In the article discusses the theoretical foundations of managing the training process of girls - jumpers in the triple jump. Also there is a comparison of individual indicators of competitive activity with parameters of preparedness according to model characteristic. The basis of the generalized and developed control system of special physical and technical training of jumpers in the triple jump is the development of training programs at various stages of year - round training using the tools and methods of integrated control, corrective training programs. In order to effectively manage the training process in the triple jump in women, you need accurate quantitative information that reflects all the main aspects of this process.
The technology of managing the preparation of jumps by triple jump based on model characteristics and standard indicators of technical - physical fitness will increase the accuracy of control and corrective training effects on the effectiveness of training jumpers in the triple jump. Practical recommendations on the management of technical and physical training of athletes are given.
Athletics is one of the main kinds of sports including walk, run, jumps, throwing. At the institute ofphysical culture athletics is an educational and scientific discipline, which includes an athletic theory, sport and methods of teaching.
Athletics is characterized by various competitive drills, a final number of different ways and alternatives of their exercise. Jumps are natural and quick ways of overcoming obstacles that are characterized by short, but intensive muscular strain. They do much to develop abilities to concentrate your efforts, to find your way in space, also develop such qualities as force, quickness, deafness, courage [1,5].
The Triplejump was considering him men’s form earlier, but now it is included into the program of women’s competitions. There is a great difference between the women’s triple jump and the men’s technique both in technical and physiological aspects.
Recently especially 15-20 years ago significant changes happened in sports of top achievements, especially in athletic. Processes of commercialization and of official admission of professional sport led to a great rise of the number of commercial competitions and increase of programs for children’s athletics. First of all by using new kids of athletics. In the nineties women’s program of jumping changed due to introducing the strongest kinds of jumps particularly triple jams.
The Triple jump as a speed - power kinds of athletics makes the highest demands on physical fitness of athletics [2, 3].
The present stage of the world’s athletics is characterized by increased competition in major competitions. At the same time in the process of teaching the amount and intensity of the loud reached the limits of human adaptive capacity. Under such conditions is it effective control of training of sportsmen is very important. The most important conditions of improvement of quality of educational process management is to increase the efficiency and clarity of control activities on the basis of the correction of the contemporary educational process with operational current and stage control.
In order to manage the training process in the triple jump of women same accurate quantitative information reflecting all the main aspects of this process is necessary. The technology of management of preparation of jams the triple jump based on model characteristics and standard indicators of technical and physical readiness will allow us to increase accuracy of control and creating training influence on efficiency of preparation of jumpers in the triple.
The hypothesis of our study suggests that if we improve the technology of training management of athletics in the triple jump, using the individual characteristics of the sides of readiness of the athletics, it should improve the efficiency of the training process and affect the resort in the competitive period.
The object of our research is the training process of sportsmen in the triple jump. The subject of the study is taken under control of technical and physical training of sportsmen in the triple jump.
The aim of our study is the improvement of technical and physical training of athletes in the triple jump. In this paper we consider the following tasks:
- To consider the theoretical places for management of the training process the girls -jumpers in the triple jump.
- To study indicators of physical and technical readiness of athletes.
- To determine the relationship between the indicators of different sides of the preparedness of athletes and their impact on sports results.
- To give practical recommendations of the management Oftechnical and physical to preparedness of athletes.
To identify the objectives of our study as the basis were used the following researches: the study and generalization of scientific and methodical literature;
- teacher observations;
- pedagogical control tests;
- pedagogical experiments.
The methodology of the study is based on the use of general philosophical principles of science, the system or the individual to the general, the relationship of qualitative and quantitative characteristics, it comprehensive analysis and the relationship of processes and phenomena based on facts as a source of knowledge.
Classes were held in the training camp of Kokshetau in athletics.
At the first stage of the work scientific and methodical literature was studied in order to summarize the pedagogical and scientific methodological experience, analyzed the model characteristics Oftechnical and physical fitness of jumpers in the triple jump.
At the second stage, control exercises used in the practice of couches and athletes to assess physical fitness were identified. Of the total number of the tests four most informative indicators characterizing the physical fitness of athletes were chosen. In the conditions of the training process parameters of physical preparedness of the athletes were registered for definition of structure of physical readiness of jumpers in the triple jump. The structure of physical preparedness and comparison of results with model characteristics are defined.
At the third stage to determine the structure of technical preparedness of jumpers in the triple jump in the conditions of technical activity, the parameters of technical readiness of athletes were fixed. Eight most informative parameters reflecting the technical preparedness of women in the triple jump were recorded. The choice of parameters of the triple jump is based on the study of research of competitive activity in the triple jump conducted by various authors. The structure of technical readiness and comparison of the received result with characteristics of model is defined.
At the fourth stage the technique management of training process of jumpers in the triple jump was developed. Thus the developed structures of technical and physical read and it’ structures of technical and physical readiness, the studied to model characteristics of readiness of athletes were used.
At the fifth final stage of the work a pedagogical experiment was conducted, during which of the method of controlling the process of teaching subjects in the triple jump was tested.
Evolution of individual indicators of physical fitness of athletes with model characteristics allowed to identify the strength and weakness of individual preparedness of athletes and also to determine the typology of the development of primary physical qualities, each of which corresponds to certain features of the triple jump:
to the «speed» type of the preparedness of jumpers belong athletes who have high results in cross - country exercises;
- athletes with high rates of strength exercises belong to the «power» type;
- the model type includes athletes with a relatively uniform level of preparedness in all exercises;
jumpers with high performance in jumping exercises are of the type of jumping force.
In the process of preparing girls for the triple jump we came to the conclusion that:
- The effectiveness of the training process of girls in the triple jump had increased significantly as a result of the generalization and improvement of the control system of the training process.
- A couch in the practical management of the training process is the triple jump requires precise operational and quantitative information of competitive activity of jumpers parameters of technical, special physical fitness in the control exercise.
In the course of the work control exercises were studied in order to assess the physical fitness ofjumpers. The most informative tests that have the necessary degree Ofreliability for a triple jump are the exercises recommended as tests for evolution or special physical fitness:
- fifty meters;
- five jumps with 6-8 with running steps;
- a triple jump with the support of 50cm from any wall or cross-country jogging steps;
- taking the bar in the chest.
Comparison of separate indicators of competitive activity and also parameters of readiness with modeling characteristics allows to determine the dominant side in the structure of a special type of performing the triple jump.
In the presence of model characteristics of physical fitness it is possible to estimate special preparedness of the athlete to define the direction and your serves the growth of his skill and also quickly and with high accuracy to correct training process.
When planning the training process it is necessary to take into account the structure of the relationship between the technical preparedness of athletes and the interaction of technical and special indicators of physical preparedness. At the same time it is necessary to focus attention but methodically on the appropriateness all of the effects of management training, laggards of preparedness in the general preparatory phase in the strengths of preparedness in the special preparedness phase of the annual cycle. In addition individual readiness structure of the jumper is conserved.
The effectiveness of the triple jump in the first place is connected with the rate of speed of the last five - meter interval, with in average horizontal velocity in the triple jump, as well as with other conditions, health status, psychological mood. When preparing for a triple jump it should be borne in mind that at high take off speeds the first repulsion can be effectively perform to complete and the second and the third phases of the jump without large losses.
The basis of the generalized and developed control system of special physic - technical training of jumpers in the triple jump is an accurate assessment a year round training using tools and methods of integrated control, correctional training programs. At the same time correctional training programs are selected on the basis of comparison with the typical topology of the triple jump technique and model indicators of special training.
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