Practical aspects of using fitness yoga asanas taken from hatha yoga in the system of physical education of university students are considered in the article. During the research the most effective fitness yoga asanas for strengthening the musculoskeletal system of students Iiave been revealed and recommendations for the proper performance of fitness yoga asanas have been developed. The technique of classes with elements of fitness yoga is described, which can be effectively applied in the educational process of physical education.
As practice shows, complexes of exercises of фитнес - йоги in different variations it is possible to apply during all practical employment: in preparatory part - as a limbering - up; in basic - as tricking into exercises; in final - as exercises on weakening.
The complex of asanas for strengthening of musculature gives additional defence to the joints and copulas. The well - developed musculature of back and stomach strengthens a backbone and positively influences on a Iocomotorium.
The musculoskeletal system is the basis of posture and is of great importance in human life. Posture disorders are quite widespread among students. A significant number of students with defective posture and Aatfoot was revealed during medical examinations in universities. The functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system of students of the OSU (Orenburg State University) are revealed. 36 % of students have posture problems, and 48 % have a slight asymmetry. Flatfoot is determined in 44 % of students, and 24 % of students have both posture and Aatfoot .
In the North Kazakhstan State University, diseases of the musculoskeletal system (DMS) occupy the second place in the structure of general morbidity. Scoliosis of grade 1 - 3 and Aatfoot grade 3 prevail among the diseases .
To date, one of the main tasks facing universities is to solve the problems of ensuring the health of students, strengthening the musculoskeletal system.
Therefore, it is necessary to develop a set of exercises aimed at strengthening the musculoskeletal system, increasing the body's defenses with the help of fitness yoga.
Hypothesis. We assumed that the use of a certain set of Atness asanas in the educational process of physical education will increase the level of students' health.
The object of the study is the process of physical education of students in high school.
The subject of the study is a set of exercises of fitness yoga, aimed at strengthening the musculoskeletal system in the educational process of physical education.
The purpose of the study is the definition of a complex fitness asanas for use in the educational process of physical education.
The objectives of the study are the following:
- to study the experience of using fitness yoga in the system of physical education of university students;
- to identify effective fitness yoga asanas aimed at strengthening the musculoskeletal system in the educational process for physical education;
develop recommendations for the proper implementation of fitness yoga asanas for students.
Currently, fitness yoga is one of the most popular means of fitness. From traditional hatha yoga, asanas are integrated into the fitness system, as well as a number of pranayama breathing exercises [3, 5]. The basis of physical exercises in yoga are asanas - special body positions. Asanas are predominantly static postures of the body; muscle tension and muscle nerve irritation in these poses.
Researchers [4, 5, 6, 7, 2] show that the practice of physical education gradually introduces exercises from Eastern health systems (wushu, qigong, hatha yoga), which, according to the authors of these works, can expand the capabilities of those engaged in achieving health success.
Analyzing the methods of conducting classes in various wellness systems, we came to the conclusion that of most interest for us are gymnastic exercises of fitness yoga, - asanas the fulfillment of which requires the manifestation of strength, flexibility, attention and concentration.
Fitness yoga is an effective exercise program that creates a balance between body and mind, allows you to get in good physical shape, develops concentration and helps to prevent injuries when practicing physical culture [8, 10]. Fitness yoga combines elements of hatha yoga with traditional exercises for the development of the body and muscle stretching. Fitness yoga is a comprehensive training program that combines strength and flexibility into a single dynamic work. This program is aimed at developing functional strength and flexibility as components of the body and training the neuromuscular system as a whole.
The use of fitness yoga should contribute to the development of strength, flexibility and moderately overall endurance among students and, accordingly, increase their level of physical fitness.
The study was conducted during five years with first - year students of non - sports faculties of NKSU named after. M. Kozybayev. These students according to the results of medical examination were enrolled in the main group of students engaged in physical culture.
During the training sessions in the control group, we used the traditional general - developmental exercises for warming up: to overcome the weight of our own body; with jumps, dumbbells; using gymnastics benches; jumping on the spot, in motion; stretching muscles and ligaments; to relax the muscles.
In the experimental group, the main means of physical education during practical exercises were exercises from the fitness yoga program. For classes, exercises were selected in the way that, in terms of coordination complexity, corresponded to the preparedness of students and were recommended at the initial stage of yoga classes [9, 2].
An approximate scheme of classes in the experimental group: in the water - preparatory part of the lesson, a developed complex of fitness yoga was used - breathing exercises, a dynamic part, static asanas aimed at strengthening the musculoskeletal system. The main part of the lesson is conducted according to the work program of the cycle physical culture. In the final part of the lesson, stretching exercises and relaxation techniques were used.
Approximate complex of asanas for strengthening the musculoskeletal system in students:
- Shalabhasana (Locust pose). This asana perfectly strengthens the muscles of the back and abdominals, while it has the lowest rate of danger to the back.
- Lie on your stomach and stretch your arms back.
- As you exhale, pull off your legs and chest from the floor, pressing your belly into the mat.
- Strain the buttocks and hold the legs together.
- Do not pinch the neck, the bend should smoothly continue the line of the spine.
- Vrdha Mukha Shvanasana (Dog muzzle up). The next basic posture for the back, which will open the chest, lungs, stretch the muscles of the back, arms and shoulders. It is also known for its anti - aging properties on the spine.
- Lie on your stomach and place your palms under the ribs.
- Distribute the weight evenly across the palm of your hand.
- Shoulders are right under the wrists.
- While inhaling, straighten your arms and lift the body upward, starting with your palms off the floor.
- Crouch in the back, take your head back, lift the buttocks and hips from the floor.
- Ushtrasana (Camel Pose). This posture tones up the whole body in principle, but it has a particularly positive effect on the back, eliminating its defects and improving its posture.
- Kneel down, placing your knees on the width of the pelvis
- Put your hands on your lower back and push your hips forward.
- Tilt your head back and look at the ceiling.
- Crouch in the chest and lower back, placing your hands on your lower legs.
- Dhanurasan (Bow Pose). This position perfectly stretches the spine and
rejuvenates it, helps to eliminate back pain and improve posture.
- Lie on your stomach and grab your ankles from the outside.
- On the exhale, bend and pull the pelvis, chest, and hips off the floor.
- Do not spread your legs, push your knees towards each other so that they remain
at the same level as your pelvis.
- Do not raise the shoulders to the ears.
- Urdhva Dhanurasana (Pose of the bridge). This is an excellent position to work
through the entire spine and lengthen the front surface of the body.
Lie on your back, bend your knees at the width of the pelvis and substitute the feet to the buttocks.
Put your palms forward with your fingers near the shoulder joints.
Gently push off with your hands and feet off the floor, forming a deflection in the lower back.
Maintain support on fully extended arms and feet, turned slightly inwards.
- Child's pose.
Kneel on the rug - your kneels should stand at the width of the pelvis, and your legs are connected and behind you. Take a deep breath, and when you exhale, lower your torso to your hips.
Try to stretch your neck and spine.
Place your forehead on the ground with your arms out in front of you.
Hold for one to three minutes.
- Pose cat/cow.
Get on all fours: shoulders above the wrists, hips over the knees.
Take a slow breath, exhale, and bend the spine with your head down toward the floor (this is the «cat» pose).
Inhale and lift the head, round the spine. This is a «cow» pose.
Perform within one to three minutes.
- Dog pose muzzle down.
Start with the baby’s posture, hold your hands on the floor, sit down on your knees, then lift your buttocks and lean back down.
Spread your fingers wide apart. Work to keep your legs straight and your heels fully on the floor.
Relax your neck and direct your gaze through your legs or up to your navel.
Hold a pose for one to three minutes.
From the pose of the dog muzzle down, slowly step to the top of your mat. Stand shoulder width.
Straighten your legs as much as you can and let your torso hang.
Press your chin to your chest, relax your shoulders to stretch your spine.
Hold the pose for one to three minutes.
Professional advice: «Try to think about your buttocks sticking out during this exercise, that is, so that the bend comes from your thighs, and not from your back, only then yoga for a sore back will be effective».
- Sphinx pose.
Lie on your stomach, legs together and right behind you.
Place your elbows under your shoulders, lower your forearms to the floor when you lift your chest from the floor.
Push your hips into the floor, relaxing your shoulders, and think about how your spine is lengthening.
Prostrate enough to feel a pleasant stretch in the lower back. Do not overdo it and immediately stop if you feel discomfort or pain.
Hold this position for one to three minutes.
- Lie on your back.
- Lift both knees to chest.
- Slowly swing your torso back and forth, holding your legs tightly.
- Do this for one to three minutes.
- Pigeon pose on the back.
Relaxation is deep muscle relaxation, accompanied by the removal of mental stress. The benefits of systematic relaxation sessions are recognized by modern psychotherapy. The goal of complete relaxation is to calm and rest the nervous system, maximum relief from mental and physical stress. After complete relaxation comes an unusual state of peace of mind, vigor, self - confidence.
Recommendations on the correct implementation of fitness yoga asanas for students were developed.
When performing exercises on statics, much more muscles are involved than when performing strength exercises of local action. When performing asanas, you need to apply the rules of symmetry, which provides for the sequential execution of exercises in one and the other direction. You should always start with the simplest asanas - poses with natural forward bends or comfortable lifting of arms and legs. It is necessary to begin with simple poses, gradually move towards more complex poses. A special place in the recommendations for the exercise of yoga should be given to proper breathing. It must be consistent with the movement. Each time physical education teacher should determine what is easier to do with this movement: inhale or exhale, and make sure that this happens during the execution of the selected movement.
According to the results of the survey, 94 % of the students of the experimental group noted that fitness yoga classes stimulate vigorous state of health, contribute to a favorable emotional state.
As practice shows, fitness yoga exercises in various variations can be applied throughout the entire practical exercise: in the preparatory part, as a workout; in the main - as the getting ready for exercises; finally, as relaxation exercises.
The complex of asanas to strengthen the muscles provides additional protection to the joints and ligaments. Well - developed muscles of the back and abdomen strengthens the spine and has a positive effect on the musculoskeletal system.
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