Psychological and pedagogical conditions for development of students’ communication competence studying using distant educational technologies

Abstract

The strategy of the psychologist’s activity to develop the communicative competence of a student studying with the use of remote educational technologies is based on the introduction of a comprehensive program into the educational process. Its implementation allows the student to understand the influence of the specifics of distance learning and to create an idea of the personal peculiarities that affect the development of communicative competence; develop their social and psychological qualities which implement communicative skills and the ability to navigate the use of verbal and non-verbal means to achieve mutual understanding in a communication situation; to develop skills and skills of self-regulation of behavior manifested in the ability to rebuild when external conditions change and to act effectively in various life situations which will allow students to successfully function in socially heterogeneous groups, to solve specific practical tasks arising in different spheres of life.

Introduction

At present, more than half of university and postgraduate vocational training and retraining has been transferred to education using distant educational technologies. In the information society the processes of socialization and professionalism are inevitably separated from each other as distance learning involves systematic interactivity, indirect communication, a specific technological basis (computer telecommunication network, case technology), virtual classroom, individual learning trajectory, etc. which is not systemically embedded in classical traditional learning.

The transition to an information society is greatly expanding intercultural interaction. Electronic tools occupy an increasingly visible place in the structure of communication. A man perceives the world around him through computer communications as a knowledge tool that plays an active transformative role in systematizing reality [1]. In this regard, the ability to communicate and build interpersonal interaction is of particular importance. In practice, it is not always possible to see a balance between human success in social contacts and the ability to regulate involvement in information communication technologies [2]. Most often in people this is manifested in low communicative competence expressed in ineffective behavior, emotional instability manifested in dissatisfaction with relations, personal life nonstructure which results in lack of clear goals in life, dissatisfaction with self-realization, internal contradictions of personality [3].

Methods of research

Today, distant education technologies using telecommunication technology are actively developing in various fields of education. This educational technology through the interactive environment significantly changes the organization of the educational process in accordance with the principles of open education and provides quality continuous training of all specialists. There is currently no detailed understanding of distance learning due to the multifaceted, scale and wide variety of educational services. Essential to the concept under consideration is the interpretation given by E.S. Polat that training with the use of remote educational technologies is «training implemented mainly with the use of information and telecommunication technologies with indirect (at a distance) or not completely mediated interaction between the student and the teacher».

Training using distance educational technologies has some specific features which are not systematically embedded in classical training (it is a translational technology of delivery of education through interactive telecommunications, individual schedules of development of educational material, etc.) which puts a certain imprint on the personality of the student and teacher (N.N. Alexenko, AM. Kovikov, A.E. Voiskunsky, L.P. Gurieva, O.V. Smyslova, M. Griffits and others).

There are numerous interpretations of «communicative competence» reflecting a variety of approaches to understanding it. The theoretical basis for the allocation of communicative competence was B.G. Atsaniev ‘s understanding that a person is a subject Ofcommunication, knowledge and work, so communicative competence is a necessary condition for the successful realization of the individual ensuring all aspects of human life and activity. In the scientific context the combination of the terms «communicative competence» means the ability to establish and maintain effective contacts with others, subject to the availability of internal resources [4]. Communicative competence ensures situational adaptability and freedom of ownership of verbal and non-verbal means of communication, possibility of adequate reflection of mental states and personal warehouse of another person, correct assessment of his/her actions, prediction on their basis of peculiarities of a perceived person’ behavior (Yu.Y. Emelyshov, E.F. Zeer, A.K Markova, E.S. Kuzmin, L.A. Petrovskaya, P.V. Rastyashkov) [5].

Communicative competence refers to an integrative personal resource which is conditioned by knowledge in the field of interpersonal communication, personal qualities which allow building relations with other people, skills and skills acquired through experience of activity in a certain situation, motivation to expand contacts, which together ensure success of communicative interaction.

Results of research

Based on the definition of concepts and substantive components of communicative competence as well as on the identified peculiarities of interaction through information and communicative technologies in the process of distant education the concept of «communicative competence of the student’s personality» is specified- an integrative personal education characterized by adequate self-esteem, the ability to understand the inner world of another person, to rebuild in case of changes in external and internal conditions and to focus in various situations of communication [6].

Communicative competence cannot be considered a final characteristic and present it as a closed individual experience. In the process of training using distant educational technologies, communication competence can be developed through a set of psychological and pedagogical measures aimed at understanding the difficulties encountered in interpersonal communication activities and mastering the skills and skills of regulating behaviour in different situations of communication.

In modem conditions a specialist with developed communicative competence is in demand ensuring effective communication, success of social and professional interaction, actions in various life and professional situations [10]. However, the development of communication competence of students is hampered by psychological and pedagogical factors such as personal characteristics and restrictions caused by learning using distant educational technologies implemented indirectly by computer telecommunications and various electronic sources of information. One possible way to overcome these factors is to create psychological and pedagogical conditions that ensure the development of communication competence of students, the main indicators of which are adequate self-assessment, understanding and acceptance of the inner world of another person, the ability to rebuild when external and internal conditions change and to focus on the use of verbal and non-verbal means in various situations of communication [7].

The strategy of the psychologist’s activity to develop the communicative competence of a student studying with the use of distant educational technologies is based on the introduction of a comprehensive program into the educational process. Its implementation allows the student to understand the influence of the specifics of distance learning and to create an idea of the personal peculiarities that affect the development of communicative competence, develop their social and psychological qualities which implement communicative skills and the ability to navigate the use of verbal and non-verbal means to achieve mutual understanding in a communication situation; to develop skills and skills of self-regulation of behavior manifested in the ability to rebuild when external conditions change and to act effectively in various life situations which will allow students to successfully function in socially heterogeneous groups, to solve specific practical tasks arising in different spheres of life [8].

Overcoming the psychological characteristics that prevent the development of communicative competence and minimizing pedagogical and interpersonal interaction in the process of learning using distant educational technologies are provided by the re-formation of cognitive structures «I image» and the removal of restrictions and complexes for the creation of a positive !-concept; increased sense of self-identity and empathetically interested behaviour, developing practical skills and skills to manage their behaviour in a variety of standard and non-standard social situations; expanding the repertoire of behavioral responses and situational adaptability, the field of verbal and non-verbal means of communication in inter-object relations; revealing diversity of patterns of behavior in different situations of communication in solving social and professional problems and building effective interaction with other people [9].

The development of students’ communication competence should be based on the introduction of a program based on the idea of social conditionality of psyche and unity of internal and external which provides activation of the student’s past experience in the system of interpersonal interactions, behavioural skills in communication of attitude to communication as a dialogue; transfer of inter-entity interaction techniques with constant modification of interpersonal relations conditions and communicative situations, successful solution of specific practical tasks arising in professional activity.

Conclusion

The new reality of the modern world imposes specific requirements on the person: readiness to work together in the group, establishment of trust contact and dialogue, professional use of modem information technologies, etc. The success of these requirements is largely determined by a set of individual and social competencies among which communicative competence is one of the key ones.

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Year: 2020
Category: Pedagogy