This article aims to consider the main features of newspaper style. The article describes the characteristics of modem newspaper style from the point of view of famous scholars. The classification of the newspaper features (morphological, lexical and syntactical; sign systems and graphic tools) is also listed in our work. The reasons for the relevance of the chosen topic, the functions of modem newspaper discourse and special vocabulary features used in newspaper style are also described. The theoretical foundations of the concept of newspaper style and its difference from other functional styles in the English language are also given. The article gives a description of the elements inlierent to this style, explains each element with certain examples from the British media. In conclusion, it can be noted that the newspaper - publicistic style performs the functions of influence and communication (informing). The interaction of these two functions determines the use of the words in publicism. The function of influence, which is the most important for the newspaper - publicistic style, determines the acute need of journalism in evaluative means of expression. Journalism takes from the literary language virtually all means with the property of appraisal. The practical significance of the work is that the results of the study may be applicable in the study of special courses in sociolinguistics, cultural linguistics, journalism, linguistic stylistics and text interpretation. The given article may be of practical significance for those reading the English newspapers while studying the English language and especially for those who may take interest in peculiarities of the newspaper. The presented material can provide those interested in the subject with a deeper notion of what the newspaper standard and expressiveness are as Constracting the base of newspaper communication.
Language development issues in Kazakhstan were constantly under the control and care of the first President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev, who in his annual messages to the people OfKazakhstan always tried to focus on the development of education, culture, and knowledge of languages. The President’s Address states directly: «people will be wise in raising their future generation, taking care of their health, education and worldview ... will be equally good in Kazakh, Russian and English ...will be a patriot of the country, known and respected all over the world» .
Any Kazakhstani, like the nation as a whole, must have a set of qualities worthy of the 21st century. And among the undoubted prerequisites of this are such factors as computer literacy, knowledge of foreign languages, and cultural openness.
Therefore, the program «Digital Kazakhstan», the program of trilingualism, and the program of cultural and religious harmony are part of the preparation of the nation (all Kazakhstanis) for life in the 21st century. This is part of our competitiveness .
Nowadays, the rapid development of culture, science, technology becomes obvious need for such a source of information that in the shortest time and in an understandable form could convey to the reader information about recent events both inside and outside the country. There are a lot of means of gathering new information like: radio, TV, Internet. But the most accessible and convenient to use is the newspaper. Today, newspapers are widely read by a good number of people across the world. Many people read the newspaper to get adequate updates concerning events and happenings in the society.
The language of the newspapers is rich and variable, due to the need to draw the reader’s attention to individual nuances of the situation, to express the attitude of the author of the article or comment to what is happening, to form the attitude of the recipient to the events covered, to present the context of entertainment and make the text memorable, interesting and informative. The analytical genre of political journalism, namely: articles, comments and reviews aimed at informing, determining perception and evaluating events in relation to experience, the formation of attitudes towards political processes, are characterized by such properties as «appraisal, metaphorical, symbolic, manipulative, precedent, semantic variability» [3. p. 242].
Knowledge of a foreign language is impossible in isolation from the culture and realities of life ofEnglish - speaking countries, and the newspaper, as a mass media, is an integral part of culture. By understanding the meaning of newspaper publications, language learners should come to an understanding of the characteristics of language and life. Systematic reading of newspapers will help to link educational material with current events of social and political life, to better acquaint people with the countries of the language being studied, to expand their horizons. An independently read and understood newspaper articles will bring great satisfaction and increase interest in learning English .
The language of the newspaper, of course, has a certain specificity that distinguishes it from the language belles - Iettres or scientific literature, from colloquial speech. This is the result of a long selection of linguistic and expressive means, the most relevant to the social task that the newspaper performs as the main media. The desire to report on the latest news as soon as possible cannot but find reflection in the nature of communicative tasks, and in speech incarnation, as well as the fact that the newspaper is designed for a heterogeneous and numerous circle of readers and should attract attention. The reader does not want to spend a lot of time reading a non - mass newspaper, so newspaper information is organized in such a way as to convey it in a condensed form, communicate the main message and have a certain emotional impact on the reader. And due to the fact that the initial informational function of the newspaper is increasingly being pushed aside by the other - the influential one, this turns the style of the language of the newspaper into a kind Ofjournalistic style.
But the special conditions for the publication of the newspaper - the short deadlines for preparing the material, which do not allow it to be stylistically thoroughly processed, the repeatability of the subject matter and the limited range of topics - lead to the fact that the publicistic style in the newspaper is often simplified, standardized, and undergoes a certain lexical decline. And the presence of a standard gives rise to newspaper stamps, so characteristic of newspaper speech. Often, there are several functions of a newspaper: informational, educational, entertaining. Each of them imposes its own stylistic features on the relevant materials.
One of the main functions which publicistic style has to contain is that the information in the newspaper should be relevant. To put into R. Fowleris words [5, p. 13]: - The news media select events for reporting according to a complex set of criteria of news value; so news is not simply that which happens, but that which can be regarded and presented as newsworthy. - In other words news does not have to be just simple description of events, but also has to be meaningful. Another feature that plays a huge role on the news is the use of colloquialisms, incomplete sentences, questions and a varied typography suggesting variations of emphasis, the written text mimics a speaking voice, as of a person talking informally but with passionate indignation [ 5, p. 39]. In addition, Denisova and Pozniak [6, p. 119] note that the publicistic style takes some features from emotive prose: the use of stylistic devices and imagery as well as brevity and expression. The scientific elements found in publicistic style include the logical structure of the news presentation, clear paragraphing and consecutiveness.
In order not to confuse publicistic style with newspaper style the main difference has to be mentioned. The goal of publicistic style is to influence public opinion, to make the audience accept the speaker's point of view. On the contrary, the goal of newspaper style is to inform the audience. Publicistic essays and feature articles do not belong to newspaper style. Newspaper style tries to attract the reader's attention thereby special means are used.
Denisova and Pozniak [6, p. 127] distinguish specific headlines, space ordering, specific vocabulary features and characterize newspaper style by an extensive use of:
- Special political and economic terms (apartheid, by - election);
- Non - term political vocabulary (public, people);
- Newspaper cliches (vital issue, well - informed sources);
- Cliches (captains of industry, pillars of society);
- Neologisms (glasnost, Gorbymania).
All of the functional styles as well as the newspaper style have their own typical elements. Znamenskaya [7, p 150 - 153] distinguished typical features for newspaper style:
- Morphological features - frequent usage of non-finite verb forms; omission of articles, link verbs, auxiliaries, pronouns.
- Syntactical features - use of impersonal sentences, elliptical constructions, interrogative sentences, infinitive complexes and attributive groups.
- Lexical features - newspaper clichds and set phrases, terminological variety, abbreviations and acronyms, numerous proper names.
- Compositional features - carefully selected vocabulary; variety of topics, wide use of quotations.
Each of these elements has their own function. For example, morphological features are used in order to save space which is limited in newspapers. Syntactical as well as lexical and compositional features call the attention to words or word phrases. All of these features are combined together in order to make the article as interesting as possible, to shock or surprise the reader by the unusual, vivid and colourful language.
Many researchers speak on the various sign systems and graphic tools that are widely used in newspapers. So, for example, V.I. Chepurny said that it could be drawings, photographs, and even ornaments. In this case, the verbal and non - verbal parts are one. As for graphic means, he distinguishes the following pragmatic functions:
- the function of attracting the attention of the reader;
- the function of highlighting communicatively significant elements of the text (these can be different fonts for the beginning of the article and other parts of it or for highlighting the main theme);
- the function of the compositional division of the text;
- information compression function (punctuation marks) [8, p. 125 - 126] We would like to briefly discuss the syntax of the language of the newspaper. As mentioned above, both the vocabulary and syntax are adapted to the main compositional task: the accuracy and correctness of the logical movement of words. The syntax of the language of the newspaper, according to D.E. Rosenthal, is a combination of book and colloquial syntax. «From the book styles, the syntax of the language of the newspaper borrows the inherent standard of writing, processing, from the colloquial style, the forms and constructions characteristic of oral speech, detailed syntactic constructions and an extremely laconic «chopped» phrase, book descriptive turns and colloquial forms get along on the newspaper page» [9, p. 52 — 53]. In newspaper texts there are various elliptical sentences, i.e. verbal phrases characterized by brevity and vigor of expression; nominative sentences i.e. sentences in the form of a nominative case; segmented or “double value” constructions; connecting structures that reproduce oral speech in its lively immediacy; parcels, understood as division of a sentence, in which the content of a statement is realized not in one, but in two or more intonational-semantic speech units following one after the other after the separation pause, as well as many other means of enhancing expressiveness [Ibid], Summarizing the information that was given above, it should be noted that we, laying the foundations for our further work on analyzing the text of newspapers, cited the opinion of a number of well - known researchers on general text issues as a type of speech activity and on certain features of a newspaper text in particular.
The informativeness is the important title parameter, drawing reader's attention to specific article. The purpose of the newspaper discourse lies not only in information transfer, but also in its interpretation. One comes to the conclusion that in the newspaper text an information - substantial function is combined with the function of persuasion, emotional influence. It is important to note one more feature: the newspaper article is directed to the most active perception, understanding and reaction. Among the basic characteristics of the newspaper text existing one can find probably the heterogeneity of the readers according to their national, social, political and other features; the absence of rigid social or other dependence between the addresser and the addressee; the absence, as well as in any written text, the direct contact of the speakers and an operative feedback between them; the generalized scheme concept of the author about characteristics of the recipient.
Working with newspaper text is an important aspect in the process of learning a foreign language, because newspaper material, like no other, makes it possible to master modem vocabulary and introduces new phenomena characteristic of the state of the language today. This applies to both lexical and grammatical aspects. In addition, when reading the English press, we Ieam the regional and everyday realities of the modem spiritual life of the society of the country of the language being studied. On the other hand, his communicative experience is being expanded and enriched. Thematically well - matched articles increase motivation. In the process of working with newsprint, skills of an integrated approach to the text of any kind are acquired.
Reading an English newspaper broadens the mind of the readers, they get used to oppose and evaluate facts and events taking place abroad and in our country, to get acquainted with the country of the language being studied. Reading a newspaper in English, we learn to extract information from the English original text, i.e. learn the skill of non - translational understanding. Reading a newspaper helps to consolidate and expand vocabulary and master the grammatical Stmctures of the English language, i.e. It is an effective tool for acquiring and consolidating language skills.
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- V.I. Chepumykh .Pragmatic and stylistic functions of graphic means in a literary text: Gadget. Sb. Scientific. P. 124 - 132.
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