The competence approach in the system of information and technology preparation the future teachers of technologies

The dynamism of modern social and economic life, the growing requirements to the future teachers of technologies stipulates the change of priorities in the organization of educational process, it's orientation on personal and professional growth of graduate, on providing the conditions of terms for opening his potential and continuous the forming and improvement the information competence [2]. The modernization of Ukrainian educational system provides the decision of problems that relates with informatization and individualization of educational process at the level of general and higher education.

The analysis of archetypes and mechanisms of studies suggests to select in a role of systemic formative factor of model the system of information and technology preparation the relation “the activity of members the pedagogical collective – the activity of student”.

The variety of these relations makes the content of studies. In the studies beyond the individual trajectory of information and technology preparation the acting of teacher on a student and the student on a teacher mixed up. In the different components the model ''the acting of teacher on a student'' is defining or corrective (it is the ties of the system). The same thing from the side of students action on a teacher. Herewith the significance of reverse adaptive action is very great. Such action enables to forecast and to correct subsequent activity of pedagogical collective and of student.

So, the model of system of information and technology preparation the future teachers of technologies able to adaptation, because it is the subsystem of the educational system that carries developing, training and educational functions and has a core as a methodical system of information and technology preparation. [3] First of all it means that a model can be adapted to different conditions and to develop, because dynamic systems evolves toward complication and formation the substructures in the structure of the systems [1].

On the basis of the results of research was create the conception of development the system of information and technology preparation the future teachers of technologies in the conditions of competence approach. The main position of it relates with:

  • development the mechanisms of studies and its simple models – the archetypes;
  • perfection the methodology and strategy of structuring and selection of content, methods, organizational forms and facilities of studies, which match the task of information and technology preparation the future teacher of technologies. He has a complex of professionally important information and technology competence, which are necessary for effective professional activity in the conditions of information society;
  • creation and use the methodical systems of information and technology preparation, which orients on the development of information and technology potential of student, on the forming of his information and technology competence;
  • development the diagnosing methods of control and estimation the level of information and technology competence the future specialist.

We will focus more on the description of every indicated directions of conception and will show the possible ways of its realization.

Toward the first direction the mastering of archetypes simplifies the understanding of fleeting processes and changes which take a place in information society. Basic sense of construction the adaptive archetypes and mechanisms of studies is to define and to distribute the order of procedures. It provides motion of an educational process with the achievement the maximal sequence of implementation the operations. The use of it will allow to increase the effective in the decision of administrative and educational tasks and feedback with guidance, to improve awareness of leaders for the increase the validity of decisions which accepts, to provide achievement the necessary level of information and technology preparation the future teachers of technologies.

The realization of second direction should be carried on the basis of competence approach [9]. The process of forming the information and technology competence should based on the model of information and technology competence the future teacher of technologies. It was develop with the consideration the internal differentiation, which presents the interconnected complex of different types of competence and competence by the directions which determine the type of preparation the future teachers of technologies. In the model should be submitted not some professional functions but full content of activity of specialist, the system of professional tasks that was resolve by him. Exactly the competence approach allows to develop the system of information and technology preparation by the correction the content of studies.

The third direction directly relates with informatization the system of education, with perfection of level structure of preparation the future teachers of technologies, development of continuous education [11]. All of it forces to find effective mechanisms, which provides the opening the potential of student, the necessary level of information and technology competence achievement by them. In such a role should act the mechanisms on the basis of forming the individual trajectories of information and technology preparation, which are realizes on the base of module and controlles from distance studies. The receipt high quality new results in information and technology preparation provide [10]:

  • at first, by individualization, which appears in ability of students independently manages educational activity and finds for themselves the optimum variants of mastering the knowledge, abilities and skills;
  • secondly, by possibilities of information technologies which are considering from two positions: (1) due to the use of new information technologies as facilities of studies achieves the radical increase of efficiency and quality of information and technology preparation the specialist with the new type of thought which answers the requirements of informative society; (2) the high level of domain the modern information technologies becomes a general universal index which characterizes the information and technology competence.

The fourth direction relates with the development of new requirements to quality of information and technology preparation, the description of aims and results of education in logic of competence approach, which exposes the necessity of perfection the system of diagnostics the educational achievements [8]. Diagnostics of information and technology competence should:

  • be the component of model the system of information and technology preparation;
  • base on the model of information and technology competence;
  • examine from positions of level approach. It allows to base on certain level of mastering by knowledge and abilities, which are the components of information and technology competence, to pick up and use adequate methods of diagnostics, which directs on the objective evaluation of quality the information and technology preparation;
  • develop with consideration the features of planning in a traditional educational process means of informatization on the basis of the module going to organization of structure the content of information and technology preparation;
  • give possibility of receipt the complex quantitative estimations of results the information and technology preparation.

This conception is the theoretical and methodological foundation of necessity the development of the existent traditional system of information and technology preparation the future teachers of technologies.

A thesis that the methodical system of information and technology preparation is a model kernel, resulted to the necessity of consideration the followings components of the model: the raising the aims of information and technology preparation, the organization the structure of content the information and technology preparation and creation the environment for development the information and technology competence by selection the methods, facilities and forms of studies.

The integral consideration the aims of information and technology preparation foresees the double focusing: from outside (the external aims), when the methodical system of information and technology preparation from any subject examines from point of its accordance the structure of information and technology activity; from within (the internal aims), that determines the attitude of aims the information and technology preparation toward the other elements of the methodical system [6]. In addition, the temporal aspect of aims the information and technology preparation determines its “trajectory” and “point” formulation. The strategic long-term aims of higher level set the spectrum of possible trajectories, advancement for which understood as realization of ultimate goal is forming the information and technology competence of future specialist. That’s why the “trajectory” formulation uses for their description. It can be set in a quantitative and in high quality kind that determines general direction of development. It specification according to the time carries out by “point” formulation, on the basis of the use objective and subjective information [5].

The consideration of methodological bases and analysis of aims the information and technology preparation enables to draw a conclusion that in the methodical systems of information and technology preparation there is the complementarily of aims, which conditioned interdisciplinary copulas, which stipulates the crossing of MSIP within the preparation the future teachers of technologies of one type. The composition of the methodical systems of information and technology preparation within the preparation the future teachers of technologies of one type builds through crossing the internal aims of studies. The character of intercommunications the aims in the methodical system of information and technology preparation and its interpretations can be present schematically.

The complementarily of aims the information and technology preparation of different directions/specialties of one type explains that the targeting carries out in the level of the system of information and technology preparation (the external, “trajectory” aims) and in the level of the methodical system of information and technology preparation and its interpretations (the internal, “point” aims). The internal aims the information and technology preparation of educational module (М) and educational element (NET) formulates by a teacher, that also carries out the role of expert with consideration the educational standards and qualifying descriptions of external aims the information and technology preparation [6].

The teacher is specialist in his own subject industry and has the content of specific professional tasks from this subject industry and considers the real possibilities of educational process. That’s why the direct projection the aims of studies higher level of hierarchy (external) in the purpose of level (internal) which is subjacent, in general case does not take a place. There can be different variants of transformation and projection external aims of information and technology preparation – from a direct projection to the complete not consideration of the declared aims in the internal aims of information and technology preparation [4].

Between these two extreme cases also there can be the most various intermediate variants the transformations of external “trajectory” in an internal “point” TSIP (the vertical projection, or projection from above).

Except the projections from above the internal aims of information and technology preparation locates on one level of hierarchy can influence to each other (horizontal projection). It is explains by the existence of intersubject connections. The integrating, complex, partial aims of interpretations the methodical systems of information and technology preparation come forward as concrete internal, “point” TSIP.

It can mediate through information and technology experience of teacher in the subject industry to influence on formulation external aims of information and technology preparation (the projection from below).

The results got during research allowed to offer technology of analysis and selection the aims in logic of competence approach, to describe the content each of its stages. The result of the use the offered technology is a tree of aims the information and technology preparation, where the achievement of primary objective, the set level of information and technology competence provides by realization the aims of next levels.

In basis of the first step of decomposition is the principle of decomposition the external aims of information and technology preparation after the types of information and technology activity. Then its decomposition conducts after the large blocks of internal aims of information and technology preparation – the generalized knowledge and abilities to decide professional tasks on the different stages of information and technology activity. The external and large blocks the internal aims of information and technology preparation comes forward as “trajectory” aims. The depth of decomposition the aims sets the condition of achievement such decomposition which would enable to link the realization of lower tops of count with the separate educational modules. The depth of decomposition the aims of the educational modules determines informative and sentinel limits on raising of partial internal, the “point” aims of information and technology preparation, which regulates by educational and calendar plans.

The construction of tree of aims not only provides a concordance in a quality relation (for example, its distributing after the levels of forming the information and technology competence – key, general professional and special) but also allows to conduct some estimation its importance and meaningfulness [9]. According with the offered technology provides the external and internal aims of information and technology preparation the future teachers of technologies, the subject industries in which is activity of indicated specialist and in which he should show the competence and also stages of activity with pointing of concrete professional tasks which decides by him on these stages.

The analysis of works in industry of use the competence approach in education showed that planning of the new educational systems the aims of the studies in this approach formulates:

  • as an aggregate of competence which are more frequent understands as certain types of activity (V.I. Baydenko, V.I. Isaev, I.O. Zimnyaya, J.G. Tatur and others);
  • as an aggregate of competence which bases on a concept “the professional task” and ability to decide the professional tasks of different level, including educational professional tasks (N.F. Radionova, A.P. Tryapicina, I.S. Batrakova, G.N. Serikov and others).

According to the looks of N.F. Radionova, A.P. Tryapicina and others, we went out from understanding of information and technology competence integral description, which determines ability of specialist to decide the problems and typical tasks which arises up in the real situations of information and technology activity. That problems should be decide with the use of knowledge, abilities, skills, information and technology and vital experience, values and tendency to competence (according to V. I. Baydenko) as the skills which answer methods and technical receptions relates with the object, that incident to different subject industries.

The main theoretical and methodological provisions which was examined as related with the competence approach, allowed to develop the model of the information and technology competence the future teachers of technologies and fill it with its content on the example of structure and constituents of information and technology competence of specialist specialization in “Informative technique”.

As a result of generalization the researches of competence approach formulated the constructions of indicated the model, which served a ground. The main of it are:

  1. The Information and technology competence is the aggregate of competence in different industries of informatics. That’s why necessary to fix information and technology industries and then the subject industries in which the specialist works out professional problems and typical information and technology tasks.
  2. The competence appearing in a conduct and activity of person becomes its personal qualities, properties, actually the competence. The general professional (base) a competence should represent the modern understanding of basic tasks of information and technology activity the specialist, and the key
  3. to show the ways of its decision. The specialized competence realizes the general professional and key competence in relation to the specific of information and technology activity in concrete specialty.
  4. For every direction/specialty of preparation the certain type it is possible to build the diagram of information and technology competence. The scopes of the content fields of genesis the general professional and specialized abilities to decide the professional tasks of different level (or the general professional and specialized competence) transforms within of separate specialties. If we imposes these diagrams on each other, we will get the general picture of crossing the competence the future teachers of technologies of different directions of preparation within the concrete type (multidimensional model) [7].

With support on conceptual positions of technology of module studies the questions of structuring of content of information and technology preparation the future teachers of technologies are considering.

During planning of modular construction of content the information and technology preparation:

  1. determined educational elements and components of content the studies, its distributing per the educational modules (under the educational module we meant the structural unit of content the studies, selected and didactics treated for achievement the certain level of knowledge, abilities and skills, that sets program of actions. The module is relatively independent, logically completed component of studies);
  2. built the logical structure of content the studies (as a count) as complex of the educational modules and connections between them. It represents the sequence of study the modules on the basis of intersubject connections and enables to choose the individual trajectories of studies;
  3. developed the requirements to the structure and content of the educational modules which should be taken into account at their planning and well-proven to practical realization as educational courses of the controlled from distance studies in the informatively educational environment of the opened education (these educational courses are interpretations of the methodical system of studies);
  4. by mathematical methods and models (the cluster analysis, the topology sorting and the topology sorting is modified) confirmed the assumption as for structure and constituents of information and technology competence and structure of content the studies.

On the basis of multidimensional analysis the methods of studies grounded choice the complex of methods for the terms of module studies and terms of realization the model in the context of conception the humanism pedagogic, personality oriented approach and constructivism. That methods, forms, facilities of studies can be used in traditional and in controlled from distance studies.

 

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Year: 2014
City: Oskemen
Category: Philosophy