“Interactive learning” concept is one of the most used phrases on modern pedagogic processes. It was first entered to lexicon of pedagogy on 90th.
Researchers are studying appearance and development of this phrase on several evolution periods.
Researchers on scientific literatures link the widespread of “interactive learning” concept application on pedagogical processes with the extension and development of World Wide Web since the middle of 1990s (1).
Information-communication technologies development, especially, computers result in the widely use of this devices in educational application and information resources of different degrees, mainly, rapid introduction of internet systems to education phase show serious impact. On the contrary, we have to emphasize that Internet is the source of information for education both necessary and pernicious. The main connection may be described by following image (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Scheme of interaction between people and computer
In 1975 German researcher Hans Fritz acquainted the phrase of “interactive pedagogy”, he accustomed this subject as aimed procedure of pedagogical process as inter effect and inter active for participants (2).
In the beginning of 1980 pedagogics begin to apply acquiring knowledge by dialog method in groups on practice. Officially learning types divided only to traditional and active education category (3).
By the end of 1980th several authors, especially, Guzeev V. V., Klarin M. V., Polat
Y. S., Slastenin V. A demonstrate that learning includes not only passive and active methods, but it contains interactive model also (4).
In 60-70 years it began to stand in presence using information and communication technology on interactive education sphere, initiation of Distance Education Technology. According to UNESCO Institute Researchers Team members Kinelev V, Commerce Pit, Kasich B, idea of acquiring knowledge through computer was dawning with the appearance of these devices. First programs that work as electron teacher created in 1970. These programs were like interactive dialog between specialist and newcomer, specialist has to correct the mistakes of newcomer.
At the beginning of 1980s, it was begun to compile more complicated program system with the help of computer on education (5).
Interactive learning method is the process which causes inter-activeness between teacher and students during giving and gaining knowledge. The significance of that kind of a process requires organizing, developing, observing theoretical and practical issues of this procedure. From ancient times great thinkers, masters in practice with their apprentices, nowadays pedagogic scientists in their researches, and active pedagogic take serious consideration.
If we search for attitude of this learning method in Central Asia, we can find:
Avicenna in the book “Canon of Medicine” said that upbringing child begins from his/her birth and continuous in special manner. He also emphasized how to teach, what to teach and teaching methods in school of children. He thought that teaching in groups is more effective rather than in private education and wrote about it: “Students during their education time feel thirsty on gaining knowledge. They will be proud of their knowledge, and envy to each other’s erudite. Pride and selfattention cause learners to move forward in competition. Learners always talk to each other and by this way they develop their memory and speech”.
On 15th century Mirzo Ulugbek founded “Academy” in Samarkand. Walter wrote about this, “Ulugbek had founded first academy in Samarkand, he ordered the measure of the earth, and participated on creating the tables of astronomy”.
Main mission of the education process at Ulugbek’s Academy was to develop students’ qualification on mathematics, astronomy and medicine. He concluded that, in order to become professional, person’s communication, relationship and friendship with people play main role. Ulugbek also emphasized that perfection in person is attained by education, discipline, and interest in learning different subjects. The reason why students don’t care about their study is, first of all, meanness in educators, these educators may injure interest of students on accomplishing their subjects. He thought, educator at first must educate himself/herself, to gain new knowledge and skills regularly (6).
It’s obvious from above that activity in education, which means inter-activeness among educator and learners, their partnership, their agreement to each other is the key point. For those days it was nearly demonstration of nowadays interactive methods.
Interactive learning concept gives meaning of “inter activeness”, “inter-effect” in Uzbek language. By this definition, inter activeness, inter-effect based pedagogic process opportunities are demonstrated in the works of Avicenna, Mirzo Ulugbek, Abdulla Avloni.
In modern pedagogic processes, following learning models are applied, except interactive learning model:
Extractive (active outside) learning – in practice, teacher-leader based study model, learners acquire necessary theoretical knowledge by teacher’s lectures and transferred information and information resources.
There is no partnership among each other in this learning process, students almost show no interest and motive to the class. On the contrary, there are some advantages; teacher has possibility to give huge volume of information and materials in limited amount of time.
In pedagogy extractive learning model is applied for many years and is counted as traditional.
Active (inside) learning – in this model student make his/her works independently, searches creatively and acquires necessary knowledge. Even, when this learning model has good opportunities for learner, there is no partnership between student and educator.
Partnership among educator and learners is important, because, effectiveness of education is progressed by monitoring how right organized students’ independent learning, controlling, giving hints, when it is necessary supporting with pedagogical and methodical advices.
Intro-active (active outside) contains learner’s approach like as “My idea”, “I can teach to someone else”. In this model learning process is organized by students, they teach to each other their thoughts, conclusions. The role of educator here may be as organizer, manager, expert or monitor. Even some times he/she plays the role of “learner”.
Interactive (active with each other), in this model there are partnership, agreement, union among educator and students, also within students. This partnership cause enrichment of learning materials, theoretical and practical knowledge, positive solution to problematic situations, also psychological proximity and union among the participants of the learning process. Action in partnership, intereffect, and co-creative union of educator and learners is the base for all successful achievements in learning process.
“Interactive” from English means having an effect on each other, acting together. Mutual, union action in process noticed organized partnership between educator-learner, learner-learner for gaining educational goals. With the help of interactive method based practices learners conduct their thoughts and conclusions to each other and acquire experience and ideas of others, and in some degree to educator, and then group becomes as one, associated, joint team.
From the information above, educational process which supports partnership among teacher and students, and students to students is concluded as interactive learning method. In interactive learning communication among teacher and students, the latter is usually demonstrated by solving some kind of problems, giving proposals on decision making and debating on conclusion of final decision.
The general definition of models can be seen in schemes shown in Figure 2:
Figure 2. Schemes of learning methods and their main essence
We think, nowadays introducing interactive method to extractive, active and introactive learning processes supports their effectiveness, and cause necessary circumstances of inter partnership based learning in modern education. Interactive type organized learning effectiveness is very high. V.M. Monarchov apprehended four fundamentals of this type of education, they are: first, comfortable condition (for educator and learner), second, partnership (teacher-learner, learner-learner), third, scanning full details (based on organizing of planned education process), and fourth determined project (based on this learning process).
In addition to these fundamentals, there are causes increasing effectiveness of the process:
- Chance to learners for demonstrating their opportunities,
- Determining motivation and development,
- Encouraging on time,
- Organizing reconnection.
Interactive learning – is the special model of learning process. It firstly aims to determined goals. This target through supporting comfortable condition causes the learner to feel his/her success, intellectual potential. It is mainly oriented to increase effectiveness of pedagogical process, debate among students and find solutions to problems.
In other words, interactive learning – is first of all, education organized through inter active communication. Learners with educator organize active communication, lead to acquiring knowledge by generating ideas, and its correspondence, counteract, and contradict.
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