To the problem of formation of multilingual linguistic personality in the multicultural space of Kazakhstan

The article discusses the problems of the formation of a linguistic personality in the modern multicultural space of Kazakhstan. The authors, having studied theoretical concepts aimed at studying the «linguistic personality» in linguistics, analyze the linguistic and extralinguistic factors that influence the formation of the national linguistic identity, the second linguistic identity, the linguistic identity of the Eurasian type. The authors conclude that a modern specialist in the Eurasian space, a linguistic person in the multicultural space of Kazakhstan, a person with speech and cultural competencies, must speak at least three languages - the state language, the language of interethnic relations and the language of international relations, and for modern Kazakhstan such languages are Kazakh, Russian and English.

The main sign of the national code and the basis is the language. If you don't know the language, the national existence disappears. The country of an independent country is primarily manifested by its native language. Protecting the status of the state language is one of the most pressing issues today. For us, the Kazakh language should take the main place in the paradigm of values of the XXI century. During the meeting, issues related to the implementation of the business Roadmap 2020 program were discussed, in particular, within the framework of the business Roadmap 2020 program. Firstly, this will allow us to consider the Kazakh language as a key part of the language policy in the country. Secondly, in the language policy of a sovereign country, the priority given to the state language is an important part of the state national policy that determines the integrity of the state.

The concept of linguistic personality is the individual consciousness of the individual and the worldview and Relationship of language. Any person manifests himself and his subjectivity not only through objective activity, but also through communication, which can not be carried out without language and speech. A person's word reflects their inner world and serves as a source of information that reflects their personal qualities. The ability to give a word to a value character and not to give it depends on the degree of inner peace of the user of the language.

A linguistic personality should not only be equipped with knowledge, but also be able to use language tools rationally to accurately and clearly Express their thoughts. A linguistic personality is a language specialist who has linguistic and cultural, spiritual and social background knowledge, has a high level of vocabulary and grammar of the language, understands semantics, and is able to correctly use the flexibility and variety of intonation.

The initial linguistic personality (the first) is formed within the framework of socialization in their culture (this form of socialization is called the first socialization of sociologists). The second linguistic personality is formed in the process of teaching a foreign language, in which the language of Foreign culture is studied (mastery of another's culture in socialization, the relationship of one's own and other people's cultures in the language consciousness is characterized by the concept of bilingual acculturation).

The second linguistic personality proposed by I.I. Khaleeva is defined as a person's ability to communicate at the intercultural level. This ability consists in mastering the verbal and semantic code of the language being studied, as the language image of this world «global picture of the world» [1; 22].

To form a full-fledged linguistic personality, it is necessary to form an idea not only about the language, but also about the national culture, psychology and character.

A language person who is a native speaker of not only the national (native) language, but also its culture, can be called the first / primary / primary or national language person. In some cases, especially in a multinational society such as Kazakhstan or Russia, more than one functional primary language may be used (native language and Russian). In this case, a person is equally fluent in a particular language, and the division of these languages into native and second languages makes it very difficult: a second language with the material and spiritual Russian culture, its cultural concepts, customs, customs, etc. studied along with the native language, that is, consists in the development of verbal and semantic code of the second language, which studies linguistic identity (language and conceptual pictures of the world language media). Such a linguistic personality we can say and give it a definition: a second linguistic personality is a person who has a set of abilities to communicate at the intercultural level in a second language [2; 38].

In the task of forming a second linguistic personality, it is impossible to make the world see as the same language carriers. Adapting to a foreign culture can be quite successful, but when accessing deep layers of consciousness, models of the mapping and classification of the phenomena of reality, adopted from birth, remain largely unchanged with no major «archetypes» of the parent culture, especially determining the deep motivation of the individual. Other or extraneous background, you need to see from the point of view of the world of other cultures, but it should be remembered that the foreign background is not a linguistic personality of a foreign language.

Thus, the verbal-semantic code of another language, that is, a person who owns a conceptual picture of the world that allows a person to understand the language picture of the world and the new social truth, can be considered a second language person.

According to E.D. Suleimenova, during the Soviet period, the development of bilingualism in Kazakhstan «for many years during bilingualism hid the preservation, replacement and loss of the native language. Special attention was paid to the tasks of enriching languages related to the Russian language. The socio-functional analysis of bilingualism was carried out mainly without taking into account the most important factors, such as language understanding and national identity» [3; 57].

Professor B. Hasanov, who has studied this problem, noted that «bilingualism contributes to the spiritual growth of people. Bilingualism for a person is a means of communication in a multi-ethnic society, as a means of communicating thoughts, learning the truth; at the same time, its main component (native language) will not be compatible with the national component, another component (second language) will become a means of learning representatives of different nationalities, mastering the culture of other peoples. The role of bilingualism is huge in the harmonious development of a person, since it is an important tool for all-round development and self-expression in a multinational society» [4; 12–13].

In order for our country to become one of the fifty developed countries in the world, it is necessary to form a competitive, well-developed young generation. After all, only competitive citizens can contribute to the sustainable development and competitiveness of our country. The formation of future generations of a culture of human behavior and a culture of communication with others can not be separated from the educational process and the process of educating a literate person who can defend their rights.

At the same time, with the maximum bias of globalization, language imperialism is also increasing, and bilingualism and multilingualism are of a different nature. Therefore, special attention is paid to bilingualism, «trilingualism».

Currently, the policy of trilingualism is being implemented in Kazakhstan society, which is aimed at mastering Kazakh, Russian and English languages for Kazakhstan citizens.

Kazakhstan is trying to move from bilingualism to trilingualism, and this is normal, since Russian and English are not only a means of language communication, but also an obvious channel of world education. Mastering several languages will allow Kazakhstan to integrate more actively into the economic and cultural sphere of world associations. However, this goal can only be achieved by creating an integrated system of trilingual education within the schools of Kazakhstan. At present, Kazakhstan has great opportunities for forming such a system. There are many effective aspects of multilingual education. As a means of language communication, language forms the child as a person.

Our country is distinguished by the diversity of peoples and nationalities. Since Kazakhstan is a multinational state, trilingualism is an important factor in strengthening social harmony. The diversity of cultures and languages is a national treasure of Kazakhstan. In this regard, a particularly vigilant understanding of the role of modern languages raises the question of the effectiveness of language training and increasing the level of multilingualism of students. Multicultural personality refers to an individual who is adapted to others through his or her culture. Deep knowledge of one's culture is the Foundation of interest in other cultures, and familiarity with the public is the Foundation of spirituality and development.

Under the conditions of sovereignty and the new state language policy in Kazakhstan, a young generation has grown up, focused on the values involved in the formation of a new language situation. Trilingualism, in fact, multilingualism, enriches. Researchers describe the advantages of multilingualism: «...this is an important factor that forms the global mentality», «It is not only the ability to speak several languages, but also a special form of thinking that has led to the cultural values of several civilizations, in other words, open thinking for dialogue» [5; 235].

«Kazakhstan should be recognized throughout the world as a highly educated country whose population uses three languages,» the head of state said repeatedly. These are: Kazakh language-the state language, Russian language-the language of interethnic relations, English language-the language of successful entry into the global economy» (N.A. Nazarbayev).

At the same time, discussions within the framework of the language situation that has taken place in Kazakhstan over the past few years are related to multilingualism, which allows us to talk about new aspects of language education. Multilingual education is a purposeful, organized, normalized three-level process of training, education and development of an individual as a multilingual person, implemented in language knowledge and skills, language and speech activity, emotional and value relations to languages and culture, based on the simultaneous development of several languages as a «gap» of an important social experience of mankind. «A multilingual person is a person who is fluent in a multilingual language. Therefore, a «multicultural personality is a developed linguistic conscious individual» [6; 6].

The formation of a multilingual personality is one of the main directions of the development of a multicultural educational space.

Firstly, there must be a holistic worldview of a multicultural person. This means that the knowledge and skills of such an individual were formed in a system that allows us to show the world, society, and culture the complex nature of relationships and relationships, interconnected and mutually enriched. A multicultural personality is a developed linguistic conscious individual. Knowledge of the mother tongue and the state language, a foreign language broadens the mind of the individual, contributes to its full development, promotes the formation of tolerance and the rules of the multifaceted vision of the world.

A multicultural person is an outstanding historical conscious person. This historical consciousness is the basis of both ethnic consciousness and national consciousness. The national mentality, myths, symbols, images, and stereotypes formed during the millennial history of the ethnic group can only be recognized by knowledge of the history of the people. Knowledge of the history of peoples living in the state, the history of the state causes a sense of historical continuity, historical vascularity, explains their involvement in the history of the Earth, the common fate of peoples living together for many years and centuries [7; 50].

Among the most valuable characteristics of modern civilization in the era of globalization and integration, we analyzed the landmarks in which Kazakhstan is closely connected with other States, and therefore, in addition to the state Kazakh language, it is sufficient to master multilingual languages and be qualified in all areas of education and science, is an indicator of our updated society, since recently Kazakhstan is becoming a social space of trilingualism.

Multiculturalism-formation of education based on the principles of cultural pluralism, recognition of the equal value and equality of all ethnic and social groups that make up society, exclusion of classification of people on the basis of nationality or religion, gender and age. Foreign languages play a leading role in the process of radical modernization of the education system. The desire for trilingual education fully corresponds to the trends of the European Council countries [8; 15].

The development of linguistic capital in the country of independent Kazakhstan calls for the formation of a tolerant language environment. The development of the languages of the peoples who inhabit the territory of Kazakhstan will allow preserving the linguistic diversity in Kazakhstan. Bilingualism / multilingualism as a result of the relationship between languages and cultures is considered a developing phenomenon occurring throughout the world [9; 206].

Russian Russian Russian linguistics has studied all types of linguistic personality: Russian (Yu.N.Karaulov), communicative personality (V.P. Konetskaya), language and speech personality (Yu.E. Prokhorov, L.P. Klobukova), dictionary linguistic personality (V.I. Karasik), spelling linguistic personality/spelling speech personality (N.D. Golev), ethno semantic personality (S.G. Vorkachev), elite linguistic personality (T.D. Sirotinina, T.V. Kochetkova).

In addition, in modern language education is not deep enough and comprehensive study of the problem of formation of mass of linguistic identity in multi-ethnic and multilingual society, and the problem of typology of linguistic identity that is developing today in educational discourse in schools and universities of Kazakhstan.

Such researchers as Kenzhebekova I. O. [10], Zhumagulova E. V. [11], Zhumagulova N. S. [12] raise the problem of the Eurasian linguistic personality of the mass type in the modern educational process (the Eurasian linguistic personality of the mass type).

We understand that the Eurasian linguistic personality in its mass form is a person who has at least three languages-the state language, the language of international communication, and the language of international communication-language, speech, and cultural competence. For modern Kazakhstan, such languages are Kazakh, Russian and English. The educational discourse of Kazakhstan has a number of specific features from the point of view of linguoculturology of the problem of mass linguistic personality, which is formed in a multi-ethnic and multicultural space. In the process of forming a mass-type linguistic personality, it is necessary to significantly increase the normative aspect of speech culture in three languages: Kazakh, Russian and English; master the main communicative quality of the language and take them into account in the process of language interaction and paralinguistic behavior, form generally accepted norms and forms of speech etiquette of students.

In the future, the linguistic personality in the mass form should be focused on pragmatic communication conditions that have a significant impact on the choice and organization of optimal speech means for this communicative situation.

The modern linguistic environment of Kazakhstan is uneven. Two mega-languages-Kazakh and Russian-prevail in the educational discourse of Kazakh universities, but the level of proficiency in each of these languages is different within the framework of bilingualism [13; 130].

Today, students represent a new type of linguistic personality in the Kazakh educational space, in the updated educational discourse «growing» — a Eurasian linguistic personality in a mass form, determined by the culture of language communities that own a new, Eurasian carrier of language consciousness, their social and linguistic behavior.

According to our research, we can say that today the public linguistic personality as the main language of educational discourse in Kazakhstan is divided into two groups based on the knowledge of Kazakh and Russian languages [14; 200].

The first group includes a language person who speaks Kazakh in all types of language activities, and the second group includes Russian with certain communicative abilities.

The second group includes a language person who has communicative abilities in oral and written form in Russian, and is also able to accept and create separate texts of limited topics and genres in the Kazakh language.

In English, two groups study a General type of linguistic personality within the framework of the school-University program, as they have an insufficient level of speech skills for independent use of English in educational and professional activities.

The system of formation and education of the Eurasian linguistic personality in mass form is aimed at developing the ability to conformism, independent judgments and decisions. The more a person communicates with the cultural and moral values of other people, the higher the level of communication with the world and the correct perception of another person.

Thus, a modern specialist of the Eurasian space, a highly qualified professional of the XXI century is a linguistic personality in a mass form, since the diversity of international relations in the era of globalization and integration, the use of information technologies in professional activities makes higher demands of the world community on the need to constantly improve the level of training of specialists. In this case, the formation of a linguistic personality of this level of development becomes of strategic importance. In the future, in Kazakhstan's society, a linguistic personality of the same mass type will be in demand in many professional spheres, which will also contribute to improving their personal well-being [15; 85].

Taking the language situation, one of the distinguishing features of the Eurasian linguistic personality in polylingualism space of educational discourse of Kazakhstan is multilingualism, that is, active knowledge of at least four languages — native is Kazakh, Russian, English and other foreign languages and languages of peoples of Kazakhstan. In the educational discourse of Kazakhstan, each language has a special place in the formation of the Eurasian linguistic personality of the ideal type in the hierarchy of the language in which the student is proficient to some extent. In this regard, we must correctly describe the status of each of the above languages in the educational discourse.

Some researchers call the linguistic personality of Kazakh University students a Eurasian linguistic personality of the ideal type. At the same time, the term «Eurasian» means «open, equal, modern, tolerant», and «impeccable» linguistic personality «very well, quite Mature». Ideally, a Eurasian linguistic personality understands a person who has at least three languages — the state language, the language of international communication, and language and cultural competence in English.

The ideal Eurasian linguistic personality is a highly educated, intelligent person who is ready to create and accept oral and written texts in their native language, the state language, the language of international communication, and a foreign language / language. In addition, each subsequent foreign language further determines the Eurasian, open and tolerant nature of this linguistic personality. A linguistic personality in an ideal form is the owner of a new, Eurasian language consciousness. Ideally, the Eurasian linguistic personality also has a communicative culture of ethnic groups who speak the language. The Eurasian linguistic personality is not national, it combines the characteristics of its nation, the titular nation, and the Russian nationality, that is, International.

In typical form, the Eurasian linguistic personality has a clear subjectivity. The subjective character is manifested in a kind of «I» representation at the creative level of using each of the four languages. Subjectivity as a linguistic personality, first of all, implies responsibility based on an important information field, reflection and communicative abilities of the linguistic personality. The Eurasian linguistic personality is ideally fluent in Kazakh, Russian and foreign languages at the level of active and creative speech to Express their worldview and individual views, which is a tolerant attitude to any language.

The formation of a multilingual personality is the basis for creating a competitive community. Today, multilingual education is a requirement of the time. Everyone understands that language plays a key role in human life. It is a tool for learning, understanding, and development. Multilingualism is the most important tool of interpersonal and intercultural relations that allows us to develop international relations of our country.

The problem of multilingualism is one of the urgent problems facing not only Kazakhstan, but also the whole world, since globalization requires knowledge of languages. In Europe, multilingualism has become the norm, and we should definitely find it in this row.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the concept of «multilingualism» is considered as the main factor of «multiculturalism» and is the Foundation of the formation of a multicultural personality, to determine the scientific significance of «multilingualism», which is the only tool for perception of the processes of «modernization», «globalization».

 

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Year: 2020
City: Karaganda
Category: Philology