The conception of continuous linguistic rhetorical (L&R) education is presented in the article, which is an innovative ideological platform for the pedagogical process on the formation of the speech-thinking culture of learners at different educational levels, including the post-graduate stage of professional retraining of specialists. The given concept is realized in a number of scientific projects of representatives of the Sochi L&R School in the field of pedagogical specialties: 13.00.01 – General pedagogy, history of pedagogy and education; 13.00.08 – Theory and methods of professional education. In the work presented, the following points are formulated and characterized: methodological principles of designing a system of continuous linguistic rhetorical education, which are relevant for all levels of studying; sociocultural and scientific interdisciplinary foundations of the conception of continuous L&R education; theoretical and methodological foundations of L&R education as an innovative pedagogical conception, including the sphere of professional retraining and professional development of specialists. Implementation of the conception of continuous linguistic rhetorical education will contribute, in our opinion, a comprehensive and coordinated character of the planned program, promote the development of the learner as a professional linguistic personality, a strong personality of dialogic, democratic, multi-cultural type that is one of the strategic priorities of education policy at the present stage of society development.
The processes of democratization and glasnost of the post-Soviet period have brought back the fundamental humanitarian discipline – rhetoric – to the schools and universities of Russia and the CIS countries, since a free public speech revealed a low level of speech thinking of society as a whole. However, private courses, as a rule, of an optional nature and with a small amount of hours objectively cannot adequately ensure the full formation of the population's speech-thinking culture. In the field of teaching the Russian language and the culture of speech, as well as native national and foreign languages, a systemic implementation of the integrative linguistic rhetorical (L&R) approach to the design and realization of the educational process is urgently needed. The scientific and pedagogical embodiment of this approach is reflected in the concept of continuous L&R education , which in the situation of national and Russian bilingualism, as well as in conditions of in-depth study of a foreign language, becomes bi (poly) linguistic . This concept is an instrument for effectively solving the problem of forming the speech-thinking culture of the learner as a professional linguistic personality  due to the integration of the achievements of private philological disciplines in the theory of teaching on the basis of modern psychological and pedagogical methodology . This is relevant for pedagogical theory and practice, as well as for the field of adult education, the system of professional development and professional training of specialists .
The implementation of the conception of continuous L&R education will facilitate the integrated and coordinated nature of the proposed program; promote the formation of the learner as a professional linguistic personality, a strong linguistic personality of a dialogical, democratic, multicultural type that is one of the strategic priorities of educational policy at the present stage of development of Russian society.
In the course of the theoretical study of the problem, we formulated the following principles for designing a system of continuous L&R education for all levels of learning.
The principle of sociocultural determination ensures the balance of social order and educational practice, predetermines the conditionality of the L&R educational conception by actual needs of the cultural and educational space in the aspect of the formation of the speech-thinking culture of the modern Russian specialist.
The principle of scientific integration provides for the synthesis of available philological and psychological-pedagogical scientific prerequisites for the design of the educational process to improve the speechculture of students from the L&R approach to the formation of the linguistic personality as a secondary methodology on the basis of systemic and synergistic approaches. The principle of anthropocentrism provides a mutually conditioned development of theoretical and methodical aspects of the L&R educational conception (the election of a linguistic personality as an initial scientific construct; structuring of integrated L&R competence, mechanisms for its implementation as a theoretical basis for training; formulation of the strategic goal of the educational process in the field of language and speech at the level of advanced training as the formation of a professional language personality, a strong linguistic personality of a dialogical type; conceptual development of readiness for speech self-improvement as the basis of the goal-functional block of the innovative educational process, etc.).
The principle of harmonious combination of tradition and innovation ensures the continuity of the innovation policy that actualizes the progressive trends in the theory and practice of Russian language education, which at the present stage necessarily includes a rhetorical component.
The principle of content modernization on the interdisciplinary basis ensures the improvement and mutual coordination of speech and linguistic training courses taking into account the specifics of the educational level of professional development; creation of a package of software and methodological support from the teaching and methodological complexes of 10 disciplines on the conceptual L&R basis.
The principle of technological development ensures the conformity of the instrumental and technological support of the educational process in the study of the language and speech of its general purpose – the formation of a learner as a professional linguistic personality, a strong linguistic personality of a dialogical type, with high competence in the implementation of speech-thinking activity in different registers, regimes, forms of speech communication, styles, genres and types of text.
The above principles were successfully implemented in the system of scientific projects of the representatives of the Sochi L&R School in the field of pedagogical specialties: 13.00.01 - General pedagogy, history of pedagogy and education and 13.00.08 - Theory and methodology of professional education, including the aspect of future teachers' training for innovation .
When developing the sociocultural and scientific interdisciplinary foundations of the conception of continuous L&R education in accordance with the principle of sociocultural determination, the essence of the concepts «education», «quality of education», «educational outcomes» was examined in the course of the research; the general state of affairs in the field of Russian education is assessed at the present stage; the main problems of the mass educational process are inventoried; the contradiction between the social order and the effectiveness of education in the field of formation of the speech-thinking culture and teaching the Russian (native) language is analyzed.
The reasons for the decline in the quality of education in Russia are the cardinal change of value orientations, the pluralism of software and methodological support, the regionalization of educational systems, the state's loss of the monopoly on the market of educational products and services, the destruction of the unified educational space in Russia, and other factors.
As the analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature and media materials has shown, for decades, the same question has been unsuccessfully discussed: the low quality of teaching Russians to the Russian language. From the point of view of our conception, the ultimate ineffectiveness of methodical searches is quite natural: the reason still lies in their private, cosmetic nature under the auspices of lingvocentrism, whereas the rhetorization of education historically always accompanied and contributed to the processes of democratization of society. Hence the logical conclusion about the lack of an alternative to integrative L&R education follows. The integrative L&R approach restores the natural hierarchy of levels and goals of teaching the Russian language: a) communicative activity; b) text actions; c) language operations.
Principles of scientific integration and a combination of tradition and innovation in the design of the system of education for different educational levels were realized in the course of analyzing the achievements of the last decades in the Russian philological and psychological-pedagogical science, the methodology of teaching the Russian language.
As a result of the sociocultural specification of the projected pedagogical process and the theoretical analysis of the problem based on empirical data, it was established that in the second half of the 90's. XX century in Russia, in connection with the phenomenon of «rhetorical Renaissance», there is a qualitative paradigm shift in language teaching: with the return of rhetoric to the system of school and university preparation. «Language education» naturally transforms into «linguistic rhetorical education». A distinctive feature of the latter is the recognition of the parity of linguistic and rhetorical training, the establishment between these spheres of clear and pedagogically effective interactions.
The conception of L&R education is determined by a number of actual value priorities: the revival of the national speech ideal that has been renewed taking into account the modern social and cultural situation; the formation in the public consciousness of a high status of effective, dialogically harmonized communication at the level of both socially significant and family-household speech events; a qualitative transformation of the post-Soviet language situation into a truly democratic one, etc.
Next, we will consider in more detail the theoretical and methodological foundations of L&R education as an innovative conception of education, including professional retraining and advanced training of specialists. The initial basic concepts of the projected innovative pedagogical process - «language personality», «rhetoric», «L&R competence», «speech (speech-thinking) culture», «communicative culture» - are defined as follows.
Linguistic personality (according to Y.N. Karaulov) is a set of abilities and characteristics of a person in creating and perceiving speech works. Levels of its structure are: 1) verbal-semantic, or associative-verbal network (words and grammatical models); 2) linguocognitive, or thesaurus (concepts, ideas, ideological stereotypes); 3) motivational (activity-communicative needs) .
Rhetoric is a theory and practical mastery of effective (expedient, influencing, harmonizing) speech .
Speech (speech-thinking) culture is a high level of L&R competence, i.e. technological and ethically responsible fulfillment by a subject of speech of language operations, text actions and communicative activity within the framework of speech events of different types.
Communicative culture in a narrow sense is a high level of communicative subcompetence, providing effective (expedient, effective, harmonizing) communication in monological and dialogical modes. In a broad sense, it is equal to the speech-thinking culture, the high level of L&R competence in general, because the textual and linguistic aspects of speech interaction are built into the communicative system on the basis of the «triple matryoshka» principle.
Integral L&R competence is a set of knowledge and skills in the field of language operations (linguistics), text actions and communicative activities (rhetoric). Integral L&R competence of a person is a way of interiorization, structuring and verbalization of his erudition of general educational and professional nature; it expresses the spiritual, moral, intellectual-mental, emotional-volitional principles (Ethos, Logos, Pahos).
Within the framework of the principles of scientific integration and anthropocentrism in the design of L&R education system, the structure of the integral L&R competence is characterized as follows:
- Rhetorical aspect: extralinguistic levels «linguistic personality – speech event» (communicative activity) and «linguistic personality - text» (textual actions).
- Linguistic aspect: intralinguistic level «linguistic personality - language» (language operations).
In other words, the structure of L&R competence is formed by linguistic subcompetence (linguistic component), textual and communicative subcompetence competence (rhetorical component), which corresponds to the trichotomy of «language - speech - speech activity». In the situation of intercultural communication, the fourth subcomponent – ethnocultural and speech – is also realized as an integrative L&R component. Receptive-analytical projection of integral L&R competence is formed by the reader's, literary-critical subcomponents of the linguistic personality. L&R competence, being an instrument for implementing the discursive process in various forms of socio-cultural communication, manifests the functioning of the associative-verbal network, linguocognitive and motivational levels of the linguistic personality and thereby - the qualitative characteristics of his activity-communicative needs, the degree of adequacy and completeness of the individual picture of the world, the level of mastery of native (or foreign) language riches.
The mechanisms for implementing L&R competence are psycholinguistic complexes of interdependent skills and abilities that enable effective implementation of speech activity in the receptive analytical, reproductive-constructive and productive-creative registers, oral and written forms, monologic and dialogical modes of socio-cultural communication, various styles, types and genres of speech.
These mechanisms are identified on the basis of the correlation of classical rhetoric's parts – the universal ideological speech cycle «from thought to word» and psychological stages of activity (orientation, planning, implementation, control):
1. The orienting mechanism provides a general orientation in the speech event: understanding the goals, communication conditions, and the psychological portrait of the addressee; style, type of speech, the genre of the planned discourse.
- The inventive mechanism provides a cognitive strategy isolating microthemes in the discourse that collectively disclose the subject of the utterance.
- The dispositive mechanism provides a composition-communicative strategy that builds the logic of the speech subject and genre, taking into account the laws of perception of oral (written) speech and the characteristics of the addressee.
- The elocutionary mechanism provides an appropriate language strategy, adequate verbalization of the referent, taking into account the specific speech situation.
- The mnemonic mechanism ensures effective interaction of operative and long-term memory, optimal use of memory techniques developed in mnemotechnics.
- The actional mechanism provides an adequate pronunciation-behavioral strategy and writing strategy in a specific speech situation.
- The psycho-rhetorical mechanism provides feedback to the addressee on the basis of taking into account the features of his perception, analysis of responses in the course of communication, which makes it possible to correct speech behavior from the standpoint of the strategic goal of communication – the communicative effect.
- The editorial mechanism provides editing of the statement: current (inventive, dispositive, elocutionary), final, actional (in the process of oral presentation and in the act of writing the text), post- communicative.
The structuring of L&R competence allowed us to formulate a number of definitions that form the categorical field of the L&R education system. The term ‘linguo-rhetoric' has three basic meanings:
- Direction, approach, paradigm of philological science on the basis of the integration of linguistic and rhetorical knowledge centered on the structure of integral L&R competence of the linguistic personality as a subject form of language existence;
- Educational discipline of an integrative nature;
- Pedagogical design basis for the formation of the integral L&R competence of the learning linguistic personality.
Pedagogical linguo-rhetoric studies the problems of the formation of integral L&R competence and the corresponding patterns, principles, conditions of effectiveness, optimal forms of organization, and methods of the educational process that ensures the formation of a strong linguistic personality of a dialogical type.
L&R education is realized in the processes of L&R training and self- training, L&R upbringing and self- upbringing, the optimal synergetics of which ensures the effectiveness of L&R development of the subject as a linguistic personality. Let us give explicit formulations of these basic categories (based on the conceptions of V.V. Kraevsky, B..S Gershunsky, V.S. Bezrukova) [9-11].
L&R education as a state, public, personal value is a specially organized system of conditions necessary for the development of the linguistic personality, the process and result of the study, assimilation and creative application of the foundations of linguistic and rhetorical theories for the purpose of effective speechactivity in the course of socio-cultural communication. L&R education as a process implies appropriate adjustment of goals, content, teaching methods, organizational forms and methodological conditions. L&R education as a result of the educational process is the willingness of the linguistic personality to solve successfully the real tasks of socio-cultural communication through the purposeful speech-thinking activity in the level dynamics «literacy – education – professional competence – culture – mentality». L&R self-education is a system of internal self-organization of the individual to assimilate the speech-thinking experience of generations, aimed at developing the mechanisms for implementing their own L&R competence as a tool of thinking and communication.
L&R training is the process of transferring and accepting the experience of the optimal speech-thinking activity of generations in the interaction of the teacher and students. L&R self-learning is a process of direct acquisition by an individual of experience of optimal speech-thinking activity due to one's own aspirations, the choice of didactic means.
L&R training - «humanization», ennoblement of the motivational level of the linguistic personality, stimulation of high activity-communicative needs, the formation of positive ethos, logos and pathos stereotypes. L&R self-training is the process of mastering the experience of the full-fledged spiritual-moral, intellectual-emotional attitude of the speech-thinking activity of previous generations through internal mental factors.
L&R development is an objective process of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in the functioning of the mechanisms for implementing integral L&R competence, the overall progress of the linguistic personality as a result of a complex of structural neoplasms at all levels (verbal-semantic, linguocognitive, motivational) that ensures the realization of its spiritual, intellectual, emotional potential for the benefit ofsociety. The level of L&R development of the linguistic personality is ultimately determined by the adequacy of speech-thinking processes to the conditions of a specific speech event that ensures the productivity of speech interaction and the harmonizing communicative effect.
The driving force of the processes described above is the self-projecting of the linguistic personality on the basis of a complex of ideas about the contemporary Russian rhetorical, or speech, ideal.
The category of the speech ideal in the new system of ideological priorities objectively acts as one of the most important factors in the educational process for the training of a specialist as a professional linguistic personality, which is technologically specified as the L&R ideal. According to A.K. Mikhalskaya, a rhetorical ideal is the historically formed system of requirements for speech in a given culture; the basis of the national tradition is the ideal of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle (Good is good, Thought is truth, Beauty is harmony) .
L&R ideal is exemplary in form, optimal in content, ethically responsible fulfillment of language operations, text actions, and communicative activity in speech events of various types by the subject of speech. This term creates additional opportunities for pedagogical technologization of the educational process in the field of formation of the speech-thinking culture.
On the basis of the results of the analysis of philological, philosophical, psychological and pedagogical literature, we have identified the categorical attributes of the L&R ideal as a basic component of the cultural and educational space:
- – historical and ethno-sociocultural conditioning: the L&R ideal is formed during the historical development of a particular society, it is directly related to its ethnic composition, language worldview, cultural features, ethical code, etc.;
- – cognitive-communicative nature: the sphere of functioning of the L&R ideal – speech-thinking activity in the mode of interpersonal communication on the basis of mastering objects of reality through wordconcepts;
- – deological-axiological status: the LR ideal functions in the highest sphere of life activity – spiritual- philosophical one, it is a product and at the same time a generator of the value system of a given society, a specific linguistic personality;
- – normative-prescriptive character: the LR ideal establishes certain norms, rules, requirements for speech behavior within a certain historically formed type;
- – invariant-variational principle of structural organization: the basic components of the L&R ideal reflect the highest spiritual aspirations of mankind to love, good, truth, beauty; specific rules, requirements, norms vary diachronically or synchronously in connection with ethnosociocultural characteristics, social status, etc.;
- – educational designation: the expression form of the LR ideal – norms, requirements, prescriptions, etc. – serves primarily to the optimal socialization of new generations;
- – personality-forming potential: the ability to form effectively the best qualities of a person, both personal and verbal.
Thus, the continuous L&R education as an innovative pedagogical system is a set of mutually determined elements, hierarchically organized and subordinated to the strategic goal of the pedagogical process that ensures the continuity of all educational levels: formation of the learner, his formation and selfprojecting as a strong linguistic personality of a dialogic, democratic, multicultural type with ethical responsibility, general educational and professional training and high competence, based on the interconnected improvement of subcompetence and mechanisms of the latter in the productive and receptive registers, mono- logical and dialogical regimes, oral and written forms of speech activity for productive, harmoniously dialogic socialcultural communication.
One of the latest practice-oriented developments addressed to students and specialists in various fields that improves qualifications in the field of speech-thinking culture is the methodological manual «Linguorhetoric: self-projecting of a strong linguistic personality (schemes, tables, algorithms, self- adjustment)» .
The conception of L&R education and the «ideal model» of a modern specialist as a professional linguistic personality is characterized in one of the chapters of the current collective monograph «The Linguistic Person in the Modern Communicative Field» .
- Vorozhbitova, А. А. (2015). Linhvoritoricheskoe obrazovanie kak innovatsionnaia pedahohicheskaia sistema (printsipy proektirovaniia i opyt realizatsii) [Linguistic education as an innovative pedagogical system (design principles and implementation experience)]. Moscow: FLINTA [in Russian].
- Vorozhbitova, А. А., Konovalova, G.M., Ogneva, T.N., & Chekulaeva, N.Y. (2017). Continuous linguistic rhetorical education as a means of optimizing language policy in Russian multinational regions. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 6 (2), 328–340.
- Vorozhbitova, А.A., & Issina, G.I. (2014). Professional Linguistic Personality as Subject of Discursive Processes: Conception of Linguistic Rhetorical Culturological Education. European Journal of Social and Human Sciences, 1, 44–55.
- Neskoromnykh, N.I., Chernenko, N.V., Mamadaliev, A.M., & Vorozhbitova, A.A. (2017). Educational-Cognitive Barriers in the Preparation of Future Social Pedagogues for the Prevention of Social Dependencies. European Journal of Contemporary Education, Vol. (6), 57–63.
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- Kraevsky, V.V. (2005). Obshchie osnovy pedahohiki [General principles of pedagogy]. (2d ed.). Moscow: Izdatelskii centr «Akademiia» [in Russian].
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