Use of applied art at English lessons became one of the mosl popular techniques in modem teaching. It allows to make the atmosphere of creativity and the communication where the creative thought is primary and exists in images, but not in a verbal form of the native language Ihat does communication tom more off from dunking in the native language, more figurative. As process of the speech interaction itself includes use, both language, and grammatical Stractures. therefore creation of the spontaneous communicative environment in the learned language is the best way to achieve the required objectives through interaction of students with each other and their teacher. The known information forms students’ base for the discovery of something unknown through illustrative materials, music, movements and drama which help them to master new words and structures. Explanations are offered by the teacher only when the help is necessary and excluded when the pupil lias to use the observation better than anything else. Art in this case is one of the most excellent means for socializing students since helps to create the special atmosphere allowing to estimate participation of all in language acquisition. It is impossible to find other kind of activity winch equally would rally all pupils while creating something unique in a format of art.
Modern society feature is polylingual environment where citizens of many countries live now socializing and learning languages of each other. In many respects it is caused by globalization processes taking place everywhere inevitably and defining a situation favorable for studying new languages. Such situation defined the course towards trilingual and polylingual education in Kazakhstan. Its main components are maintaining the best Kazakhstan educational traditions and providing graduates of schools with the international standards, as well as development of their linguistic literacy mastering both state, native and foreign languages. Our countries Kazakhstan and Germany have some similarities: in Germany much attention is paid to studying of English.
It seems to be significant that certain subjects of the school program in Kazakhstan are decided to be taught in English. Thus English is in focus of special attention. Such decision became a serious reason for mobilization of all methodical means directed to development of it on all education levels and to consolidation of the gained knowledge. In Germany they also give serious emphasis to learning foreign languages, English in particular. Joint search of the most effective methods to achieve these goals will help us to find the solution of the most relevant tasks of the present context. This article is devoted to consideration of some original techniques allowing to succeed in the solution of these tasks.
In this connection it should be noted that the main objective of teaching languages is aimed to their practical application, i.e. communication. Thus, creation of the spontaneous communicative environment in English and socio-cultural competence is the best way to achieve the required objectives.
“The prior knowledge of the student is considered to be of very important. From this fountain is where the trench of knowledge is dug to make a big and wide canal of knowledge”- George Bishop [1, 17]. So the prior knowledge as the ground of our cognitive experience may be successfully obtained by students’ creative activities. The creative process has a positive effect. As the art seems to be means for growing students’ confidence, developing their relations with surrounding world as well as their different skills to achieve more success. Serious work in art requires perseverance, self-discipline and ambition. There is a large number of art forms suitable for team-based study and students often apply their abilities to develop common projects. Besides relationships between art and the person’s selfdevelopment is so very visible that many art historians and artists say that art saves our lives.
The form of art can be defined as following ones:
U visual arts,
So the study of art attracts students’ attention according to the next forms of their activities, which can be successfully applied at the foreign language (LF) lessons:
Painting, arts and crafts;
- Music, singing;
- Dancing, body movement;
Situation analysis based on the opinion of David M. Steiner is following: “we can conclude that thanks to art, young people have the opportunity:
- to develop their voices;
- to strengthen multicultural awareness;
- to be proud of your heritage [2, 23].
Painting, arts and crafts
To maintain interest in the target language it is important from time to time to change the activity type. The teacher deals with different types of students, some of them prefer to solve puzzles and sing songs, and some like to work in groups, while others prefer to work independently. It is important to take into account the different forms of training, especially at the primary stage, in order to overcome the boredom in the classroom, to create a spontaneous communication environment in FL. In fact, good teaching should always correspond with the needs of students. Therefore, traditional teaching should be dismissed, because it is too concerned with filling memories, not with training the students’ awareness, which is the most decisive tool in language acquisition. Successful integration of arts and crafts into the lessons allows us to achieve certain objectives without losing the main goal of learning FL. It supposes taking into consideration some conditions:
- to give instructions for a craft activity in order to include all children successfully;
- to reflect on having an organized approach to craft activities;
- order to be time efficient;
- to obtain the best feedback of different learner’s styles.
These ideas were widely developed by Caleb Gattegno, one of the Methodists, who believed that learning FL can be much faster than usual. However, it often happens that teaching interferes learning. To prevent it we should take into consideration idea of Gattegno’s Silent Way: "teaching must be subordinated to learning." It means that the teacher bases his lesson on what the students are learning at the moment, rather than on what he wants to teach. The most difficult thing in this case is how the teacher conducts his lesson. To achieve the best result, he must create such a situation at the lesson, when students have a wide range of opportunities for further study and practice. In this case, we can apply different methods, and one of them is art at FL lessons [3, 37].
When students feel more connected to their classmates and teachers, it is easier to overcome other problems in the classroom, such as discipline and motivation. Art can be an excellent way to bring students together and create a supportive encouraging environment to appreciate students' contribution to FL class. Shows and stories are activities in which students bring a personally important topic or story and share it with their class.
Such simple activity requires not much effort and time, but has great advantages brought by strong and cohesive group. This is one of the methods that allow us to achieve a higher language perception than traditional approaches, as it gives our students much more motivation and support for creating a communication environment in the classroom.
It is well known that music can create a wide range of feelings. Moreover, music is so recognized that people all over the world pay a lot of money for the music business. Naturally, people can use music and songs for their purposes in everyday life. First of all, they can just listen to music anytime and anywhere. Further, it is possible to sing without listening to any record. However, some people like to hum or whistle while listening to music. People can not only listen, but also talk about it, because music seems to be a fairly common topic, especially among teenagers who share their opinions on the latest news related to artists or the brand new videos that they recently watch. Some people consider music and songs useful to create social environment, to form a sense of partnership or simply to dance. All the cases mentioned above show that music is really an important phenomenon in our life, because it can be with us everywhere, whether we like it or not. Definitely, it has been with people for a long time and has become part of our familiar life. Music seems to be one of the effective methods of teaching the language through music and songs. It is noteworthy that children memorize words and sentences rather quickly, when the music integrates into the lesson.
Very often, music and songs seem to be the main source of authentic English in the classroom. So, using it in a lesson should be a good idea. In the course of the lesson teacher can highlight the affective and cognitive rationale for singing songs. Saricoban, A. & Metin, E. say: "For effective learning, the affective filter must be weak.” A weak affective filter means that there is a positive attitude toward learning. "Therefore, the task of teachers is to create a favorable atmosphere for learning. In this aspect, music and songs can be one way of obtaining a weak affective filter” . Eken lists eight reasons for using a song in the language class. First, the song can be used to present a theme, a new dictionary or a language point. Then it can also be used as a vocabulary practice. In addition to the question, songs can be used as material for intensive listening. Some teachers can use them to focus on the student's frequent mistakes more indirectly. Not to mention that songs are an excellent source for stimulating discussions about feelings and moods. Students can talk with other couples or small groups about what happened in the song, and then share their opinions with the other students. In addition, songs can arrange a relaxed atmosphere in the classroom and make a significant contribution to the diversity of language teaching. Finally, it can be said that the songs encourage the use of imagination and creativity during the lessons of a foreign language. Songs also provide an opportunity to develop automaticity, which is the main cognitive reason for using songs in the classroom. Automatism is defined as "a component of language fluency, which includes both the knowledge of what to say and the rapid creation of a language without pauses" . In other words, songs can help automate the process of improving the language. In fact, students should be placed on an environment in which the target language can be used in a communicative way. In fact, the nature of the songs is considered quite repetitive, logical and persistent. Music seems to be one of the effective methods of teaching the language. It is noteworthy that children take away words and sentences and memorize them for a long time rather quickly, when the music integrates into the lesson.
Dancing always played an important role in our life being an expression of human feelings. People dance at festivals, ceremonies and weddings. They dance to celebrate victories and holidays; they dance to overcome depression and cure a physical illness. Every dance has its own certain meaning and a story to tell. Dance is regarded as one of the highest forms of art. Every educated person should know how to dance skillfully to make body strong and healthy.
Dance has its peculiar language: a noun says who is moving, the verb says what you are doing, the adverb says how you do it, and the preposition says where you do it. This allows students to dance comfortably in class: alternating music, inviting them to groups, dancing in a circle, demonstrating how to move freely in space expressing certain ideas in order to create confidence. Dance allow our students to reveal their own strengths and talents focusing on other skills such as dancing movement. This helps the students in many ways. It increases endurance and develops higher sensitivity, strengthens the power of the brain to be active and "healthy." The dance consists of imagination, words, feelings and movement. Integration of dance / movement into the language class is useful especially for kinesthetic students.
Carole F. Bongiomo expressed a lot of ideas devoted dancing and its role in teaching Ianguges: "Dance is a living language, capable of expressing an infinite number of thoughts, hopes and opportunities." "Dance exercises stimulate visual thinking and perception, which are considered to be the right brain processes. They are often ignored in traditional modes of instruction. This is important for students whose teaching or cognitive style is characteristic of non-verbal". "The process of dance is a great way to record creative ideas and develop students through videotape and film. Such records help students concentrate their written activities, as they improve observation and self-expression ". Although dance / movement is a tool that helps to create understanding foreign language, dance / movement lessons should be well applied so that students can really improve their knowledge. Such lessons require students’ creative action in order to visualize what they want selecting the tempo, dynamics and wording during the performance" Recent works in the field of cognitive psychology consider art as an intellect beyond everything that seems to be logical, consistent, verbal and rational.
The history of drama development as a technique began with the theater in the education of Bertha Waddell. Her conceptual framework for the Theater in Education (TIE) was established in the UK by her in 1937, when she was given permission from Glasgow's education director to attend elementary schools. Subsequently, TIEs were developed by practitioners such as Brian Way who "formally stated that the second of his company's three goals was to help teachers in all types of schools through methods of approaching drama in education" Studies demonstrate the effectiveness of this practice in teaching and learning, especially in the field of education in the field of personal and social health and social exclusion.
Elements of drama are very often used in teaching FL now and they provide the most efficient way to create a spontaneous communication in class, to involve most of students into it and give them a brilliant opportunity to improvise and phantasy. It’s a great source of experiments, where everyone can obtain certain verbal experience of his own formation of socio - cultural competence.
On the base of this technique students can achieve incredible results, as they mobilize all their capabilities and strengths, as their motivation in this situation is rather high. But to start practicing this technique they need special serious constant and gradual preparation and certain experience. But as a result it yields fruit and seems to be a culmination of all kinds Ofactivities with application of art in class.
Using different kinds of art students can recognize their role in the world as a whole, participate in lessons more actively and contribute to them their own ideas. Art helps develop the ability to integrate many aspects of the "I" and transfer this integrated "I" into action. Brain research also supports the value of integrating arts in English and art in their native language, as well as in other subject areas.
Methods of research
So within the framework of this article we analyzed one of effective techniques - application of different types of art (art and crafts, music, dancing and drama) at the English lessons. This technique allows reaching faster language acquisition than traditional ones, because it gives students bigger motivation and provides creation of the communicative environment in audience through additional support of formation of socio-cultural competence.
Results of research
Application of this technique in practice confirms that it really promotes liberating students, charging them with positive emotions and creating atmosphere of easy communication in class by means of students’ self-expression through art.
The abilities to stage images through various forms of art is of great importance for development of students’ associative memory. Correlating on the basis of sociocultural competence students develop their image sensitivity of different notions. Besides, these forms of art at the lesson positively affect not only feelings and emotions, but also involve image memory. They help to accelerate the formation of new lexicon very much in this case. Thus, the creative potential mobilizes self-discipline and discipline. All students become much more active and their achievements more resultant.
So, application of art elements in training FL, English in particular, can be very useful and effective especially in combination with other new technologies aimed at the communicative development of students. And it is rather important in situation of great needs in highly qualified specialists with foreign language skills for both countries.
- Bishop, George. (1995) Curriculum Development’. A Text book for Student. Macmillan Publishers Limited London.
- Steiner, David M. "Education Reform: Not Complicated — but Seriously Difficult.” The Huffington Post. N.p.. n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2015.
- Gattegno, Caleb (1972). Teacliing Foreign Languages in Schools: The Silent Way (2nd ed.). New York: Educational Solutions. ISBN 978-0-87825-046-2. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Saricoban, A. & Metin, E. (October 2000). Songs, Verse and Games for Teaching Grammar. The Internet TESL Journal.
- Eken, D. K. (1996). Ideas for using pop songs in the English language classroom. English Teaching Forum, 34, 46-47.
- Borgiomo, Carolee. Interview by Clyde Coriel. "Dance: An Inspiration for Language in the ESL Classroom.” The Journal of the Imagination in Language Learning and Teaching. 6 (2001).