The world community has developed the processes of global informatization of all areas of public life. Information on the level of technological development and its rate depends on the state of the economy, quality of life, national security and the government’s role in the world community. In all developed countries and many developing countries are intensive processes of informatization education. Ways to improve the effectiveness of general education are developed, to invest more in the development and implementation of new information technology. More fully manifest tendencies of usage the distance learning education are increased as the major components of the emerging open education.
Nowadays it is generally accepted that the present system of education with the advent of the Internet due to the intensive development of the potential of new information technologies has entered to a new phase of its development. The relevance of the research today is to improve the didactic theory as applied to the new educational environment. The main efforts of both the or istsand practitioners of education are concentrated in distance education (DE) and related organizations of all distance operation types. The distinction between these terms is semantically significant, which has been repeatedly emphasized by several researchers: as learning the or istsand practitioners. It defines the circle of teaching materials, teaching method sand forms of organization of distant cooperative activities which must be used to achieve the desired goalto teach and to learn.
From the mid 90's, in Kazakhstan the process of global computing began, including schools, which were opened new perspectives of distance education with the help of computer networks (Local Area Network and World Area Network) (1. 176). Since the society is on the way to becoming an information society, then all of its components, including education, have come to use information technology fully. Potential of information technology (i.e. the use of computer sand the Internet) allows us to go to a new, more advanced stage of development and provides anew and even more opportunities for learning that are not available in the early stages of distance education.
Distance education it is not a synonym for correspondence education, because here provides constant contact with the teacher, other students in information class, simulation of all types of full-time study, but with specific forms. Therefore, experts require a theoretical study, experimental testing, and serious scientific research. Unfortunately, at the moment in Kazakhstan there is a clear shortage of such work, which contributes our gap with the developed countries of the West, primarily the U.S.
Interest in distance education is emerged by reports of dynamic growth of distance education abroad. The concept of distance education is borrowed from the English language and from practice of education in the UK, Canada and especially the United States, where not only the term of Distant Education, but also the abbreviation DE have become resistant and do not require the explanation. In foreign practice, the concept of distance education covers a variety of models, methods and technologies, in which the teacher and student are separated in the space; they are in different places (classrooms, schools, districts, cities and even countries) (2, p. 183).
Distance education is a complex historical phenomenon, passed a number of phases of the development and developing in the partially alternative strategies. In Kazakhstan today there is almost all this variety of phases and development strategy. Kazakhstan inherited from the Soviet times outdated system of correspondence education. In the 90’s the market demand for distance education was emerged, many universities suggested such kind of services. However, there were not sufficient financial, material, technical and human resources to develop high-tech form before they had to return to the correspondence DE. The trend is partly preserved to this day. Lacking the capacity to deploy a high-tech systems, universities often use the term "distance education" to promote their version of correspondence or distance learning, little different from the traditional.
The direct involvement of the state in shaping the new generation to these years could not carry a large scale. The lack of budget funding is not allowed to carry out the Development Program to the appropriate level. However, the State has contributed to the accumulation of the prerequisites for the development of modern forms of DE. The unprecedented efforts were made to inform education. The policy of openness and desire to enter Kazakhstan in the global educational environment contributed the acquaintance with the experience of the developed countries, open scientific and business relations, and widespread the Internet. Provided autonomy and academic freedom to universities in a market economy had led to the development of the initiative and business qualities of a new generation of universities leaders.
Under the circumstances, the developing of high-tech form of distance education began in cooperation with Western educational institutions, businesses, investors and sponsors, with the involvement of their own extra-budgetary resources of universities. It is allowed to a number of universities make a breakthrough approach to the current level of DE. In recent years a movement is formed in which the active part for many dozens of universities has set a goal of creating competitive systems.
Distance education abroad, particularly in the U.S., is now a new and very important phase of its development. After a relatively long period of constant stability in the sense of changing the essential technologies and teaching methods, and a relatively recent period of major changes as a result of a variety of new media (video, computer telecommunications) the distance education is entered in the phase of integration and convergence of technology. This has had a significant impact on the practice of teaching. Among the key trends in the DE it is stated the following:
- Simultaneous deployment (increasing diversity) and the convergence of technologies;
- Changes in the relationship between teachers and students;
- Change in the relations between schools;
- The emergence of stable traditions.
At the present stage of distance education development the creation of new information technology (NIT) has brought the process of e-learning to a new level. Almost all of them are digital. NIT includes hypermedia program that allows the student to control the order of the array information development and databases which are available through the Internet and other networks, and even integrated data sets that sooner or later will give the student an opportunity to connect to the video, audio materials, databases, and other software directly from home or work.
Distance learning has become ever more multi-compartment. Inevitably connect becomes more and more media transfer of educational information as essential ways of teaching courses, both within a particular course, and in interdisciplinary connections. This obviously will affect the principles of the course development and DE curriculum planning, which goes beyond the traditional "problem of delivery."
The multi-compartment of distance education effects on how schools manage their resources. Previously, schools focused on the technical side of training, such as courses were based on the use of printed materials and television programs. Now this approach is justified. Distance education now focuses on the flexible needs of students in the courses. On
the other hand, the explosion of technological innovation changes the understanding of the nature. DE now includes so different things, even diametrically opposite approaches as self-study and training in the extended (virtual) audience. Now DE is determined not so much by the carriers and means of delivery as the nature of interaction partners in learning.
With the increasing complexity and expansion of technology the number of organizations and agencies involved in this process is growing in DE. Technology is becoming a part of the infrastructure of educational institution: now with equal attention should be considered projects, including not only the research and / or administration, and teaching. Hence, there is a wide community of entities interested in investing in educational technology.
Although distance education has over a century of history, DE term is not in use for more than ten years. Some believe that distance is not a specific approach to learning, but rather a reflection of the deep currents and changes in the educational paradigm. In this sense DE term serves only to label these changes. Within a few years, this label will sink into oblivion, as the mechanism of new relations and new technology is already running, and they soon will inevitably merge with the main stream of development education. Currently DE and higher education are in the process of adapting to the changes taking place in society. New infrastructures come to define the essence of educational environment in the same way as when the emphasis in classroom and campus led to the concept of training time. Redefinition of the education role, it now less depends on geographic location and more from the interests of communities, which are designed to meet the educational institutions through training and retraining of young and old staff members.
This trend is expressed in the near future in the mass processing of training programs. New DE technology evaluates the progress of students "on the results," and, consequently, builds programs for the issuance of the actual results. Thus, distance education will give students the opportunity to be autonomous knowing the subject; and will significantly change the usual teacher-student relationship. Moreover, new technologies, media and methods will clearly define the goals and objectives of education that have long meant only, namely the preparation of decisions, actions in uncertain problem situations, the development of values, intercultural interaction and communication. All this can become a reality with the introduction of methods before.
Distance Education came out of the last decade as a serious contender for the change of the whole higher education. The depth of this change is determined by the trends in the use of technology, changing the relations between schools, between schools and pupils in the emergence of new activities within the schools. The current situation offers schools an unprecedented opportunity to create an educational environment where technology will be primarily oriented to the needs of learners.
Distance education removes many psychological problems associated with communication students; allow them to be more candid. Ability to work on your thoughts helps students fix errors in communication. Open and distance modalities certainly expands worldview students to planetary level. Territorial remoteness of all countries and continents is no longer an obstacle training and fellowship for those who are beginning to work with e-mail or number the Internet system. Therefore, in order to motivate, not to scare the future to-student is necessary that:
- The learner was able to select relevant information and convenient tool of its receipt;
- In the "introductory lectures in the subject" are prospects (subject) application for which it is studied and its priority in the life of the future specialist;
- The presentation of the tasks and ways to work around them are understandable and accessible to users who do not have special knowledge of computer technology and software.
Besides DE as a form of training allows the student to communicate with any part of the world (if it is connected to the Internet), thus giving him a strong incentive to learn foreign languages, because only they can fully use the opportunities to acquire new knowledge, which provides up to. Consequently, the study of foreign languages is an essential component before and without these component capabilities to a much narrower. Any presentation of educational material is currently easy to implement. Some of the work is with video in real time, but they successfully overcome with sufficient speed telecommunications links, which have recently increased very much.
If we leave aside the relatively expensive type of Distance education as video conferencing, which, in fact, are nothing more than a simulation of the real contact teachers and learners (students), it is clear that the basic information load during training are training materials (with all the features of their review and comment), and a system of computer simulation experiments. These elements are the base for the formation of a learning environment, and thus is a computer learning environment, in our view, the basis of distance learning in general.
Overall, the analysis of the available research shows that despite significant progress emerging in recent studies of the process of distance learning, including distance learning foreign language, the quality of graduates in the current social and educational situation has not yet found a proper evaluation of the science. Poorly developed methodological aspect of foreign language teaching in daily educational policy educational institution needs more and more obvious in theory and in practice.
- Полaт Е.С. Дистaнционное обучение нa бaзе компьютерных телекоммуникaций // Дистaнционное обучение МЭСИ, М, 1998.
- Thompson M. (ed.). Internationalism in distance education: a vision for higher education. Conference proceedings, Selected papers from the first International Distance Education Conference, Pennsylvania State University, June Thach, E.C. Murphy, K.L. Collaboration in distance education: from local to international perspectives. In: American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 8, no. 3, 1994, pp. 5-21.