Selection and training of entrepreneurs in ukraine: psychological and methodological approach

Role and Goals of Entrepreneurial Education in the Whirlpool of Economic Reforms in the Society

Role and goals of entrepreneurship in every country mainly depend on country's social and political system. In developed capitalist countries, where market economy prevails, entrepreneurship serves as a basis for their economic advancement and entrepreneurial education is vital for them and is paid a great attention. In countries with transitional economies (i.e. former "socialist camp" – Poland, Czech, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, former USSR republics, and most of Latin American countries) results of economic reforms are fully determined by the public's attitude towards entrepreneurship as a kind of activity and by the conditions created for its development in a country. The People's Republic of China has managed to combine socialist methods of economy regulation with capitalist market principles of economy development.

In countries with developed economies, which have already achieved positive results in industry and agriculture due to the support of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial education is an important constituent in forming respect for creative and productive activities and market reforms aimed at improving the welfare of both society and individual, whether he/ she works, seeks employment or applies for a social insurance program (number of these depends on the success of entrepreneurship in a country). It is obvious, that entrepreneurial education is effective only if there are political conditions for the sustained economic development or they are being created. In fact, teaching entrepreneurship is ineffective and does not envisage any further development in that country, where no positive public opinion about the benefits and necessity of entrepreneurship is formed, and where no laws supporting entrepreneurship are adopted. Unfortunately, according to many professionals researching the entrepreneurship, national programs of reforms in many countries with transitional economies remain imperfect and incomplete (Holden 1999).

There is no doubt, that training pf entrepreneurs and forming appropriate public's attitude underlie so-called "entrepreneurial public opinion", which in turn influences the pace of reforms. But training entrepreneurs and teaching humanity the ideals and values of entrepreneurship are totally different educational goals. Training individual to be an entrepreneur is a hard task that not always could be accomplished successfully. It much depends on unique character traits of every person. It is quite another matter to teach real or potential entrepreneurs how to effectively manage an enterprise, what are the rules and laws of entrepreneurship and business competition, and, finally, how to make right decisions.

Many people, who start their own business, often do not have entrepreneurial education and sufficient knowledge of entrepreneurship and its laws. They know little or nothing about organizational structure, accounting and enterprise management. Therefore, one of the primary goals of entrepreneurial education, which is successfully implemented in developed countries, is teaching principles of starting new businesses, fundamentals of accounting and management.

The US Small Business Administration ( successfully supports American small business by the help of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Good entrepreneurial education together with governmental support and favorable business climate help new businessmen effectively create and start their business: “An amazing infographic by Intuit that explores the costs of starting a new small business in the United States compared to other markets around the world … shows that starting a business in the US is relatively easy compared to the largest markets in Asia and a few places in Europe. It also seems that the survival rate of businesses in the US is much larger than any other region in the study. These numbers should go a long way towards small business optimism in comparison to our direct international competitors.” (Small Business Stats for Small Business Week, 2011). Also according to 2010 and 2012 reports of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, 2010; GEM 2012) the growing number of countries introduces small business support programs, and many of them make provisions for grants and subsidies. However, none of these programs is effective, because they try to avoid obstacles on the way to entrepreneurship, but not to eliminate them. These barriers should be removed through forming public opinion, training young entrepreneurs, and applying entrepreneurial education in legislative domain. Unfortunately, some statesmen have erroneous idea of entrepreneurship, thinking about placement of state employees only, but not about creation of necessary conditions for the development of entrepreneurship, which is based on democracy and market economy.

The goal of entrepreneurial education is, firstly, to show the benefits of entrepreneurship in favourable legal and economic environment and, secondly, to teach how to eliminate the obstacles on the way to free enterprise (clarifying advantages of democratic society, creative work, market economy and competition, positive influence of entrepreneurship on social welfare). General public should realize that entrepreneurship can exist only in democratic society, where private property is secured and entrepreneur's rights are guaranteed. At the same time, monopoly of transnational and multinational corporations should be restrained; otherwise they hamper competition and entrepreneurship.

Tasks of the entrepreneurial education are essential components of economic reforms, intended to democratize society and provide the transition to market economy. In this case the entrepreneurial education should inform public on advantages of democracy and market economy, and teach methods and laws of entrepreneurship to future entrepreneurs.

Economic reforms will be successful only if state policy ensures favorable conditions for the entrepreneurship and popularizes entrepreneurial education among its citizens. It is evident, that economic situation, stimulated by the appropriate public policy, will undoubtedly improve, and, in turn, will stimulate the entrepreneurship (more potential entrepreneurs will start their own businesses). Therefore, conditions, required for the self-realization of entrepreneurs, state support and public approval of their activities, will be created.

Educational programs in the realm of entrepreneurship are also lobbying democratic changes in the society for the market economy. They mould so-called "pressure unit", which constitutes of potential entrepreneurs who are becoming real in the process of their creative self-realization. When they encounter any difficulties in their own businesses, they will try to change economic policy of the country.

Content and Peculiarities of Entrepreneurial Education

How the education for future entrepreneurs will look like? During last decades a subject of much controversy remains the same effectiveness of educational programs for entrepreneurs: are they good enough to prepare young people for adult life and "entrepreneurial" job seeking (Gibb 1999). In developed countries such discussions show public acceptance of the need for refining the ability of survival in tough competition, uncertain and intricate conditions, which demand high adaptability to changes and innovations. On the other hand, in countries with transitional economies, influence of post-socialist negative attitude towards entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship is prevalent. Thereby, entrepreneurship is not always treated in compliance with its role in country's economic reforms and development.

The concept of entrepreneurship as a breakeven activity (either profit earning or non-profit) is broad enough to be covered by a certain list of courses including, for example, operation of business, industrial engineering, starting business, and teaching personal qualifications and social skills (knowledge and skills acquired in the process of study and activity). That is why experts in education do understand that training entrepreneurs is an educational problem to be solved.

The need for entrepreneurial education helps to outline the following issues in contemporary education:

  1. How to effectively introduce the concept of entrepreneurship into education?
  2. What is the entrepreneurship? How to teach entrepreneurship? Who is the target audience? Why to teach entrepreneurship?
  3. What are the educational requirements for teaching entrepreneurship in secondary, higher and postgraduate education? What curriculum and teachers should be?

Solving those problems and forming public opinion about the benefits of entrepreneurship are vitally important for the entrepreneurial education to become a required course, but not to remain elective one.

Another problem of entrepreneurial education is curriculum development and its introduction in educational institutions. The following should be defined:

  1. How to outline goals and objectives of such programs?
  2. How to differentiate needs for entrepreneurial education in various groups within the whole system of education?
  3. How to develop, differentiate and implement courses on business and entrepreneurship in curricula on all levels of education (preparatory, secondary and higher education)?
  4. How to establish effective ties between entrepreneurs and educators?

What is the entrepreneurship? There is no clear-cut answer to this question.

Experts are unanimously agree only that entrepreneurship relates to how individuals and organizations create and apply new ideas and methods of work, and react in changing environment, thereby generating uncertain and intricate conditions. Thus, entrepreneurial programs usually concentrate on types of behavior (i.e., human behavior in entrepreneurial activities). These types of behavior are connected with a general concept of entrepreneur, whose entrepreneurial behavior is determined by individual's character traits, abilities and skills. One of the most important questions in entrepreneurial education is as follows: is it possible to train an entrepreneur, or it depends solely on individual's inborn skills and abilities? Well, experts suppose it is possible to a certain degree.

Knowledge, as a contextual part of training given types of behavior, is a key component of entrepreneurial education (Gibb 1999): entrepreneurial behavior should be trained and stimulated not only at secondary schools (mathematics, physics, biology, chemistry, languages, literature, geography, history, etc.)but at higher education institutions as well (higher mathematics, physics, chemistry, languages, literature, history, etc.). More fundamental entrepreneurial training could be organized within entrepreneurial courses, making trainees to think about starting a new business, fighting competitors, and pushing the product into market. In this case, solving problems is to improve entrepreneurial skills and tasks themselves must be cognitive.

In order to teach the entrepreneurship, system of education should pay attention to developing those types of behaviour, which are used for self-realization by individuals and/or group of them, so that provide help to other individuals or groups to make changes and innovations, which imply higher level of intricacy and uncertainty, successfully manage and use them. These types of behaviour, abilities and skills should be trained for the prosperity of both profit and non-profit organizations in industrial, social, educational, and religious domains (Gibb & Hannon 2006).

Let us, for instance, take a closer look at models of entrepreneurial behaviour, which characterize entrepreneur as an active, selfconfident personality, who is able to achieve desired results, possesses creativity and strategic thinking, rationally uses available resources, and can analyze the situation and ready to take risks.

Real entrepreneur must be creative and self-confident, hard-working and risk-taking, that is:

  • to show initiative;
  • to make realistic and creative evaluations;
  • to creatively solve entrepreneurial problems;
  • to efficiently use favourable opportunities;
  • to do not rely on assistance;
  • to take responsibility for the results;
  • to be ready to take the risk;
  • to efficiently use information networks, advanced technologies, and achievements of science and technology;
  • to demonstrate common sense, avoid unjustified risk and view things in a sensible light;
  • to be eager for work, to long for reward, and to rationally use resources (financial and others).

According to international studies (unfortunately, we do not have our own!)the following character traits underlie truly entrepreneurial attitude (behavior):

  • ambitions;
  • desire to achieve success at all costs;
  • self-confidence;
  • diligence and persistency;
  • independence;
  • productive activity;
  • ability to efficiently use personal experience and that of other people, in order to avoid common mistakes;
  • determination and courage;
  • creativity.

Experts believe that God (or nature) grants such character traits. Everyone has his/ her own set of traits, though they can be partially developed and trained. These traits stipulate for individual's or group's (organization's) capability (and ability!) to successfully achieve goals, generating changes (with new ideas, methods and innovations), creatively work (not just waiting in vain for a miracle and going with the stream). True entrepreneur does not afraid of penalties for his/her initiative, achieves result at any price, using all methods and facilities allowed.

Much attention in entrepreneurial education is paid to teaching (and even cultivating!) entrepreneurial skills, which unlike character traits could be inculcated, and which could be also trained through the practice. These skills, closely connected to entrepreneurial character traits, ensure the realization of different types of entrepreneurial behavior. They are:

  • creativity in solving problems and achieving results;
  • art of conducting negotiations and discussions, ability to influence somebody's opinion;
  • knowing how to offer and how to sell;
  • integrated approach to organizing and managing business and projects;
  • strategic thinking, intuitive decision making in uncertain and intricate conditions;
  • ability to use latest scientific and technological advances, information technologies (e.g.personal computers, Internet, etc.).

Distinctive Features of Entrepreneurship

As it was mentioned before, the entrepreneurship demonstrates creativity. That is why it can not be equated to administration and "business" or "professional" style of management. On the contrary, corporate or administrative management, in contrast to entrepreneurship, requires not creativity, but precision, strong discipline and effective planning. These features are common for many entrepreneurial organizations:

  • disorder in the organization and informal relationship;
  • mutual credibility within the organization and decision making on the basis of individual observations;
  • parallelism in decision-making and organizational activities;
  • problem solving and decision making are based on intuition (in uncertain and intricate conditions);
  • applying of known tactical and strategically methods along with individual problem solving methods ("I'll do it in my way!");
  • activity in uncertain and intricate conditions;
  • applying of universal methods to problem solving;
  • owner personally manages the enterprise on all levels;
  • enterprise is open to customers and community facilities (e.g.communication and informational services);
  • efficient use of personal (and partner's as well) material and financial resources and business connections.

As distinct from entrepreneurship, corporate and administrative management elaborated methods, concepts and beliefs regarding the domination of system, unconditional following the rules, directions and regulations, and subordination. Therefore, corporate and administrative management features:

  • order and planning;
  • formalities and labor discipline;
  • subordination;
  • information distribution;
  • allocation and fulfillment of job responsibilities;
  • corporate methods of management and decision making;
  • supervision and inspection;
  • observing formal standards;
  • highly qualified employees;
  • system management;
  • constant professional development and training of employees;
  • informing about progress and achievements.

Taking into consideration that entrepreneurship is, basically, the bitterest enemy of order, and then teaching entrepreneurship is not the same as teaching management. From educational and administrative points of view, the concept of entrepreneurship is much wider than that of management, and it even comprises the latter.

Past experience of developed countries testifies (Straub & Attner 1994), that harmonic combination of entrepreneurship and management is a key to economic success, creation and consolidation of entrepreneurial culture, which is vital for the existence in market economy and competition (Romanovskyi 2002). Entrepreneurial activity rates highly such elements of entrepreneurial culture, as strong character, persistence, morality, generosity, decency and charity (Romanovskyi 2010).

It is obvious, that only lack of entrepreneurial culture and ethical conduct in industry, banking and finance, services sector and state administration of post-socialist countries hamper the progress of legalization of entrepreneurship and bringing it out of the shadow economy.

Education underlies the culture. Therefore, entrepreneurial education, as a guarantee of society's economic development, should embrace not only entrepreneurs, but also all social strata, thereby creating entrepreneurial culture. Obviously, the entrepreneurship will not develop effectively in countries with transitional economies, it will encounter various barriers and entrepreneurs' energies will be directed into anti-social channel (they will try to eliminate those obstacles resorting to illegal and criminal methods).

Entrepreneurial education teaches entrepreneurs what to do, as well as how to do. It explains, that entrepreneurship embodies some democratic and common values concerned with how to (and how don't!) act, how to solve numerous problems, how to communicate, how to help other people, etc. It influences style of management, stimulates to improve knowledge and level of proficiency.

While analyzing distinctive features of entrepreneurship, character features and types of behavior, one should not equate them with manager's sociability and high qualification. Entrepreneurship, unlike management or any other professional activity, requires not just to solve a problem, but to solve it creatively. Entrepreneur differs from professional as much, as composer from performer or painter from house painter. Knowledge, competence, professionalism, sociability all these qualities are essential for a good manager, but they only accompany entrepreneurial skills and by no means are (and won't be!) of equal worth.

Does our society need entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurship itself? It does! Entrepreneurs, organizers and qualified managers are momentous for Ukraine, where political and economic reforms are well underway. We need entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behavior because, (1) the country is changing its orientation from administrativecommand system of management to democratic market economy and free enterprise; (2) individuals and groups (organizations) are orientated to the entrepreneurship; (3) impact of global changes (international cooperation and market relations, domestic and international competition, etc.); (4) the very concept of entrepreneurship (uncertain and intricate conditions) implies entrepreneurial reaction and behavior.

No country will succeed in globalizing world economy without entrepreneurship (both domestic and international). This is not an easy goal to achieve, since the entrepreneurship is usually influenced by such factors as, political transformations, elimination of trade barriers, increasing importance of information and communications networks, applying new technologies, increased pace of obsolescence of products, machinery, equipment and technologies, growing number of product modifications, changing of international business standards, escalating global competition, energy and financial crises, cataclysms, etc. It is also affected by new international travelling possibilities (business, private, tourist, etc.), free choice of residence and lifestyle, using English language as a medium for international information exchange and international capital flow. Borders are becoming more transparent, state charge is increasing, entrepreneurial and tax legislation is being changed, state property is being relocated and privatized, market methods of economy regulation are being introduced, goods and services markets are being formed, technicalization and production refining are being carried out all these facts are indications of more complicated life for any average person. Principles and methods of running business have changed. State makes more rigid requirements by not guaranteeing and/or providing citizens with job placements. Therefore, an individual should accommodate to new conditions and lifestyle, but, at the same time, there are new stimuli for making a career and striving for success. Here he/she faces the possibility of unstable employment, getting temporary job by contract (part-time employment), hunting for a job, heavy responsibility, stressful job, and so on. An individual should rely just on his/her vigor, health, professionalism and fortune.

This is only an extract from the list of tendencies, which greatly impact our life in time of changes. It makes clear the necessity of introducing the entrepreneurial education for training entrepreneurial skills, developing entrepreneurial character traits for successful applying of appropriate types of behavior by an individual or a group (organization).

Goals and Objectives of Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship must be paid a proper attention in contemporary system of education, so that entrepreneurial education could develop and entrepreneurial courses could be introduced into all levels of education. Foreign experts indicate that entrepreneurship could be integrated into the system of education only if one considers the peculiarities of educational institutions, organization of a study process and availability of qualified teachers. Theory and practice of entrepreneurship show, that to achieve best impact of entrepreneurial behavior on the effectiveness of business, a high level of decentralization and delegation of authority must be provided. Thus, the entrepreneurship is an exact antithesis of administrative-command system of management.

In order to create favorable conditions for effective teaching entrepreneurship to pupils, students and trainees, educational institutions should to:

  • create and deepen the idea of private property, drive to work hard and achieve good results;
  • strengthen confidence in personal abilities to accomplish set objectives (feeling legal support of the entrepreneurship);
  • teach trainees how to develop personal qualities and take responsibility;
  • strengthen confidence that everything started, must be finished;
  • teach how to stimulate subordinates to establish dealer networks according to chosen strategy;
  • teach how to tolerantly react toward uncertainty and unavoidable mistakes;
  • develop strategic thinking (strategic thinking should prevail over formal planning);
  • emphasize the importance of trust relationship and knowing "who is who" as the core of management (in contrast to formal relationship);
  • teach how to avoid excessive allocation of responsibilities and stimulate informal overlapping of departments' functions, as the realization of philosophy "we are all doing one job";
  • teach how to create possibilities for studying at workplace.

While analyzing educational tasks, international experts came to a conclusion that teaching basic entrepreneurship courses should start at secondary school and then extend received knowledge at the university and, later, at workplace (Shkil & Romanovskyi 1999). Objectives of such educational programs are as follows:

  • to foster the idea of starting own business;
  • to teach how to work in small business;
  • to inculcate "entrepreneurial" ideology;
  • to develop entrepreneurial character traits.

These programs should be taught at secondary and vocational schools, institutes and universities, and directly at a workplace. The following programs may be used: special programs on entrepreneurship (business), complete course on entrepreneurship (business), elective course and a series of lectures along with seminars. Expected (desired) results are:

  • starting new (own) business;
  • effective work in a small company (small business);
  • effective work in a dynamic labor market;
  • development of entrepreneurial skills, ability to win the competition and survive in business.

Entrepreneurial education will be effective only when trainees feel the idea of entrepreneurship, but not try to just formally study entrepreneurial courses. Great attention must be paid to the methods, which foster study process with the help of:

  • gaining experience;
  • sharing experience;
  • using other's experience;
  • experimenting;
  • using case studies, creating and analyzing various situations, which demand taking the risk and making decisions;
  • creatively solving the problems;
  • using feedback (social interaction);
  • using role-plays;
  • analyzing positive and negative results;
  • interacting with real world.

Obviously, only successful entrepreneurs should teach entrepreneurship those who are in business, and teachers with entrepreneurial abilities.

Selection of Potential Entrepreneurs

There are three basic types of entrepreneurs: Entrepreneur, Producer and Distributor. Entrepreneur can only starts business, Producer can starts business and produces goods and/or services, and Distributor can only distributes end product among consumers. All of them are owners of their businesses and their productive activities relate to producing and distributing of material and/or nonmaterial values. Nonmaterial values include services (mediation and trade are among them), spiritual (culture and art) and social (e.g., medical services) spheres, etc. Entrepreneurial Producer must be distinguished from the professional producer (performer, craftsman, artisan, professional worker, skilledspecialist, engineer, manager, etc.), who is hired (e.g., on a contract basis) and follows the directions of an employer (i.e., Producer).

Let us take a look at one important aspect of this problem – principles of selection of potential entrepreneurs.

Selection of potential entrepreneurs should be carried out in the following age groups:

I period preschool (3-6 years old);

IIperiod junior school (7-10 years old);

  • period intermediate school (11-14 years old);
  • period senior school (15-18 years old);
  • period after school (19-22 years old);
  • period lifetime (no age limits).

Selection of entrepreneurs in different age groups is depicted on Figure 1 in Appendices. It is important to create conditions for further teaching and development of potential entrepreneurs, continual testing/retesting (R) and second, more thorough, stage of selection in all abovementioned age groups (to ensure more effective selection and training). Those, who did not manage to pass (or take) test on the previous stage, should have an option of participating in all the following stages (tests). Selection of entrepreneurs with simultaneous classification based on their entrepreneurial skills, traits and abilities (inclinations) is to be made in five stages (see Figure 2 in Appendices):

1st Stage: Detection of creativity, inborn abilities, character traits, gifts, particular mental qualities.

Figure 2: if there are creative abilities then "yes", if there are none "no".

Numbers 1-15 have the following meaning:

  • an individual has no creative abilities (or they are indistinct). Though there is a probability, that this individual will become a normal member of a society, get (or won't) a profession, find a job and receive the remuneration (self-realization). Craftsmen are in this category.
  • there are no creative abilities and any positive abilities as well. There are no inborn abilities, character traits or particular mental qualities, which could predict selfrealization of this individual. Such people, as a rule, are neutral, non-initiative, passive and indifferent to their own life. They are "social", which means they can exist only thanks to the support of a society or other people. These people are not able to work productively.
  • there are some creative abilities (inborn abilities, character traits, particular mental qualities, etc.). These people are "creative"2nd Stage: Detection of leadership abilities (inborn abilities, character traits, particular mental qualities, etc.). Figure 2if there are leadership qualities then "yes", if there are none "no"
  • an individual has no leadership qualities, but leads active (social) life, can (or can not) work with people, take part (but not necessarily) in social life. These people are indistinct individualists. This category unites creative intelligentsia, namely, prominent painters, writers, scientists, engineers, sportsmen, etc.
  • an individual has no leadership qualities, any active (social) life, can not work with people and take part in social life. These people are apparent individualists and "hermits" diffident and indecisive. They are creative people, who have not many relatives and friends to communicate with.
  • an individual has leadership qualities (inborn abilities, character traits, particular mental qualities, etc.). These people are "leaders".

3rd Stage: Detection of entrepreneurial abilities (inborn abilities, character traits, particular mental qualities, etc.). Figure 2if there are entrepreneurial abilities then "yes", if there are none "no"

  • an individual has no entrepreneurial abilities (or they are indistinct). Though he/ she has commanding traits. As opposed to individualists, these people are sociable; they know what "team" is and want to make a career using their managerial abilities and subordinates. They can be managers of any level in any field and to manage as many subordinates as it is needed. These people are "leadersmanagers".
  • an individual has no entrepreneurial abilities (or they are indistinct). Though he/she has individualist's traits, while commanding traits are absent. These people are unsociable, in contrast to "leaders-managers"; they do not know what "team" is and want to make a career using only their creative and leadership abilities -no subordinates. As opposed to "hermit", they make career using society and public opinion; want to achieve top position and to be generally recognized. They need mass media, admirers, disciples and followers. These people are "leaders-individualists".
  • an individual has entrepreneurial abilities (inborn abilities, character traits, particular mental qualities, etc.). These people are "entrepreneurs".

4th Stage: Detection of potential entrepreneur, who can become:

  • – Entrepreneur-organizer (entrepreneur-sponsor).
  • Distributor.
  • Producer of material and/or nonmaterial values (manufacturer; maker; procreator; fabricator).

5th Stage: Detection of potential entrepreneur's field of activity. It can be: 13 – Social sphere.

14 – Production of services. 15 – Production of goods.

It is evident, that process itself and principles of the selection of future (potential) entrepreneurs are complicated enough. Another problem to be thoroughly studied is the development and implementation of the testing system for effective detection of inborn abilities, character traits, and particular mental qualities in future (potential) entrepreneurs.

Training of entrepreneurs requires the system of national education to initiate selection process and start developing inborn abilities, character traits, entrepreneurial skills and types of behavior. Establishment of special educational institutions for the training of entrepreneurs is also necessary for a successful introduction of entrepreneurial educational program.

Creation of the "team", which is capable to effectively work in a competitive environment, is another entrepreneurial task to be carried out. Therefore, it is important to train entrepreneurial qualities in those who organize entrepreneurial activities, and professional skills and types of behaviors in those who function -managers of all levels, workers, etc. Entrepreneur-employer distinguishes four categories of employees according to their psychology and philosophy:

1st Category. These people work only for themselves (they solve personal problems at company's cost, never think about the company they are temporary employees). They usually use material and nonmaterial (image, reputation, etc.) resources of the company for

their own purposes, consider present job temporary (as a jumping-off platform for a better position), switch jobs constantly (causing material and nonmaterial losses). Such employees do not become a part of the "team", company management does not rate them highly and wants to get rid of them as soon as possible. This category represents spurious employees ("fakes"). They are few.

2nd Category. These people work well for a company (they postpone solving personal problems, think about the company and its problems). They are working for a company for many years; become its "gold reserve" and core of the "team". They are also highly rated by company management. Such employees often give their preference to company's problems (not to families!). Though their qualification is not always the highest, their best quality devotion to the company. This category represents permanent ("real") employees. They are few.

3rd Category. These people work neither for a company nor for themselves. These usually have a lot of problems. This category represents "non-workers". They are many.

4th Category. These people work both for a company and for themselves. They are qualified, self-confident, disciplined, stable and punctual professionals, who know their merits. Such employees know how to combine company's and their own (material and nonmaterial) interests. They do care about financial performance and reputation of the company, but they can leave it as soon as they are proposed to work elsewhere on better conditions. They also can be a part of a "team" (while they are working). This category represents "workers". They are majority.

Participants of the World Education Conference under UNESCO (October 1998, Paris) determined that strategic goal of the education is preparation for adult life and independent job seeking (Higher Education

…1998; Conformance of Higher Education … 1998). That is why the whole system of education and higher education particularly, should support small and middle-sized businesses to research their essence, formation, functioning, human factor; to elaborate sound scientific concepts, principles and ways of their further development; to improve existing legislation on entrepreneurship, etc. Educational institutions should pay attention to the problem of close interaction between large business with small and middle-sized one. Another task is training certified professionals, who can create new workplaces (for themselves and other people) in order to solve employment problems and to assist similar projects, which support establishing new organizations (and workplaces accordingly). Education is to prepare an individual for adult life and harmonic coexistence in a society. Educational programs should stimulate desire for self-training and entrepreneurial activities.

Development of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial education is paid great attention throughout the world (Madura 2007; Pride, Hughes, Kapoor 2012; Straub & Attner 1994). The goal of international education is to train new generation of entrepreneurs, capable of improving economic and political prestige of their countries. Therefore, one of the most important tasks for the Ukrainian higher education is training qualified educators – lecturers and teachers for delivering knowledge on effective methods and ways of entrepreneurship, organizing of production, art of applying new techniques and the latest achievements of science and technology.

Figure 1. Selection of Entrepreneurs in Different Age Groups (Rretesting)

Figure 2. Selection and simultaneous classification of entrepreneurs



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Year: 2012
City: Almaty
Category: Psychology