In the twenty-first century, the role of education grew rapidly. The feature of human society at the present stage is the transition to the information society. These requirements for graduates of knowledge. More than ever urgent task of training teachers, especially teachers of technology. In this regard, one of the major challenges facing the education system is to educate the person who has a system of scientific thinking, information culture and creativity, high morality.
An important task of the university teachers is the need for their graduates in the labor market. It is clear that adaptation to constantly changing market conditions, the ability to not get lost in society is largely contingent upon the institution of knowledge and skills.
Training in education "technology" is essentially practical. About 70% of teaching time is spent on training and employment .
The basis of the education sector "Technology" is information-educational environment, that is the task of the teacher to create information-education teacher training environment technology to meet the demands made by the State educational standards and given the rapid spread of new information technologies.
Even information technologies that make it possible to create, store, process information and provide effective ways of giving feedback, have become an important factor in the life of society and the way to improve the efficiency of the social activities .
According to R. S Gurevich, the information technology achievements for their application: developing creativity, ability to communicative action, experimental study skills; intensification of all levels of the educational process, improve efficiency and quality; Implementation of the social order, which caused the computerization of modern society. The basis of the professional use of information technology in preparing future teachers technology form the following theoretical knowledge: with computer technology; global Internet services and network of social services Web 2.0 (personal blogs, twiter'y participants, notes and annotations, bookmarks network, electronic note-books, mailing lists, Wiki, location audio, photo and video files (Picasso, YouTube, etc.), communications between participants in an exchange of messages via e-mail, electronic bulletin boards, chat, forums, comments, video, etc.); informational knowledge base and database of communication systems; telecommunication systems of the institution. But most theoretical knowledge can not ensure effective implementation of information technology to information processing and use them to perform professional tasks.
Thus, in addition to theoretical knowledge, the most effective is to develop practical skills in using information technology in preparing future teachers of technology, providing knowledge and skills:
- PC (availability of skills with the operating system, application software, service programs, etc.) and other devices (printer, scanner, copier, flatbed, plotters, projectors, interactive whiteboards, etc.);
- Internet and global service network and Web 2.0 social services (availability of skills with personal blogs twitter amy, electronic notebooks, bookmarks, personal search engines, etc.;
- Knowledge of technology to connect to the Internet using a switch, switches, Wifi technology, etc.);
- LAN institution of higher education (knowledge technologies to connect and configure the LAN, including personal computer, computer rooms, network printers, etc., and the use of e-courses in information systems, knowledge technologies due to electronic resources library database data and knowledge of university, communication technologies).
According to foregoing , in information and computer technology teacher readily understood as an integral feature of personality that characterizes the unity of knowledge, skills, abilities and skills to creative use of ICT in education "technology" which is reflected in the intellectual, motivational and subjectareas of personality.
The educational process with the use of all available to date information materials need special teacher technology skills. Thus, teaching students in "technology" should pay particular attention to the subjects "Information", "Information Technology", "Computer Networks and Internet", "CAD", "Technical training aids", etc.
Consequently, the use of new information technologies in teaching future teachers of technology facilitate the preparation of qualified teachers in specialty "Technology". The development and expansion of teachers in computer science and information technology, the development of existing e-books, computer books problems with discipline, knowledge sharing between students and teachers a key condition for solving this problem.
It should be noted that in the preparation of future teachers of technology should pay particular attention to the development of graphic culture. General preparation of engineering graphics, which was the epicenter of information technology and computerization of educational process, provides professional and personal development of many possibilities. Graphic preparation of future teachers of technology in terms of software for complex application systems using computer simulation intensifies the formation kind of professionally important individual students helps optimize graphic preparation and improving the quality of results.
In our institution as a basic graphics training students selected licensed complex SAPR AutoCAD CAD company Autodesk. The process of creating drawings using computer technology allows students not only to acquire new knowledge and skills, but also to test the degree of assimilation of the material studied.
Any teacher should keep up with the times, to track technological innovations and to acquaint them with their students. Students should be aware of current industry news. Pretty is not only important for future engineers and designers, but for teachers of technology. With its high technological training of future teachers of technology will not only introduce their students to computer technology used in production, but also to touch these technologies at school or even at home. One such technology is 3D-printing technology that allows you to create a short period of time, not only the prototype of necessary detail, but the most part or several parts, which enables future teachers of technology see the whole process from design to manufacture the product.
Changes in production technologies necessitate the formation of future teachers of technology specific knowledge, skills, qualities and abilities, providing their professional mobility and competitiveness. To develop these qualities required high level of development of human cognitive activity that is rather difficult to do without the use of modern information technology IT.
The rapid development of technology and technology over the past decade require modern human knowledge in many fields of science, use of technology and IT systems, communication systems and information processing. Before young professionals include not only narrow professional tasks, but requires knowledge of related areas of science to establish relationships to practice transforming activity.
It is recognized that there is a significant gap between the knowledge and skills that most students receive in high school and the knowledge and skills necessary to work in the twentieth century.
That is why in training future teachers of technology in the graphic preparation necessary to introduce new technologies 3Dprinting. There is no better way to help students understand the basics of good design than creating their own prototype bulk product or part to evaluate its forms, collecting and functional fitness. Watching yourself on virtual SAPR CAD drawings on paper and computer 3D-models on the screen, almost impossible to detect the inevitable errors in the design. 3D-printing technologies allow students to interact with real 3D-models and have a strong motivation for further improvement.
Development of 3D-printing technology is gaining rapid momentum and is likely, 3D printer will be one of the integral parts of future society, embracing with all new industries.
3D printer invented by Chak Hol in 1983, is a form of additive manufacturing where 3D object created by the imposition of consecutive layers of different types of materials. 3D printers are the most rapid and accessible form of additive manufacturing today. With 3D printer developers with the ability to print parts and mechanisms of several materials with different mechanical and physical properties in a single process overlay. Print is in pre-designed in CAD-system model.
Although three-dimensional printing technology is often called magical, actually this process requires a tremendous amount of advance preparation and further processing required for high-quality printed parts.
At the current market available to a large number of competing technologies to print 3D-model. Their main differences relate to phase layers when creating details. Some technologies use melting or softening of the work material for the production of layers, others use liquid material that hardens with different technologies. The two main technologies are: laser and inkjet.
- Laser printing UV laser pixel by pixel lit liquid photopolymers, and they harden and become strong enough plastic;
- Laser sintering in this case, the laser burns in layers of powder alloy plastic outline future details;
- Lamination detail creates a large number of layers of material, which gradually overlap, glued together. Inkjet:
- Hardening of the material during cooling special nozzle apparatus squeezed by cooling the heated thermoplastic drop platform or other working material. Drops instantly freeze, forming layers with future object;
- Photo polymerization polymer plastic by ultraviolet radiation – a way similar to the previous one, but in this case, the plastic hardens under ultraviolet lamp;
- Bonding or sintering powdered material the same as laser sintering, but the powder is pasted with glue, which comes from special nozzles. In this case, you can recreate the color detail, using binders in different colors.
Obviously, the world of three dimensional printing will be available quite different. We can print any way, customized to suit your needs, spending as few resources. Artists, teachers, employees of enterprises will have a completely new environment for work. Doctors can quickly create organs for transplant just in the operating room, parents will be able to replace the broken toys or household items for several hours .
In modern textbooks on labor training that teachers will use their professional activities should be provided information about current and future technology new materials (polymers, bioplastmas, composite materials, etc.), new technologies (use of equipment with numerical control, 3D printers nanotechnology, laser technology, etc.), new technologies in the energy sector (energy-saving technologies, alternative energy, biofuels, organic solar cells, etc), new transport technologies (electric vehicles, aircraft of new structural materials), the technology of sustainable development (containments, recycling, etc.).
Gaps in the sense of modern aids can be eliminated by using modern information technology. Information about new technology materials processing, new machines, tools and materials can be found on the Internet and show students using multimedia.
If theoretical information about the development of modern technologies, modern materials, machines and tools to inform students still possible through information technology, the practical skills form is impossible. Through education funding for the final principle of upgrading the material base of workshops, offices schools and departments, which train teachers labor studies hardly occurs. They are equipped with equipment that is out of date both physically and mentally.
The students also, as experience shows, the interest is modern technology that demand in the workplace. The modern production technologies that develop thinking, creative skills and can realize their designs with the latest technology are creating technology of spatial models of computer and manufacturing devices and equipment with program management, playing with his help, as well as 3Dprinters results design. Results of computer graphic art can be played on the surface using laser, plasma and other devices. The use of composite materials expands the range of possibilities in the implementation of tasks due to the unique ability to manage product specifications in arbitrary directions.
The purchase of industrial equipment with numerical control (CNC), including its cost, which is comparable to the budget of the university or area load factor laboratory classes and research, from obsolescence and several less important factors becomes a problem that is quite difficult to solve. In Europe and America are centers of digital production FabLab (network workshops equipped with machine tools with CNC, tools and office equipment (http://fab.cba.mit.edu/), where each person can create any material object of its own design. as the "core" of equipment for these centers was determined following list:
- Device laser cutting / engraving, which allows for cutting sheet materials (acrylic glass, plywood, cardboard);
- Roll cutting plotter for flexible materials;
- Digital desktop milling and lathe;
- 3D printers that work on the principle of FDM and allows models with ABS plastic;
- Digital 3D scanner.
The total cost of this and additional equipment, supplies, computer equipment and more than 100 thousand. Dollars . Create a lab today in Ukraine is impossible.
The only compromise solution is to bring together technology and equipment functionality as well universal computer controlled equipment.
An important aspect of creative innovation development is not only the use of modern equipment, but also its design and manufacture. Today on sale is the entire list of components needed to manufacture computercontrolled equipment, including: guides, linear bearings, screw pair, drives, motors and control systems or board approval and others.
The quality of education and interest in the subject increased significantly in a clear demonstration of the described equipment, instruments, units of mutual displacement machine, the process of forming and so on. It is important to be based on new models of equipment and modern technology. At the initial stage of learning equipment, and before his design for idea of the equipment, the possibility of reciprocal movement of workers and management features efficiently use virtual equipment. As virtual equipment can be used Layouts machines built in CAMprograms. CAM-programs are designed to prepare the production process of products and most of them have built-in imaging processing with the reflection of the movement of the machine. Opportunities to create a new layout scheme allows equipment to study and design stage to explore the parameters of the equipment.
To achieve this goal well suited program SprutCAM Russian company "SPRUTtechnology." The main purpose of the program SprutCAM generation of control programs for machining parts on a multi milling, turning, turning, milling, EDM machines and machining centers with CNC. Given the full kinematic 3D-models of all equipment units SprutCAM allows you to create 3D-circuit machines and all its components. The program allows pre-processing of the virtual kinematics and control 100% certainty, clearly difficult to program a multi equipment. The program incorporates more than 45 different types of schemes machines. Software Company "Octopus Technologies" has been successfully applied to training in leading universities in Ukraine, Russia, of Denmark, Germany, UK, USA and Japan .
With possible to implement any equipment kinematic scheme, which allows to reproduce the existing equipment, and conduct pilot testing of the developed kinematic schemes and research equipment. This program generates a control program for the machines of the different configurations, and intended move tool does not require further modifications to take account of any features of the machine. If the machine is one of the classic circuits, and there is no need to consider the reciprocal movement of nodes of the machine, the tool path calculation is performed for the corresponding abstract machine circuits without a detailed description of the components and their relative position .
In the development of programs generated by the team not only for basic controlled axes, but for more, such as chuck, pallets, lunette, Tailstock, brake rotary axis and so on. In the kinematic scheme of the machine may include adjustment with manual or program control.
Program SprutCAM in the learning process can be seen as a kind of technological simulator that demonstrates the process and outcome of treatment. Easy to learn and visualization of the results caused additional interest in students to the development of technology.
Training models of products that is made in CAD-applications, such as COMPAS-3D, AutoCAD and the educational process. Complexes programs allow design and manufacturing of high complexity, demonstrating the possibilities and interaction software.
Designed equipment allows for all upcoming technological operations: milling, turning, engraving, cutting, use 3D printer manufacturing composite materials. You can place your scanner. The stiffness of the machine allows you to process soft materials, wood, plastic, aluminum alloys, etc.. When milling can perform processing work pieces with different levels of their location on multitable.
Later adjustments can be made in teacher training plans technological education, which would include training design and work to set up the equipment, making it possible to increase the quality of training in the area of innovation.
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