Emotional features in pedagogical communication

It is important to study the process of encoding of emotional expression in pedagogical communication, where the interaction and mutual influence of teachers and students are carried out through expression.

In the works of pedagogical communication it is declared traditionally the importance of studying the characteristics of expressive behavior of the participants, their ability to understand the expression of each other.

They emphasize the dependence of the results of the pedagogical skills of teachers to work with students with the help of expressive codes. But along with that, it is very rarely the results of empirical research on these issues cites as examples.

In the works in pedagogical interaction [1] discusses the features of expressive behavior of the teacher, the problem of the emotional expression of control, as a rule in connection with the ability to control emotions, in connection with the problem of self-regulation. The teacher's manifestation of emotional intemperance, irritability, nervousness, uncertainty has negative impact on the educational activities.

The investigations of R.P. Millrood [2] showed the differences in the successful management of emotional expression of students-trainees and teachers. Teachers' expressive manifestations were more pronounced and less dependent on their personality traits. Students' emotional response to everything that happening in the classroom is more dependent on their character traits, such as increased anxiety and worry. According to the author, the successful management of emotional expression is determined by the teacher's personally important goals of training and education of students and is an indicator of the teacher's qualifications.

The current understanding of empathy, as comprehension of emotional state, vision of the inner world of another person is made up of three components:

  1. emotional empathy, based on mechanisms of identification and;
  2. 2.cognitive empathy, based on intellectual processes (comparison and analogy);
  3. predicative empathy, which is manifested in the ability to predictive view of the other person, based on intuition. [3]

Exploring the difficulties of pedagogical communication due to the expressive behavior of teachers, E.V. Kuznetsova [4] noted that the teacher's expressive behavior in situations of pedagogical communication performs a number of important indicatively-regulatory functions. It can be a bearer of cognitive information, acting as an addition and elaboration of the content of speech utterances, creating a subjective background and emotional richness of the message. In addition, the expressive behavior is one of the most important means of teacher's self-expression revealing the state, relationships, motives and intentions.

Finally, the expression can be used specifically for the regulation of interpersonal interaction, for various pedagogical influence (motivation, organization of attention, providing feedback, evaluating and disciplining, etc.).

In a study of E. A. Petrova [5], got the data on direct proportion of learning motivation of students from nonverbal expression of the teacher. Moreover, pedagogically justified non-verbal communication influences on the motivation of learning, first including teacher's ability to realize the pedagogical functions of impact and reflect their own non-verbal behavior in class. E.A .Petrova also leads a study that shows the positive impact of the teacher gestures to further reproduction of the new material by students.

Research has shown that the facial expressions of fear, joy, doubt is only part of the point to test. At the same time, particular facial expressions are perceived not in isolation but in the system: each separate manifestation is connected to all other. In the same study as a result of discussions with the examinees were found on what basis they have searched for the necessary scheme: compare the photo with diagrams or go by the form emerged in memory; the general impression from the picture and from the schema or on the base of the detailed analysis of particular signs of facial expression. This approach allows dividing the testees into “synthetics” and “analysts”. In other words, those who were guided by a generic, holistic measurement standards, and those who used partial that include particular elements of a face.

We also were presented for recognition schemes of emotional states expressions on the modality corresponding to those used by P. Ekman [6]. Experiment participants were asked to choose a schematic expression of face, similar to the requirements on the photo. The difficulties were in the identification of facial expressions through schemes were presented only changes in the area of the eyebrows and forehead.

Table 1 – The number of testees correctly identified the scheme of face (%)

Emotional category

Face area

Foreheadbrows

Eyes-nose

Lips-chin

All three combination of facial movements

Joy

70

90

100

100

Astonishment

70

90

0

90

Suffering

70

90

90

100

Anger

80

50

100

100

Aversion

25

0

75

75

Fear

29

71

29

43

Average

49

73

67

88

The degree of coherence of facial expressions assessment, made on the base of holistic, integrated schemes, were turned up greatly higher, that proved the results of P. Ekman. Such pattern is observed in the case where as the object of interpretation stands out the pose as an element of non-verbal behavior of the individual. It is known that the pose creates a complete picture of non-verbal behavior of the individual, although it can be separated into distinct components.

In order to determine the intensity of the manifestations of emotions and channels (means) of their expression we used the technique of «expressions of emotional expression» (EEE) by A.E. Olshannikova. This method is a questionnaire of 48 sentences. The method identifies eight expressive channels of emotional expression: the voice volume, rate of speech, speech imagery, motor activity, unnecessary movements and gesture. In addition, by combining the issues three factors of expressiveness are highlighted: the external expression of emotions, active behavior under the influence of emotions and speech-impaired and behavior under the influence of emotions.

We decided to see the severity of the expression of the teachers and students. Severity of emotional expression is presented in the table.

Severity of emotional expression of subjects of pedagogical communication (in points)

Means of expression

Students (n=60)

Teachers (lecturer) (n=60)

J

Voice volume

8,9

9,8

2

Rate of speech

9,0

8,7

3

Imagery of speech

9,1

9,8

4

Speech errors

5,2

4,7

5

Intonational expression

10,8

12,1

6

Motor activity

7,0

7,8

2

Unnecessary movements

5,8

6,3

8

Gesture

12,0

12,9

9

Undifferentiated channels of expression

13,1

14,9

 

Total:

80,9

87, 0

The data obtained in the course of the experiment suggest that the rate of the overall expressiveness of teachers (87.0) is higher than that of students (80.9). This is due to the fact that teachers in their work, taking into the consideration the age-related psychological characteristics of students, pay the special attention to the nature and style of the pedagogical communication. It was received a positive meaning of the factor of rating correlation, which allows to identify similar but not identical properties.

As the table shows the largest contradiction in rates on channels such as the «voice volume», «intonational expression», «imagery of speech», «unnecessary movements», «motor activity», where teachers showed results over but the results of «speech errors» , «speech rate» were lower.

In general, the problem of managing of the emotional expression, i.e. the creation of expressive codes and interpretation of the expression of emotional states in pedagogical communication should be seen in several aspects: the study of the features of coding and interpretation of the expression of the trainers and trainees; study of the influence of socio-psychological and personal characteristics of the subjects of pedagogical communication on the success ratio of coding and interpretation of the expression of emotional states, and analysis of the dynamics of successful encoding and interpretation of the expression of emotional states, depending on changes in the situation of social development.

 

Literature

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  2. Мильруд Р.П. Формирование эмоциональной регуляции поведения учителя // Вопр. психол. 1987. № 6. С. 47-55.]
  3. Асимов М.А., Нурмагамбетова С.А., Игнатьев Ю.В. Коммуникативные навыки. Алматы,2008.-49с.
  4. Кузнецова Е.В. Показатели развития личности как субъекта невербальных коммуникаций // Эмоциональные и познавательные характеристики общения. Ростов н/Д: РГУ, 1990. С. 127-139.]
  5. Петрова Е.А. Знаки общения. М.: Издательство ГНОМиД, 2001. 256 с.
  6. Ekman P. Methods for measuring facial action // Handbook of methods in nonverbal behavior. Cambridge. 1984. P. 45-90
Year: 2013
City: Almaty
Category: Medicine