Linguocultural type of «gover official» in Kazakhstan media

The article discusses the evaluative component of the linguistic and cultural type «official». At present, the theory of linguocultural characters is one of the rapidly developing areas of linguistics, since modern linguistics has accumulated significant material regarding cultural concepts and linguistic personality. Type modeling involves a phased analysis of the conceptual, figurative and evaluative components of the concept. Assessment is one of the most important linguistic categories, taking direct part in language communication. This article identifies the most important evaluative characteristics of the linguocultural type based on the analysis of value judgments. To identify and describe the estimated characteristics of the linguocultural character «official», text fragments containing an assessment of events are examined in detail. Research material was provided by the Kazakhstan media. The moral and intellectual qualities, professional characteristics are studied in detail, as well as the activity side of the personality — behavior and speech. During the study, different types of assessments were considered: ethical assessment, intellectual assessment, emotional assessment.

The anthropocentric paradigm of scientific knowledge, adopted in modern linguistics, manifests itself in the fact that the focus of researchers is not the analysis of formal language structures, but the study of the linguistic personality and sociocultural environment in which this personality was formed.

The interaction of language and culture is studied by disciplines of the synthesizing type — ethnolinguistics, ethnopsycholinguistics, linguistic axiology. There is no doubt that the formation and development of linguistic axiology is directly related to the development of philosophical axiology and the logic of estimates developed in the works of A.A. Ivin, where the main subject was value judgments of two types: descriptive and value (axiological); they reflected various types of human relationships to phenomena of reality [1; 5].

According to A.A. Ivin, such words as «good», «bad», «indifferent», «worse», «better» do not refer to formal logic [1; 8]. The categories of assessment in language and speech are devoted to many works in Russian and Kazakh linguistics. This is research of Z.K. Temirgazina, E.M. Wolf, N.D. Arutyunova, and others.

At the intersection of linguoanthropology (works of Yu.D. Apresyan, Yu.N. Karaulov) and linguoaxiology, the concept of «linguo-cultural type» (hereinafter referred to as LT) arose. By definition, V.I. Karasik, the «linguistic and cultural type» is a generalized personality type, distinguished by specially significant parameters within a particular socio-ethnic community [2; 103] and therefore includes stereotypical ideas about the type of personality: figurative characteristics, features of communicative behavior, value system, in accordance with which the type builds its behavior

Type modeling involves a phased analysis of the conceptual, figurative and evaluative components of the concept. In this article, we consider the estimated component, i.e. We will try to identify the most important estimated characteristics of the type based on the analysis of value judgments.

Assessment is one of the most important linguistic categories, taking direct part in language communication. Understanding the language category of assessment is based on the principles of the philosophical theory of values — axiology. As a category of language assessment, on one side it addresses the thinking of a person, his cognitive activity, the other on his practical activity, social and cultural reality [1; 5].

In this article, we consider the moral qualities of a civil servant «official», including moral and intellectual qualities, professional characteristics, as well as the activity side of a person — behavior and speech.

The main sources of material were Kazakhstan sites:,,,,,, etc.

Types of activities containing professional characteristics, we consider as an assessment of events. Eventuality in the broad sense is semantically heterogeneous and includes the designation of signs, properties, qualities, actions, processes, events, situations and situations [1; 237]. Events are rated as good and bad, dangerous and non-dangerous, etc.

To identify and describe the estimated characteristics of the LT «official», we analyzed text fragments containing an assessment of events, the main participant — the hero of which is the official:

  1. «The official was caught on a bribe. Dosaev was suspected of receiving a bribe of $ 60 thousand and two apartments. This is not the first detention on corruption charges of the head of a water utility in Kazakhstan. In October 2017, the head of Atyrau su Arnasy Andrei Tashlykov was detained in Atyrau on suspicion of embezzlement of more than 1 million tenge ($3.3 thousand at the then exchange rate)» [3].
  2. «An investigation has been launched into the abuse of authority. By using his digital signature, he illegally transferred to the contractor's account budget funds in the amount of 414 million tenge for the construction of external engineering networks of residential areas» [4].
  3. «The disciplinary case against an official from Atyrau was terminated due to the statute of limitations. The civil servant, using his official position, preferred his close relatives» [5].

The above statements refer to various violations of the law of a criminal nature by officials (taking a bribe, embezzlement of state funds, abuse of authority). A negative assessment is reflected in the combinations: «damage of 1 million tenge», «transfer of budget funds in the amount of 414 million tenge», «use of official position», huge bribes in the amount of an apartment and receiving a large amount of money. The «official» reinforces the negative attitude towards LT that such situations can be terminated «due to the statute of limitations», which is explicated as «lack of justice».

Next, we consider one of the axiological components — the category of labor. The category of labor means professional functions, attitude to work, which are the most important aspect of assessing the intellectual properties of LT «official». For example: «... Deputy Speaker of the Mazhilis Vladimir Bozhko told him what his salary was and complained about the hard work of the people elected; for the majority of people elected, their monthly income does not reach one million tenge; «... working with people is very hard work, a year goes in three». The deputy chairman himself when accounting for pension money receives 1 million tenge» [6].

In the statement, the speech act of the complaint is carried out, expressed in lexical means: «hard work», «complains» that «income does not reach one million tenge». Talking i.e. official, trying to take his side: «it is difficult to work with people»«a year goes by three». The use of the stable expression «a year in three» causes the listener to associate with hard physical labor in the Far North. This hidden comparison helps us understand the speaker's illocutionary purpose. In this context, the use of the verb «complained» to characterize a speech act of an official acquires negative meaning, it is perceived by readers with irony.

In modern Russian, the word «official» has a negative connotation. In connection with this, the material prefers the euphemism «public servant», proceeding from recognition of the priority of national tasks in the activities of representatives of the state administration, which is neutral and does not cause negative associations. For example: «Alik Shpekbayev stated that it is necessary to ensure an optimal balance between work and the personal life of a Kazakhstani civil servant; exempt civil servants from overtime work; it is necessary to work out the introduction in all government agencies of a flexible schedule, a system for automatically shutting down computers after an eight-hour working day» [7].

In the Russian value picture of the world, a special place is held by the work and qualities of a person, determined on the basis of their attitude to work, their professional functions, skill, which are socially significant and most important aspect of assessing the intellectual properties of LT. In the above example, the meaning of the words «overtime» is that civil servants work much longer and longer than others, which even led to the need to create «a flexible schedule» for civil servants in order to «ensure a balance between work and personal life». This attitude to work is evaluated positively.

When considering the conceptual component of LT, it is revealed that the sign of industriousness is not associated with the notion of «official»:

1. The official is a person who relates to his work with official indifference, without an active approach, interest, bureaucrat (reproach) This is not an administrator, but an official! Officials have no place in Soviet work [8].

In the Russian value picture of the world, labor is conceived as a purely moral category that can bring satisfaction to a person in front of himself and people. This stereotypical attitude for Russian selfconsciousness is: «it is not worthy of a person to engage in ineffective affairs», to be a loafer, to engage in work without apparent benefit to others does not seem something attractive [1; 257]. For example, there are times when an official himself admits this fact and resigns: «Arman Evniev admitted that he was tired of always having a tie, running from meeting to meeting and wasting a ton of time on reports instead of doing real business...They force us to register: what will you do? And the officials are sitting. Instead of realizing this, they write letters about it. This is what I had in mind that in our country a conversation about a case is considered to be a matter. It's as if we're busy. But in fact, we are deceiving ourselves and others» [9].

In the phrases «tired of being with a tie»«running from meeting to meeting»«losing a lot of time» (writing reports), «writing letters about this» (i.e. writing letters about a case), readers can conclude that the officials are not engaged in the «real business». The phrase «and the officials are sitting» is used in a figurative sense, indicates to us repeated and constantly repeating action. These semantic attributes are recorded in the «Russian Associative Dictionary» under the editorship of Yu.N. Karaulov: «a man sitting idle», «bour- geois», «bureaucrat» and others [10]. In this example, in addition to speech act recognition, speech act of self-criticism is used in the phrase «we are deceiving ourselves».

In this example, the category of labor is critically evaluated, inconsistent with the norm, causes negative connotations. This led to the consolidation of the meaning in the language and was reflected in the conceptual and value component of the official.

The problems of the moral foundations of civil service led to the compilation of the «Code of Ethics for Civil Servants of the Republic of Kazakhstan» (Rules of the Service Ethics of Civil Servants). For violation of this code, civil servants conduct preventive discussions, write fines, remove from their posts, etc.

With a general axiological characteristic of a person, the assessment of his moral qualities dominates. In the media, articles on the violation of ethical standards by officials are presented in large volumes, which allows them to be classified into assessment groups on an ethical basis: a) moral qualities of an official; b) violations of ethical officials.

The first group is characterized by an instructive tone of information, a speech act of censure, the use of imaginative means, metaphors and comparisons, for example: «Civil servants should treat people like human beings, be crystal clear. Shpekbayev emphasized the phrase «humane attitude» and cited telephone conversations as an example when an employee of a state agency does not even present himself when answering. The head of the agency said that they would introduce a special check on the integrity and stability of corruption for civil servants» [11].

In this example, the phrase «should treat people like human beings», reinforced by the modality of duty, indicates that this does not happen after the fact, but with a certain amount of control, pressure from above — «checking for integrity and stability in corruption». Elementary rules of business style are violated: «they are not presented when answering». For moral influence on civil servants, artistic means are used, such as a comparison — «to be crystal clear».

The material describe in detail the moral qualities inherent in a public servant to be evaluated: «Hones- ty, openness, responsibility, accountability are not just words. These are the core values of a society free of corruption... Even the death penalty does not stop officials from continuing to take bribes» [12].

The author of the statement lists the nouns with positive content: «honesty, openness»; claims that these moral qualities are «the core values of society»; gives examples of other countries where «even the death penalty does not stop officials from taking bribes», thereby trying to «awaken» the conscience of officials.

Information about a violation of ethical standards that compromises civil servants becomes an object of discussion in the media: «People are rightly asking themselves the question «Where does the money come from?» When they find out about the smart toys of officials. «Dear civil servants, we must change. To be easier. More modest. A real civil servant should not arrange lush toi and do not turn the holiday into a vanity fair, Shpekbayev wrote. «Often send videos from large and beautiful weddings. Full flower room. Stars of show business. 500–600 guests. As it turns out later, the next head of the department of one of the regions played the wedding for his daughter or son. Where did the money come from?» [13].

Using incomplete sentences, the author focuses on the speech act of the council, expressed by the verb: «to be simpler» and the speech act of the call — «must be changed». In order to evaluate such holidays, the following epithets are used: «chic, lush toy», «full flower room», «beautiful wedding». To convey the disapproving attitude of society to such phenomena, the precedent expression «vanity fair» is used, referring readers to the novel by U. Thackeray, in the meaning of «caring for prestige», «striving to be at the top of the social ladder and show everyone their success». Such holidays are held constantly, phrases indicate «often send a video», «the next leader».

Of interest are materials specifying the behavior of the LT «official» at the place of work and outside it: «Officials, when using social networks, blogs, forums and messengers, should not post photographs, videos and other materials that violate the civil service that violate the rules of the Code of Ethics

As it turned out, a civil servant used obscene language in his statement Among the «unethical» pictures found photos from entertainment venues, with the image of alcoholic beverages, places of rest abroad. In addition, officials posted photos against the backdrop of expensive cars, interiors and jewelry, as well as other luxury goods» [14].

In the example. the pastime of officials causes a negative assessment among the population. It manifests itself in the phrases «using foul language», posting photos of «alcoholic beverages», «places of foreign lei- sure», «entertainment facilities». which compromises the civil service. The pelocutionary effect of the utterance is enhanced by artistic means — epithets — «expensive cars», «jewelry», «luxury goods». Such actions cause cognitive dissonance among native speakers — the civil service is not perceived as «hard work» [3]. information about the «small salary» [3] is perceived as unreliable. and the «flexible schedule» [4] is not necessary.

In addition to evaluation from a moral. intellectual. professional and functional point of view. an essential place in the value model of a person is the assessment of emotions and feelings. A person's ability to manifest feelings and emotions is determined by the Russian linguistic consciousness primarily as a moral quality associated with the attitude to other people. Specific human emotions are mostly axiologically relevant. and the words that manifest them in the language are evaluative. For example: «Serik Zhumangarin, asked the journalists who asked him the question about tariffs, not to enrage him Zhumangarin and I carried  out appropriate work to correct the situation, any incorrect statements, behavior are unacceptable;... journalists, representatives of the media, are not just asking questions, they are questions posed by our population, our people» [15].

In this example. an emotional assessment is expressed at the beginning of the words «do not enrage him», which allows us to attribute it to a negative emotional assessment. A negative assessment is also expressed in tokens: «wrong», «unacceptable». In such situations. they do «appropriate work» and side with the journalists. arguing that «these are not just questions», but «questions of the population». The phrase «our people» adds pathos to the statement. there is an element of deliberation.

Summing up the results of the study. we came to the conclusion that the evaluation component of the official's LT in the Kazakhstan material discourse is represented by negative assessments in all areas of intellectual qualities. professional characteristics. as well as the activity of the personality — behavior and speech.



  1. Temirgazina, Z.K. (2010). Linhvisticheskaia aksiolohiia: Otsenochnye vyskazyvaniia v russkom yazyke [Linguistic axiology: Evaluative statements in the Russian language]. Pavlodar [in Russian].
  2. Karasik, V.I., & Dmitrieva, O.A. (2005). Linhvokulturnyi tipazh: k opredeleniiu poniatiia [Linguocultural type: to the definition of the concept]. Aksiolohicheskaia linhvistika: linhvokulturnye tipazhi — Axiological linguistics: linguocultural character types, 5–25. Volhohrad [in Russian].
  3. Sait zhurnala «Ferhana» [Site of journal «Fergana»]. Retrieved from /news/106377/ [in Russian].
  4. Sait zhurnala «Kursiv» [Site of journal «Cursive»]. Retrieved from 02/414-mln-tenge-popytalsya-nezakonno-perevesti-chinovnik-ispolzuya-ecp [in Russian].
  5. Sait zhurnala «Moi horod» [Site of journal «My sity»]. Retrieved from delo-v-otnoshenii-chinovnika-iz-atyrau-prekratili-iz-za-sroka-davnosti/ [in Russian].
  6. Sait zhurnala «Novosti Kazakhstana» [Site of journal «Kazakhstan news»]. Retrieved from deputatov.html [in Russian].
  7. Sait zhurnala «Sputnik News» [Site of journal «Sputnik News»]. Retrieved from [in Russian].
  8. Ushakov, D.N. (2007). Bolshoi tolkovyi slovar sovremennoho russkoho yazyka [Big explanatory dictionary of modern Russian language]. Moscow [in Russian].
  9. Sait zhurnala «Zakon» [Site of journal «Law»]. Retrieved from selskogo-hozyaystva-rk.html [in Russian].
  10. Karaulov, Yu.N., Cherkasova, H.A., & Ufimtseva, N.V. (2002). Russkii assotsiativnyi slovar [Russian associative dictionary]. Moscow [in Russian].
  11. Sait zhurnala «Novosti Kazakhstana» [Site of journal «Kazakhstan news»]. Retrieved from [in Russian].
  12. Sait zhurnala «Khabar-24» [Site of journal «Khabar-24»]. Retrieved from a-shpekbaev-rasskazal-o-formirovanii-antikorruptsionnogo-mentaliteta [in Russian].
  13. Sait zhurnala «Sputnik News» [Site of journal «Sputnik News»]. Retrieved from [in Russian].
  14. Sait zhurnala «Sputnik News» [Site of journal «Sputnik News»]. Retrieved from socsetyah.html [in Russian].
  15. Sait zhurnala «Kursiv» [Site of journal «Cursive»]. Retrieved from 02/ruslan-dalenov-o-grubosti-chinovnikovmy-budem-presekat-eto [in Russian].
Year: 2020
City: Karaganda
Category: Philology