Impetuous development of world tourism amplifies the ecologists´ apprehension: from this point of view tourism (especially travelling and transport) influence on the environment is one of the most harmful branches of economy (Adam et al. 2011; Scott et al. 2007; UNWTO 2003; Dalton, Lockington,
Baldock 2007; Gösling 2005). According to the UNEP information, tourist business produces about 5 % of total world volume of CO2 emissions, and more than half of this share is originated by air services (Khrabovtchenko 2008, p. 155). Motor vehicles´ emissions contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but “emission rate data are scarce” (Baum et al. 2006, p. 857).
Among the priority directions of the tourism branch development in Kazakhstan ecological tourism turns into one of the most challenging and promising (Baimanov 2011).
Ecological tourism has several factors that make it advantageously different from traditional types of tourism, which are timeconsuming and associated with heavy spending. Ecotourism does not require large investments or complicated infrastructure (such as hotels, restaurants, highways, communication means, etc), is highly demanded under the conditions of the country´s transition to sustainable development and contributes to the creation of additional workplaces in the nonurban area.
However, Kazakhstan still has not formulated an ecotourism development policy; there are no unified organizational approaches towards it.
The given article is an endeavor to solve the suggested problem.
Tourism makes a significant contribution to the development of the world economic system. According to the data by the World Tourism Organization (WTO), tourism ensures about 5% of the world gross national product (GNP), 30% of the world export of services (1 trillion US dollars a year), and in the developing economies this share makes up to 45 %. Every day, tourism generates about 3 billion US dollars in the world. It ensures a huge source of income in the world economic system, while “the increase of technology and transportation in the last half-century has led to the ease and availability of travel” (Darowski et al. 2006).
Opening the windows of possibilities for business activities, tourism first-hand creates one of every 12 workplaces around the globe and a beyond compute number of workplaces at the cost of the multiplication effect in allied spheres. Tourism represents one of the largest sectors dealing with the employment guarantee in many countries and a mechanism, enabling young people either from countryside, or from urban areas, to more successful in finding a job.
By other estimations, the quantity of tourism-connected harmful emissions to the atmosphere exceeds annual indicators of the emissions provoked by the activity of billions of people, living and working in large industrial countries. By 2035 the influence of tourism on climate change process can repeatedly amplify: according to the point of view of experts, the volume of "tourist emissions” of carbonic gas can increase by 152 % (Higgins 1998; Becken, Hay 2007; Donohoe, Needham 2006).
The world attempts to diminish the negative consequences of “automotive exhaust witnessed impressive progress during the past 30 years. Driven by the regulatory agencies, emissions have steadily declined and now represent a small fraction of their pre-control values” (Rodkin et al. 2008).
Another aspect of contemporary conception of ecotourism are the questions concerning the efficient use of ecologically friendly means of transportation, renewable energy resources, energyand resource conservation and eco-safe waste disposal. This aspect is given great attention in the Ecology Program for Europe 1995, developed by the European Commission and the UN, providing for the creation of automobile-free tourist centers and promoting with this end in view the new forms of tourists’ transportation and devices, exploiting the solar and wind energy.
Still, under the conditions of intensive anthropogenic activity which has developed without an accurate policy in techniques and ecology areas, ecological safety of environment is represented as one of the most up-todate problems, far from being completely solved. Large industrial cities are the centers of serious environmental problems.
Tourism in its turn also contributes to such consequences of urbanization as cities´ environment pollution, uncontrollable growth of production wastes and consumption, development of erosive processes, growth of the number of failures in industries (State Ecological Committee of Russia 1995, p. 3).
The intensification of these processes on the CIS territory is reflected in the Ecological doctrine of the Russian Federation (Lozhkin et al. 1990). Besides, many scientists put specific accent on the necessity of decrease of the negative influence of transport on the environment (Carter, Whiley, Knight 2004; Armstrong, Weiler 2002; Becken 2004). This paper focuses speciﬁcally on the negative effects of the automotive transport on the environment as an intense source of air pollution. It incorporates a study of average car-caused specific emissions into atmosphere, calculation of harmful substances according to the methodology suggested by the Russian Federation State Committee on the Environment Protection, and focuses on ecotourism issues as an alternative to traditional tourism, its potential economic benefits and factors defining effective ecotourism management.
Contemporary ecotourism suggests combining the rest alfresco with taking care of the nature, not only getting acquainted with local socio-cultural environment, but also making a contribution to its preservation and development, including material (donations in favor of local communities, purchase of souvenirs, use of services of local firms, including tour operators) (Kekushev et al. 2001, p. 89). This is one of the reasons why eco-friendly travel costs are as a rule rather higher that costs of standard tours.
Ecotourism principles pay great attention to the decrease of the negative effect of transport as vehicles are the most polluting. So, “gasoline-powered passenger cars, which comprise a large majority of the US market, emit CO, unburnt HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx).
Starting in 1981, the automobile industry was mandated to sharply reduce the emissions of all three (previously only CO and HC had to be removed)” (Rodkin et al. 2008). In order to introduce it there was implied “"threeway-conversion" (TWC): the simultaneous oxidation of CO/ HCs and reduction of (NOx), a feat without precedent in the chemical industry. It can only be accomplished by keeping the exhaust gas composition extremely close to the stoichiometric point” (Rodkin et al. 2008).
The data on vehicles´ average specific emissions by the independent ecological ex-
pertise is depicted in the table presented below.
Table 1 Average car-caused specific emission (Eco-space Independent Ecological Expertise 2010)
Type of emission
Average emission (at the speed of 31,7 km/h)
752 gramm/ hour
294 gramm/ hour
33,2 gramm/ hour
1,11 gramm/ hour
28,95 m3/ hour
Average fuel consumption
2,75 kg/ hour
Special methodology was used in order to determine the amount of car-caused carbon emissions for summary calculations of the air pollution level in urban areas. Calculation of emissions is carried out for the following noxious substances from combustion gases passing to the atmosphere: carbon oxide (CO); nitrogen oxides. NOx (in conversion to the nitrogen dioxide); lower paraffin hydrocarbons (СН)*; carbon soot; sulphur dioxide (SO2); formaldehyde; benzo(a)pyren (Russian Federation State Committee on the Environment Protection 1999, p. 3).
Lead compounds emissions´ calculation for cars moving on city highways is made in case that ethylated gasoline is used in the given city. The calculated values of lead compounds emissions lead are expedient for specification taking into account the share of the ethylated gasoline in general gasoline consumption in the given city. As for diesel exhaust, it “differs from gasoline exhaust in important respects. It is always "lean" (i.e., net oxidizing) and three-way conversion is thus ruled out. The chief concern is particulate matter, which includes dry soot and a "soluble
organic fraction" (SOF), comprised of mainly C20-C28” (Rodkin et al. 2008).
Emission of harmful substances by a stream of cars (MLi) is defined for a concrete highway with the streams of cars structure and intensity changes not exceeding the amount of 20 25% on its all extent.
If there a significant change of the characteristics of streams of cars occurs, the highway is divided into several sections which are considered further as separate sources (Russian Federation State Committee on the Environment Protection 1999, p. 4).
Such highway (or a part of it) can possess some non-controllable crossroads and/or regulated at the intensity of movement less than 400 500 cars pro hour. For a highway (or its section) with high intensity of movement (i.e. more than 500 cars pro hour) it is rational to consider additional car-caused emissions around the crossroads.
Thus, for a highway (or a section of it) in the presence of adjustable crossroads the total emission of harmful substance M will be equal to:
(Russian Federation State Committee on the Environment Protection 1999, p. 4)
stand for car-
caused emission to the atmosphere the in a crossroads zone at the forbidding signal of a traffic light;
stand for car-caused emission to the atmosphere while moving on the given highway during a considered period
n and m stand for a number of stops of a
stream of cars before a crossroads accordingly in the first and the second street forming it for a 20 minutes period of time;
Indexes 1 and 2 correspond to each of the two directions of movement on a highway with higher intensity of movement, and 3 and
4 correspondingly to a highway with lower intensity of movement (Russian Federation State Committee on the Environment Protection 1999, p. 4-6).
Emission of i polluting substances (gramm/sec) on a highway (or its section) with
a fixed extent L (km) is defined by a moving stream of cars according to the following the
∙ ∙ (2)
gramm/km emission of the i-
substance by the cars of the k-group for urban service conditions, defined in Table 2;
k – the quantity of groups of cars;
(1/hour) – the actual greatest inten-
sity of movement, i.e. quantity of cars of each of the k-groups passing through the fixed section of a highway in a unit of time in both directions on all lanes;
correction factor considering average speed of movement of a stream of cars ((km/hour) on the chosen highway (or its section), defined in Table 2);
factor of recalculation ("hour"
L (km) extent of a highway (or its section) where have been deducted the extent of the line of cars before the red signal of the traffic light and the length of the crossroads corresponding zone (Russian Federation State Committee on the Environment Protection 1999, p. 4-6).
Emissions reduction via eco-friendly fuel
Up to now in the world there are scarcely commercially favorable models of the cars working on alternative fuel. However such cars are regularly created by individual orders. Good contribution to this process is the popular Shell Eco-marathon which “challenges high school and college student teams from around the world to design, build and test energy efficient vehicles. With annual events in the Americas, Europe and Asia, the winners are the teams that go the farthest distance using the least amount of energy” (Shell Official Website 2011).
The competition essence consists in designing a car which would make the maximum distance on 1 liter of fuel, and its global purpose is to create an energy-efficient vehicle with the quantity of harmful emissions to atmosphere reduced to zero. For the participation in competition students´ commands represent car projects in several categories: fuel elements, solar batteries, gasoline, diesel fuel and liquefied natural gas (LNG).
Each car is supposed to develop “the average speed of 23 km/h on a 15-km-long distance. After the results of the race the volume of fuel spent for 1 km, and, accordingly, the distance the vehicle could cover on 1 liter of fuel are calculated” (NSK Official Website 2010). Similar technique is applied also for solar batteries.
Many innovative decisions presented by students-participants of this Eco-marathon are of great practical value. Thus, during the time of the Eco-marathon existence, a special isolation material was implemented and released by which the engine on LNG and also the system of thermo control established on a diesel engine are protected from ignition. Thus, “advanced technology, new ways of operating and partnerships are helping to manage our environmental impact as we contribute to meeting the world’s growing energy needs… seeking to reduce emissions from facilities that cause local air pollution” (Shell Official Website 2011).
Probably, in future the energy-efficient, non-polluting cars, like those designed in order to participate in Shell Eco-Marathon, will be claimed by eco-friendly tourists and ecology favorable travels.
Ecologically friendly type of tourism in the Republic of Kazakhstan disposes of a very promising potential, but is unfortunately not developed enough to answer the quickly growing requests of the present-day economy of the country. This fact is most probably the result of almost complete absence of clearly indicated criteria on ecotourism and its issues in the Republic of Kazakhstan, no common understanding of its significance and contents. Such conditions of lacking of general criteria on ecotourism aspects it is a rather complicated task to make definitions of concerning ideas, concepts and related measures for the further development of ecotourism activities, and possibly also environment-friendly products. These facts prove that it is a challenging task to realize the purposeful budget interventions and purposeful investments of private sector. Besides, there are still no necessary conditions for the realization of impartial marketing and assessment of activities of economic agents in the sphere of ecotourism development of in the Republic of Kazakhstan (Tonkobayeva 2011).
Still it is necessary to admit that ecological tourism represents one of the most promising and dynamically developing kinds of tourism. Ecotourism can boast of potential interest that reaches 63% out of the total potential of global market of tourism services.
The suggestions on ecological tourism development in general and in Kazakhstan in particular presented in the given research paper make a foundation for its effectiveness, as they represent the complex exertion of the tourist potential of the country.
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