The article is devoted to the formation of interest in physical culture, physical culture and sports activities of the University in the conditions of student life. The author stops on disclosure of concepts of sports and sports and improving terminology.
The ultimate research goal is physical perfection, which involves a Iiigh level of physical condition, physical development. Physical condition is estimated by the sum of indicators of physical development, health and physical fitness of the individual.
Physical development is characterized by the author to become morphological indicators such as height, weight, chest circumference, development of the muscular system, as well as the vital capacity of the lungs, chest mobility, muscle strength, flexibility, etc.the Level of physical development was determined by external examination and anthropometric indicators.
At the end of the article, the author comes to the conclusion that the system of physical culture is aimed at organizing the physical education of the population taking into account the interests of each person, the requirements of production, education and culture of the peoples of the Republic OfKazakhstan.
Sport is a phenomenon of cultural life. In it, a person strives to expand the boundaries of his possibilities; this is a huge world of emotions generated by successes and failures. Sport is actually a competitive activity and special preparation for it. He lives according to certain rules and norms of behavior. It clearly shows the desire to win, to achieve high results, requiring the mobilization of physical, mental and moral qualities of a person. Therefore, it is often said about the spontaneous character of people who successfully manifest themselves in competitions.
A healthy lifestyle has a wide positive range of effects on various aspects of the body and personality manifestations. In behavior, this is manifested in greater vitality, composure, and good interpersonal skills; sensation of one’s physical and psycho - emotional attractiveness, optimistic mood, ability to provide one’s full - fledged and pleasant rest, integral culture of life activity. In the psychological aspect, the advantages of a healthy lifestyle are found in the quality of mental health, well - being, the ability to successfully endure the consequences of mental stress, self - reliance, less susceptibility to depression, suspiciousness. In the functional manifestation, it is possible to note: a higher quality of health, an increase in working capacity and training, a decrease in morbidity and illnesses, a faster and more complete course of recovery processes after physical and mental activity, an increase in sexual potency, normalization of the body mass ratio and growth, good posture and ease of gait .
Method of research
The ultimate goal and key factor in the specific pedagogical process for the formation of motor skills, moral - volitional and psychological qualities of trainees is physical perfection, which implies a high level of physical condition and physical development. The physical condition is assessed by the sum of the indicators of physical development, health and physical fitness of the individual .
Physical development is characterized by such morphological indicators as height, weight, chest circumference, development of the muscular system, as well as vital capacity of the lung, mobility of the chest, muscular strength, flexibility, etc. The level of physical development is determined according to external examination and anthropometric indicators.
Health condition depends on the normal functioning of all human organs and systems, as well as on the presence or absence of diseases, morphological changes in the body of the student. These data can be identified during a medical examination (check - ups).
Physical perfection of the student is determined by the complex indicators of his morphological features, functional capabilities and motor abilities. The formation of physical perfection is a multifaceted process that depends on the proper use of the means, methods, organization and conditions of educational activity of teachers, their material well - being, as well as social conditions.
During the period of study at the university, students noticeably change morphologically, gaining weight and height. During these years, they consolidate and improve the skills formed in school, become independent personalities and engage in physical exercises quite consciously.
The university has objective conditions for the development of physical and spiritual strength, moral and volitional and psychological qualities of the students. Ultimately, this leads to the harmonious development of personality, physical perfection. This is facilitated by a properly organized educational process and rest, food, sleep, normal living conditions, medical support and control, compliance with the rules of personal and public hygiene, free time, getting rid of harmful habits.
Physical culture and sports activities, which include students are one of their effective mechanisms of merging social and personal interests, the formation of socially necessary individual needs.
The possibilities of physical culture in strengthening health, correction of body build and posture, increase in general working capacity, mental stability are very great, but ambiguous.
It is known that the physical development of a person as a process of change and formation of morphological and functional properties depends on heredity and on living conditions, as well as on physical education from the moment of birth. Of course, not all signs of physical development are equally amenable to correction at college age: the most difficult thing is height (more correctly, body length), much easier is body weight (weight) and individual anthropometric indicators (chest circumference, hips, etc.).
Forecasts for increase of body growth are generally disappointing, because it has been established that a person’s height refers to hereditary traits. However, there are encouraging moments. According to some authors (V. V. Bunak and others), the increase of body in length of men lasts up to 25 years, although many researchers believe that this process is terminated in girls by the age of 17 - 18, and in boys by 19 years .
Predictions shows that sports games (basketball, volleyball, badminton, tennis, etc.) affect the increase of body growtht stimulation most favorably. It is recommended to be combined with loads of moderate power (in swimming, walking on skis, running) 2-3 times a week for 40-120 minutes. Contribute to the body growth and daily special jumping exercises (jumps, multiple jumps), exercises in the wall on the recline or gymnastic wall. Exercises in the neck, in addition, strengthen the muscular "corset", counteract the sedimentation of the vertebrae and help maintain good posture.
Thus, a healthy lifestyle, physical activity and sports can improve the functioning of the body's systems and increase body growth.
Unlike height, body weight (weight) is subject to significant changes both in that and in the other direction with regular exercise in certain physical exercises or sports (with a balanced diet).
It is known that the norm of body weight is closely related to the growth of a person. The simplest height - and - weight index is calculated by the formula: height (cm) - 100 = mass (kg). The result shows normal for a person of this height body weight. However, this formula is suitable only for adults with a height of 155 - 165 cm. With a height of 165 - 175 cm, it is necessary to subtract already 105, with a height of 175 - 1855, subtract 110.
To correct the shortcomings of physique, it is important to determine them, and also, in all likelihood, it is necessary to form your own opinion, idea of the ideal physique. It is about the ideal (although, as is known, we are only destined for the ideal!), not about the passing tastes and fashion. Tastes and fashion changed in different historical epochs, were interpreted differently in different countries and regions, and relatively often change now.
Correction of the motor and functional preparedness of students of the student age is closely connected with the peculiarities of the development of coordination and functional abilities of a person. Numerous studies have shown that the most favorable period for mastering the technique of sports movements is the age of 14 - 15 years. But this does not mean that in his student age can not improve dexterity .
Moral satisfaction is brought by those physical education classes and competitions, in which students achieve certain results through systematic training and honest struggle with a rival. Therefore, any manifestations of dishonesty are intolerable in sports.
Educational groups in their composition, as a rule, are multinational. In the classroom, students form friendly relations, companionship, respect and empathy. Improper organization of activities or sports events can create an atmosphere of conflict situations in interpersonal relationships. Negative phenomena should be given a principled assessment so that they do not repeat later. Humane relationships with each other develop and improve in competitions and training, as sport implies healthy and fair competition. In sports, the strongest wins, the best - prepared in all respects athlete, which corresponds to the Olympic ideals. Students must be involved in judging competitions, sports events and evenings .
An integral part of the educational process are exams that affect the state of students, not only psychological, but also physical. Examinations for students are a critical moment in learning activities, when the results of academic work for the year are summed up. The issue of student compliance with the university level, obtaining scholarships, self - assertion of the person and others is being resolved. The examination situation is always a kind of uncertainty of the outcome, which makes it possible to evaluate it as a strong emotional factor. Many times repeated examinations are accompanied by emotional experiences, individually different, which creates a dominant state of emotional tension . Examinations are a specific incentive to increase the volume, duration and intensity of students' academic work, mobilize all the forces of the body. In addition, all this happens in conditions of changes in life activity: physical activity is drastically reduced, students can spend some 30 minutes a day in the fresh air, and sleep and nutrition are partially disturbed. The complex effect of all factors on the state of students leads to negative emotions, self - doubt, excessive excitement, fear, etc.
The high socioeconomic importance of physical culture and sports demanded that a legislative framework be created for this sphere of activity. President N. A. Nazarbayev signed the Law of the Republic OfKazakhstan dated December 2, 1999 No. 490 - I «About Physical Culture and Sport».
This document is aimed at ensuring the comprehensive development of mankind, approving a healthy lifestyle, forming the need for physical and moral improvement, creating conditions for practicing any kind of physical culture and sports, organizing professional and applied training, preventing diseases, bad habits and offenses. The rights of citizens to engage in physical culture and sports (including sports as a profession) are guaranteed, to unite in the organization of sports and health - recreational orientation, sports societies, sports federations, associations, clubs and other associations.
The Republic accepts and supports the Olympic movement in Kazakhstan, its activities are coordinated by the Olympic Committee, which is an independent non - governmental organization and officially represents Kazakhstan in all events held by the International Olympic Committee.
The system of physical culture is aimed at organizing physical education of the population, taking into account the interests of each person, the requirements of production, education and culture of the peoples of the Republic OfKazakhstan.
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