The question of learning principles is not new. At various stages of the development of pedagogical science, primarily didactics, it caused heated discussions both in the pedagogical press and in the textbooks and manuals on pedagogy themselves.
Usually, the principles were understood as initial position, guiding idea, which should be guided for the organization of students ' activities and achievement of learning goals. And in this regard, each scientist, researcher, and specialist offered their own set of principles. The unity of views on the totality concerned the principles of accessibility, Systematicity, continuity, scientific character, etc. For example, achieving the strength of knowledge has always been a learning task. The activity of the teacher is reduced to zero (!) if the student forgets what he is taught. Therefore, the need to achieve the strength of knowledge becomes one of the starting points that determines the entire teaching activity of the teacher. The student gets satisfaction and approval of the teacher if he remembers and assimilates the educational material. Conversely, learning becomes undesirable and painful for the student if he cannot remember and assimilate what the teacher teaches. The student's mental activity is determined by the need to firmly remember and assimilate the knowledge reported. This is how the principle of learning strength arises .
The empirical nature of the origin of the principles of learning in its time was justified and was self-sufficient. In our time, the empirical approach is becoming limited and even a hindrance.
Over time, there is a need for a new concept of learning principles, because the traditional concept of learning principles has reached a dead end: instead of genuine principles on which the educational process in a modern school can and should be rebuilt, it offers a variety of good, "competent, scientifically based" wishes that do not even affect the objective basis of the traditional educational process. The activity of the teacher and the activity of students objectively, practically at its core remained the same as it was 100-200 and even 300 years ago, and changes according to this concept were made only in the set or in the theory of the so-called didactic principles. Each specific socio-historical period has its own teaching principles.
То properly understand the essence of the principles of learning, it is necessary to use a natural-science approach to learning, i.e. understanding learning as part of the General system of nature and society, considering learning as it is in objective reality, i.e. without any psychological, ideological or moral additions, we view learning as if no mental processes are taking place in the minds of students and teachers. As long as we find out the essence of learning, the objective existence of learning, its structure (by the way, also objective), then we do not need mental processes. We need not a psychological theory, not someone's views on learning, but learning itself as a natural phenomenon, as an objectively existing material process of interaction between teachers and trainees, i.e. communication .
Thus, under the principles of training, we will understand the final result of training, which is adequate to its essence and history.
This concept was developed and proposed to the scientific community by V. K. Dyachenko . The pedagogical process is based on the following fundamental principles:
- the principle of completion of training;
- the principle Ofimmediate and continuous transfer of knowledge;
- the principle of diversity of topics, tasks, and responsibilities;
- the principle of universal cooperation and friendly mutual assistance;
- the principle of learning by ability;
- the principle of multi-age and multi-level educational team;
- the principle of pedagogization of the activities of each participant of training sessions;
- the principle of internationalization of the learning process or training on a bilingual and multilingual basis.
Let's take a closer look at each of these principles.
The principle of completion of training or orientation on higher end results.
As you know, the majority of students leave lessons (lectures, seminars) every day without having mastered the educational material, which leads to a decrease in the quality of training, to a loss of interest in learning on their part. According to our data, only 7% of high school students are interested in studying, and 19% of students are sure that they are wasting their time at school. 17% do not study at all, and only 28% of children work systematically and complete the entire volume of the curriculum. The situation is similar in universities and colleges . In addition, in recent years, the State mandatory standard of secondary education, curricula and curricula have been significantly overloaded, and the volume of homework that cannot be completed daily without losing health has increased.
Therefore, the Ministry of education and science of the Republic of Kazakhstan recommended limiting the number of homework assignments in all subjects in order to unload children . However, this approach is known to be declarative, palliative and subjective and does not save students from overloading.
Of course, all these factors affect the results of training: under-training becomes a mass character, which is a common daily practice for the group method of training.
What is the way out of this situation? Here collective training sessions come to the rescue, i.e. working in pairs of shifts. In these conditions, each student must know and be able to do what the teacher knows and is able to do on the studied material (topic). Thus, the completion of training and education is achieved. The goal is diagnosed by the result.
The principle Ofimmediate and continuous transfer of knowledge.
A student at the GSO, usually at a lesson (lecture, seminar) does not have the right to communicate, present and discuss the material being studied to his friend, or this work is very limited, because the teacher has the right to explain, generally speak. In case of missing classes, the student loses the thread of reasoning of the teacher as the main translator of knowledge, there is a gap in the presentation of content, the logic of perception of the material is violated (92% of teachers report that they often explain how new and old topics are connected (on average, 84% in the OECD) .
The student does not understand, does not assimilate the training material, which leads to his lag. After completing the lesson, most students do not master the content of the lesson topic, despite the fact that 87% of teachers regularly evaluate the achievements of their students, observing them and providing more control than the learning process itself .
For group classes all participants must be able to present learning material to each other and be able to convey what they learned to teach another, i.e., here, the principle of immediate and continuous knowledge transfer, which in daily life is formulated as teaching others, learn yourself.
The principle of diversity of topics, tasks, responsibilities as a special case of division of labor (functions).
In today's traditional lesson (lecture, seminar), students usually all study the same topic (educational material). Everyone is doing the same job, the same training material, the same training tasks.
The law of collective life, as we know, presupposes a certain division of labor, a division of responsibilities. In the end, the work of each participant is only part of the overall collective work, and he is only part of the team, i.e. all participants independently, without prior explanation and instruction of the teacher, study up to 10 different topics at the same time. This achieves the principle of division of labor. However, depending on the specific topics (material), the teacher himself makes a decision about his own participation in the educational process, namely, where his explanations, instructions, and comments are needed for each participant individually, not frontally.
For the organization of the pedagogical process, the teacher, instead of the existing calendar-thematic and lesson plans, makes individual educational routes (plans), determining the sequence of studying topics. In this case, full individualization and differentiation of training is provided.
The principle of universal cooperation, and comradely mutual assistance.
Education in modern schools, colleges and universities forms students extremely individualistic orientation, egocentrism, and other negative personality qualities. Everyone acts on the principle: the worse my friend knows and is capable of something, the better it is for me, i.e. the student works for himself and only for himself, despite the introduction of criteria-based assessment.
When working together, everyone works with everyone and everyone learns from everyone. Therefore, partners help each other, demonstrating their personal success, to assert themselves, constantly developing their speech skills and thinking skills of a high order, i.e. the law of collective life is implemented - universal cooperation and friendly mutual assistance.
The principle Oflearning by ability.
The founder of the class-urochnoy system Ya. a. Komensky believed that "the difference in abilities is nothing more than a deviation from natural harmony or a lack of it. .. As a result, our method is adapted to average abilities in order to restrain the most gifted and adjust the sluggish" [7, p. 132-133]. Academician M. N. Skatkin also agreed with this [8, p. 59-60].
Only with the introduction of collective classes and different ages, it becomes possible to teach in accordance with the psychophysiological capabilities, individual abilities ot each participant, because each of them achieves the highest results in training, and after reaching them, helps others to achieve the same and even higher results. This is facilitated by the individual pace of study of academic disciplines and the right to rest as fatigue and at a convenient time for the participant directly in the course ot the pedagogical process. In this case, the principle of training in accordance with the "zone of nearest development" is fully implemented (L.S.Vygotsky) by each participant of classes, which is not feasible in the conditions of the GSO, because it is extrapolated to the entire class.
The Principle of different ages and different levels of the educational team.
As you know, the connection of the same year-olds with each other is unnatural, strange to the usual types of interpersonal communication, puts the student in the position of an egocentric and passive consumer of other people's concerns. Multi-age communication changes the entire socio-psychological atmosphere in the team. Everyone becomes both a teacher and a learner, since the learner willingly assumes the role of a teacher.
The principle of pedagogization of the activities of each participant of training sessions.
Organized in this way, the pedagogical process daily trains participants in the exercise of caring for the common good, for each other, for older and younger people, forms the ability to establish interpersonal contacts, the ability to cooperate, empathize, empathize, empathize, etc., develops pedagogical abilities, future paternal and maternal qualities. Practically, we are preparing for teaching, social and family life from the beginning of training. Joint life activities will lead to the pedagogization of all participants in classes, future parents. The main function of the teacher, therefore, becomes the training of all participants in the art of teaching and education.
The Principle of internationalization of the learning process or training on a bilingual and multilingual basis.
Education in educational institutions is provided in one language, depending on the national composition of students. This is contrary to the requirements Of the law on languages . The so-called "mixed" schools do not solve the problem, but on the contrary, they aggravate it, because students of different nationalities are gathered under one roof, but they study and live separately.
To implement the law on languages and trilingualism, the educational process in educational organizations should be organized simultaneously (synchronously) on a bilingual and multilingual basis, since the composition of students in classes (groups), schools (colleges, universities) is multi - ethnic.
Since all textbooks are published in 2-3 languages, and in a group there are almost equal amount of russians and kazakhs (kazakhs and koreans, germans and russians, uighurs and Uzbeks etc.),the teaching process is structured as follows.The Kazakh participant prepares the material (text) the text of the textbook in Russian, comparing it with the Kazakh text. The Russian participant prepares the Kazakh text accordingly. Daily communication will ensure not only the acquisition of a non-native (foreign) language, but also internationalize the life of participants.
This approach to language learning will provide students with a conscious and high-quality acquisition of pan-European language competencies, successful completion of testing on the systems KazTest, IELTS, TOEFL, and other international language exams.
All these principles are interrelated and in practice represent the unity that determines how, in which direction the educational process should be rebuilt in all educational organizations. The comprehensive implementation of the above system of principles is the essence, core, and core of modern progressive experience. Thus, it is important not intuitive, unconscious, occasionally to exercise one or other of the above mentioned principles, and important today and in the coming period of educational development the General trend in the implementation of the whole system.
- Dyachenko V.K.. Kusainov G.M. Fundamentals of modern didactics/Under the editorship of A. Satisheva. - Almaty: Gylym. 1996. - 386 p.
- Kusainov G.M.. Karimova B. S.. Vasileva E. N. didactics of the collective way of learning: dictionary-reference. - Almaty: Evero publishing House. 2018. -252 p.
- Dyachenko V.K. Organizational Structme of the educational process and its development. - Moscow: Pedagogika. 1989. -160 p.
- Kusainov G.M.. Kagazbaeva A.K.. Abykanova B.T., Aitbaeva D B., Myltykbaeva L.R.. Nugumanova S.B. science of learning and new educational practice: in 2 volumes - Nm-Sultan-Almaty: Evero publisliing House. 2019. - Vol. 1. - page 304.; Volume 2. - page 296.
- 201 2018-2019 / electronic resource: https://www.nur.kz/1773601-novaa-sistema-obrazovania-v- kazahstane-2018-2019.html.
- Tal-tal-tal talis-2018 - / Electronic resource: https://www.oecd.org/ education/ talis/TALIS2018_ CNKAZmpdf (09.06.2020).
- Komensky Ya.A. Great didactics // Izbr. ped. cit.: In 2 volumes - Moscow: Pedagogy. 1982 — v. 1. - 656 p.
- Skatkin M.N. Problems of modern didactics. - Moscow: Pedagogy. 1984 .- 96 p.
- Law of the Republic OfKazaklistan "On languages in the Republic OfKazaklistan" dated July 11, 1997 No. 151-1 // Electronic resource: http://online.zakon.kz (14.06.2020).