This article is student-centered approach as one of the main areas for learning considered. There are the main points of studentcentered approach such as what is studentcentered approach, how can you realize it, learning content and principles in this article. It is given ideas and statements of different authors, studying such learning.
The notion of social and creative man’ essence as an individual claims in pedagogy personality or student-oriented approach. It indicates the orientation of the design and implementation of the educational process on the individual as the target, subject and the result is the main criterion for its effectiveness, requires the recognition of the uniqueness of the individual, his intellectual and moral freedom and also the right to respect. Thus, in the one hand, student-centered learning is a learning, in which the objectives and content of training formulated in state educational standards and learning programs and it acquires personal meaning for the student, developing motivation to learn. On the other hand, this learning allows the students to modify the objectives and learning outcomes in accordance with their individual abilities and communication needs. Student-centered approach is based on taking into account the individual characteristics of students who are considered as a person having its own characteristics, aptitudes and interests. It is noted that for each student is typical of one or another form of activity on mastering a foreign language. Such learning involves self students in the learning process, which is often expressed in defining the goals and objectives of the course by the trainees in the choice of methods, which are preferred for them, based on existing knowledge of students, on its experience; account of sociocultural characteristics of students and their way of life , encouraging the desire to be "himself"; account of the emotional state of the students as well as their ethical and moral values; purposeful formation of educational abilities characteristic of a student's learning strategies. Student-centered approach involves a redistribution of roles of the teacher and the student in the learning process: the restriction of the leading role of teachers, assigning it functions assistant, consultant and advisor.
Technique of student-centered approach is quite a long time. Such eminent psychologists as A.N. Leontiev, J.S. Yakimanskaya, K. Rogers wrote about the impact of the school on the formation of individual students. For the first time, the term "student-centered approach" was used Rogers. He talked about this method of learning as a fundamentally new, which allows students to not only learn, but to learn to be happy and get rich information material to develop their imagination. Studentlearning approach provides free learning, in which students from the first days at school are in a friendly atmosphere with an open, caring teacher who helps you learn what you want and like. (Bondarevskaya E.V. «The value of student-centered learning», 1995).
Rogers describes the educational process of the two main concepts: «teaching» and «learning». Rogers (1995) argues that:
«Learning is the process of teacher impact on students and the teaching is a process of development of intellectual and personal characteristics of students as a result of their own activities. » (p.25). It means that there are following settings of teachers using studentcentered approach. They are: openness of teacher to interpersonal communication with students, teachers’ inner confidence in each student, in his capacities and abilities and the ability to see the world through the eyes of a student. According to Rogers, training should be held for a personal growth and development. A teacher, sticking of such facilities may have a positive influence on personality development of students.
The next necessary condition is the use of common teaching methods such as reading and the use of resources to create special conditions to facilitate the use of these resources by students, the creation of a variety of feedback between teacher and students. Finally, individual and group contracts with students t. e. a clear fixation volume ratio of educational work, its quality and assessments on the basis of a joint discussion, the organization of the learning process in different age groups of pupils, organization of groups of free communication in order to increase the level of psychological culture of interpersonal communication.
S. Rubinstein supported K. Rogers’ views. He claims that personality is not formed first, and then begins to act: it is formed, acting in the ordinary course of activity. «Mental personality traits are formed and developed in the course of business». (Bondarevskaya E.V.«The value of studentcentered learning», 1995). S. Rubinstein said that in the process of education and learning is necessary to study and take into account the individual characteristics of students, it is necessary to find an individualized approach for each student. S. Rubinstein (1995), writes that:
« There is nothing more natural for the child, how to develop, shape, become what he is in the process of education and training.» And further: "The child is developing, growing up and learning, rather than evolving and brought up and trained. This means that education and training are included in the process of development of the child, not only are built over it."» (p. 10).
According to K. K. Platonov studentcentered approach is the principle of personal conditioning of all mental phenomena of man, his activities and individual psychological characteristics. Researchers O.V. Bondarevskaya, V.V. Serikov (1995), understand the personal approach as a certain style of communication for all participants in the educational process; as one of the explanatory principles to help the development of specialist; as a special education process that ensures the formation of personal features of the future specialist. (p.9). Taking as a basis the idea of
- Serikova about the nature of the personal approach, it can be argued that in the preparation of future teachers in the system of distance learning should: (Bondarevskaya E.V. «The value of student-centered learning», 1995).
- Include the value-semantic components in the learning content;
- Purposefully form of professionally significant personal property of the student;
- Model the pedagogical situations that require students to develop a method of personal experience and behavior;
- To carry out the differentiation of pupils according to their personal qualities (p. 9).
Thus, this approach seeks to identify opportunities of becoming a distinctive personality, the development of man's essential powers, interacting with people, nature, culture, and civilization is to investigate the hierarchy of personal self-development purposes, the allocation of specific educational content, based on which develop personality qualities and the basic components of personality of the future teacher.
Student-centered approach is closely connected with the attempt of what we mean by the category of "personality". The analysis of the literature convinces us that the concept of "person" is one of the central problems in philosophy, ethics, sociology, psychology and pedagogy. Works B.G. Ananeva, A.G. Asmolova, L.I .Bozovic, A.S. Zapesotsky, A.N. Leontiev, V.I. Slobodchikova, Serikova V.Va re the theoretical foundation that allows to explore the concept of "person" systematically, consider the process of formation, social conditioning interests, goals, personality.
In philosophy, the term "person" is associated with the deep essence of the human race and the most significant individual characteristics of a specific person. Modern Philosophical Dictionary (1983), gives the following definition: "Personality a man with his socially determined and individually marked qualities" that as a representative of society determines freely and responsibly on their position among other (p.208). In today's philosophical and cultural aspect: «Personality is a unique and at the same time infinite being equal potentials historically evolving culture» (p. 132). In pedagogy a person considered as a subject directed formation and problems of identity formation within the educational process were resolved through disclosure mechanisms and capacities focused guide this process. This has led to a paradigm shift in national education and found the reflection in essence, principles and technologies of personality-oriented education. In psychology, personality acts as a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, forming "a new psychological dimension." according to A.N. Leontiev.
The specific content of the concept of "personality", shared by many researchers, is that personality is a particular quality or characteristic of a person (an individual). Personality characterizes a person from his social connections and relations and it means a special way of human existence as a member of society, as a representative of a particular social group.
Thus, in pedagogy student-centered learning is called education providing development especially those personality traits that help a person to become master of your life, take it to an active, responsible, "author" position on the basis of conscious self-focused. It can be considered student-centered learning as one of the varieties of developmental education. According to the V.V. Davydov, V.V. Repkina education may be regarded as developing if it is built on the basis of the dominant activity of a particular age period, which determines the origin and development of appropriate mental structures. The specifics of student-centered education is focus on the priority development of the student subjectivity, to run the mechanisms of age-appropriate selfdevelopment while other concepts put at the center of intellectual development.
I.S. Yakimanskaya considers the student as the subject of knowledge and proposes to build training based on its learning experience, his abilities and interests, giving him the opportunity to realize themselves in knowledge, in training activities and academic behavior. And for this it is necessary to teach him ways of thinking and learning activities, thus ensuring his intellectual development. Therefore it is important that the teacher is advisor for students, but he doesn’t give them the whole prepared information.
V.A. Petrovsky believes that the student-centered approach has a number of principles: variation, the synthesis of intelligence, passion and action, as well as priority start. (Amonashvili S.H. «Personality-human manner pedagogical process». It explains these principles as follows:
- Variability: use is not the same type, but different models of training depending on the individual characteristics of children and their experience. The responsibility for this principle lies of adults.
- Synthesis: a technology that involves students in the process of cognition, joint action and emotional development of the world.
- Start: involvement of children in such activities that they enjoy, closer, more preferably, to create favorable conditions for the further study of a foreign language.
Nonetheless the authors note that in the process of development of the individual need to focus on the development of students' cognitive sphere (sensation, perception, memory and thinking). Also, the authors raise the question of what the pupil should be the subject of full training activities.
Considering this fact the entire institution changed the approach to its activities, revised its work. Nowadays, The essence of the modern educational system, student-oriented paradigm "is to abandon the concept of" encyclopedic ", where the main indicators of education a person believes only the volume of its knowledge. Education is built on the principles of student-centered approach artistic and aesthetic education promotes the development of self-development because it is based on the identification of its individual characteristics as the subject of cognition and action. Priority recognizes the right of everyone to choose their own path of development. Studentcentered approach is characterized by its focus on existential satisfaction of human needs, it means, the needs and the meaning of his life and personal existence: freedom and free choice, your outlook, behavior, self-reliance and personal responsibility, self-development and self-realization, self-determination and creativity that is why student-centered learning is Leading the strategic direction of the school system in the world today. Implementation of student-centered approach is possible with using student-centered pedagogical techniques and rethinking teacher professional positions. According to Yakimanskaya and O. Yakunina, you can select multiple items which must be taken by the teacher into account the development of personality oriented lesson:
Relying on personal experience. When you are organizing student-centered lesson, the professional position of the teacher is to know and respect the student any statement on the content of the topic. The teacher must consider not only what kind of material he will tell, but what the substantive characteristics of the material are possible in the subjective experience of students. It is necessary to consider what should be done to discuss the children's "version" in an equal dialogue. How to compile these "versions", identify and support those which are most adequate scientific content, which are relevant to the topic of the lesson, the goals and objectives of education.
It will cause that students will strive to be "successful", they will speak on the affected subject, offer, its options without fear of contradiction. (Yakimanskaya I, Yakunin O. «Personality oriented lesson: planning and technology implementation, 1998) Knowledge of psychophysical characteristics. Selection of didactic material to the student-centered lesson requires teachers not only his knowledge of objective difficulties, but also the knowledge of individual preferences of each student to work with this material. He should have a set of teaching cards which allow the student to work with the same content as the software requirements, but pass it with word, sign-symbol or picture. The student should be given the opportunity to express individual creativity in the work with the material. A set of such material should be used flexibly during the lesson, without it he would not student-centered in the true sense of the word. It may be different levels cards for English lessons with different tasks for particularly students. Thus, it helps students to express their individuality in the classroom and involve it in teaching process.
Equal partners. How to build an educational lesson on communication so that the student can chose his most interesting job content, type and shape, and thus the most actively manifest itself?
The teacher should attribute to the frontal method of work only give information in the classroom, but to the individual all forms of individual, group (pair) work. It is important to pre-design all the possible types of communication, all forms of cooperation between students with regard to their optimal personal interaction in preparation for the lesson, which is connected with subject to academic pursuits.
Priority of assessment, knowledge and skills. The implementation of student-centered learning is a complex and painful process in the modern school. Implementation of studentbased learning is possible when it will rethink of all participants in the educational process and compliance with all the necessary conditions. Student-based lesson allows not only find the approach to each student, but it also allows to exercise self-esteem and put the marks their classmates.. (Yakimanskaya I, Yakunin O. «Personality oriented lesson: planning and technology implementation», 1998).
The special role in the student-oriented approach is the knowledge of the meaning «the teacher». The teacher will not be able to conduct their work in line with the studentcentered approach, not knowing the psychological characteristics of students because children are very different. It means that One is very active in the classroom, the other knows the answer, but is afraid to answer, one has problem with discipline, the other has problem with auditory memory. Thus, the teacher should base its work by studying their students, studying their personality. Indeed, personality is a kind of law man's own being, behavior and relationships with the world, and its level of development characterized by the ability to maintain and protect the sovereign space of individuality. Goal setting of personal development of pupils has important characteristics in the sense that traditional pedagogy personal development of the student, is not as a goal but as a means to achieve some other purpose assimilation, discipline, communion. Personality plays only the role of the mechanism. The result was important in education. Action which person have to make. there should be a pedagogical support, which expresses the essence of the humanistic position of the teacher in relation to children. Amonashvili is expressed its essence in three principles of pedagogical activity: "to love their children, to humanize the environment in which they live, to live in his childhood the child." (Yakimanskaya I, Yakunin O. «Personality oriented lesson: planning and technology implementation, 1998). Developing educational and learning process requires that a personality has become the teacher. His relationship with the children should be based on personal, not formal business approach. The first function is to "teach children to learn", develop their personality mechanisms of selfawareness, self-regulation and in the broadest sense means the ability to overcome their own limitations, not only in the educational process, but also in any human activity. The second function involves the development of a child "the ability to think and act creatively," the formation of a child's personality creativity through creative and productive activities. In the new educational space picture of the world and the child's personality are built in the joint activity of a child with adults and peers. The child has the right to seek, error and small creative discoveries. In this process, the search for truth is a transition from alienated knowledge through personal discovery to personal knowledge. The teacher not only teaches and educates, he stimulates the student as to the psychological, social and moral development, creates the conditions for its self-motion.
One of the important means of creating a favorable climate is, in my opinion, praise the student. It can be verbal and nonverbal. Nonverbal promotion techniques: smile, gestures, facial expressions, applause, etc. Teacher praise can be expressed in distributing tokens, cards. The method of sun evaluation, where rays are given as a bonus for a successful response. The winner is the one whose sun is brighter. The maximum account of the special audience and differentiated approach to children with different capabilities, creating conditions for optimal expression is achieved by using a student-centered approach in teaching a foreign language. Learner centered approach involves organizing equal and respectful pedagogical dialogue with the student in which the student is the subject of its activities. Each activity is based on the specific mechanisms and requires different abilities. Furthermore, it is important to establish a connection between the developing and practical purposes. Developing objective should be seen not so much as broaden their horizons, but as the development of intelligence. Here you can see some examples: Role play is an implementation of health-technology, involving independent linguistic behavior when the situation is due to the communication activities of the participants of the game. Activities of pleasure and does not threaten the child's personality, a student. This game will strengthen the role of self-confidence. The use of theater in the classroom showed the effectiveness of this method, especially for the development of skills and unprepared speech. Theatrical performances in the classroom are the strongest motive to language learning, they help create a language environment close to nature. Teacher is extremely important to organize the necessary educational support for preserving the health of their students. Support the child means to believe in him. Genuine support must be based on emphasizing the abilities of the child, its positive sides. Finally, in order to support a child, you must: be based on the child's strengths, not to emphasize his mistakes, to emphasize the temporary nature of his failures, optimism teach a child to take the child's identity, provide more autonomy.
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