they give to the formation of value orientations in the process of preserving and developing national and cultural traditions.
In any polyethnic state, there is a need to develop national cultures, which is the main reason for the revival of the ethnos. Author E.G. Buyankina believes that overcoming the cultural crisis, lack of spirituality and the degradation of people are the primary tasks of national associations seeking, in the author's opinion, to switch spontaneous energy into a constructive, creative channel [15; 134]. That is, the national cultural centers set themselves certain tasks to give impetus to the emergence of a sense of national unity. This consolidates ethnic groups and strengthens domestic and international ties.
The main activities of the national cultural centers are:
- strengthening of public stability as the basis for the consolidation of society;
- improving the implementation of national public policies and enhancing its role in the democratization of the political system;
- the formation of civic identity through the consolidation and unity of all ethnic groups in the core role of the state language and culture of the Kazakh people;
- comprehensive development of cultures, languages and traditions of all ethnic groups of Kazakhstan;
- development of the system of education of Kazakhstan patriotism and work with youth;
- effective interaction of state bodies and civil society institutions in the sphere of inter-ethnic relations;
- formation of a system of pre-emptive mechanisms to prevent negative trends in the field of interethnic relations and neutralize possible threats, avoid politicization of the ethnic reason;
- support of compatriots living in foreign countries in matters of preserving and developing their native language, culture and traditions;
- expansion of integration relations with international organizations and institutions of civil society of foreign countries;
- assistance and consolidation of civil consent and friendship between representatives of different people and nationalities living in the Republic;
- development and strengthening of interethnic relations, promoting mutual cooperation and mutual enrichment of national cultures;
- cooperation with various cultural centers and societies, institutions and organizations of culture and education, creative unions that carry out their activities both in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan and abroad;
- patriotic education of youth and the younger generation;
- study of various aspects of interaction and mutual understanding of national cultures;
- the study of language, literature, art, folklore and ethnographic genre;
- to promote the development of democratic reforms in the country, the growth of public activity of citizens, the strengthening of peace and interethnic harmony in the country;
- preservation and development of the national culture, language, customs, rituals, assistance in meeting the national and cultural and other spiritual needs of the national diaspora, carrying out charitable and other socially useful activities for the prosperity of Kazakhstan, strengthening interethnic harmony.
The principles of the work of national cultural centers are voluntary and equal rights of participants, legality, publicity, freedom of conscience and self-government. To carry out their activities, the centers have their own budget, stamp, stamps, forms and other necessary requisites. Some centers such us the German center «Wiedergeburt» has its own emblem and other symbols. Symbols are registered in the Ministry of the Republic of Kazakhstan by the established procedure. The National Cultural Center acquires the rights of a legal entity from the moment of its state registration by the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan. These cultural institutions carry out their activities in the territory of Kazakhstan directly or through their structural units.
The National Cultural Centers are working to satisfy the requests of the members of the center for the revival, study, preservation and development of the national historical and cultural heritage: language, tradition and customs, as well as comprehensive propaganda of its best achievements. Representatives of the centers advocate and protect the rights and legitimate interests of their members and participants in state bodies and public organizations, and start initiatives on various issues of public life, make proposals to the bodies of state power and administration, if necessary. Thus, the national cultural centers located and operating in Karaganda contribute to the development and strengthening of inter-ethnic communication by their activities. They actively cooperate with other centers and associations of other ethnic groups, contribute to the process of mutual enrichment and mutual influence of cultures. They develop cooperation and cultural exchange with their historical homeland, as well as with foreign countries to expand cultural exchange and strengthen ties. It is important to recall that the activities of almost all national cultural centers are connected with educational and cultural institutions.
The types and forms of activity of national-cultural associations are diverse and solve the main task — the reproduction of ethnic culture, which involves its study, preservation and broadcasting at the internal level. The most common types and forms of activities of associations is the organization and conduct of cultural seminars and conferences; the creation of all possible amateur art groups; organization of events aimed at raising the educational level of children, youth and adults; organization of study groups on the history of national culture, including language, folk art, applied art, as well as national sports, national cuisine, national holidays and ceremonies; help to interested citizens of Kazakhstan in studying a certain language and culture; organization and holding of festivals, creative competitions, lectures on topical issues of nationalculture, language, history, as well as art exhibitions, meetings with figures in the field of science and culture; issue of its printed publications in accordance with the legislation of Kazakhstan on the press; cooperation with other public organizations and participation in their activities that meet the goals and objectives of national cultural centers; charitable actions, rendering all-round assistance to large families, pensioners, invalids and other categories of those in need.
N.A. Nazarbayev in his speeches has repeatedly said that «there is the only force that will overcome all difficulties, this is our unity». Therefore, the complex of events held by national cultural centers is for the comprehensive development of the unity of national cultures, languages, traditions, thereby creating harmonious inter-ethnic relations.
Representatives of 115 nationalities live in the Karaganda region. The desire for historical roots, the development of national culture and language encourages people to open national cultural centers. Their number is constantly growing. Each national-cultural association has its own directions in the work. So, the Korean and Ukrainian centers are successfully engaged in questions of the revival of customs and traditions. Polish and Tatar-Bashkir have accumulated experience of working together with schools. The regional German society is the founder of a number of educational projects within the framework of the Kazakh-German agreement, is engaged in charitable activities. Relations are well established with the state and public organizations of Lithuanian, Armenian, Romanian centers.
Chairman of the Karaganda Jewish Cultural Center Vilen Molotov-Luchansky draws attention to the powerful social message contained in the ideas of the Head of State. And he suggested using non-standard approaches in working with young people and adults, so that they felt themselves in demand in the state's want to maintain stability. Support and effective help to citizens in explaining the policy of national harmony, the formation of a realistic doctrine of national unity - that, in his opinion, are the issues that the leaders of national-cultural associations should deal with.
For their work, national cultural centers receive gratitude and rewards. For example, for the contribution to the strengthening of friendship, inter-ethnic harmony and the development of the culture of people, the honorary diplomas of the akim of the region were awarded to the head of the ethno-theater and ethnomusic of the Karaganda Economic University Baldyrgan Imanbaeva, the chairman of the Karaganda Jewish Cultural Center, Vilen Molotov-Luchansky, artistic director of the exemplary ensemble of folk and modern dance «Sparkling» Galina Sevostyanova, the chairman of the Russian national cultural center of Satpaev Tatyana Khmilyarchuk. Arthur Navasardyan, chairman of the regional Armenian center «Erebuni» was awarded with the Certificate of Honor of the Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan. Since 2006, the regional national cultural centers receive a grant from the oblast akim. Thanks to the allocated funds, the centers have replenished their own book fund, updated the wardrobes of dance groups with new costumes. This time they became owners of modern TVs and DVD with karaoke.
Chairman of the Satpaev Russian National Cultural Center Tatyana Khmilyarchuk, who works as a school director, read out the words of her student Artem Tropakov, who talks about happiness: «Happiness is when you are understood and accepted. To understand and accept the person — this is the civic responsibility of every Kazakhstan citizen who is capable of mutual respect and acceptance of the cultures and traditions of other people living on the territory of our large country». Certainly, only, in this case, the residence of different ethnic groups in the same territory, will become problem-free.
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